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Psychoanalytical neuroscience: Exploring psychoanalytic concepts with neuroscientific methods

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193776 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-377-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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Sigmund Freud was a trained neuroanatomist and wrote his first psychoanalytical theory in neuroscientific terms. Throughout his life, he maintained the belief that at some distant day in the future, all psychoanalytic processes could be tied to a neural basis: “We must recollect that all of our provisional ideas in psychology will presumably one day be based on an organic substructure” (Freud 1914, On Narcissism: An Introduction). Fundamental Freudian concepts reveal their foundation in the physiological science of his time, most importantly among them the concept of libidinous energy and the homeostatic “principle of constancy”. However, the subsequent history of psychoanalysis and neuroscience was mainly characterized by mutual ignorance or even opposition; many scientists accused psychoanalytic viewpoints not to be scientifically testable, and many psychoanalysts claimed that their theories did not need empirical support outside of the therapeutic situation. On this historical background, it may appear surprising that the recent years have seen an increasing interest in re-connecting psychoanalysis and neuroscience in various ways: By studying psychodynamic consequences of brain lesions in neurological patients, by investigating how psychoanalytic therapy affects brain structure and function, or even by operationalizing psychoanalytic concepts in well-controlled experiments and exploring their neural correlates. These empirical studies are accompanied by theoretical work on the philosophical status of the “neuropsychoanalytic” endeavour. In this volume, we attempt to provide a state-of-the-art overview of this new exciting field. All types of submissions are welcome, including research in patient populations, healthy human participants and animals, review articles on some empirical or theoretical aspect, and of course also critical accounts of the new field. Despite this welcome variability, we would like to suggest that all contributions attempt to address one (or both) of two main questions, which should motivate the connection between psychoanalysis and neuroscience and that in our opinion still remain exigent: First, from the neuroscientific side, why should researchers in the neurosciences address psychoanalytic ideas, and what is (or will be) the impact of this connection on current neuroscientific theories? Second, from the psychoanalytic side, why should psychoanalysts care about neuroscientific studies, and (how) can current psychoanalytical theory and practice benefit from their results? Of course, contributors are free to provide a critical viewpoint on these two questions as well.

Nutritional influences on human neurocognitive functioning

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193363 Year: Pages: 153 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-336-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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‘You are what you eat’. It’s a saying that we’ve all heard time and time again. The notion that good nutrition is essential for adequate growth and sound physical wellbeing is very well established. Further, in recent years, there has been an overwhelming increase in research dedicated to better understanding how nutritional factors influence cognition and behaviour. For example, several studies have suggested that higher foetal exposure to omega-3 fatty acids and B vitamins such as folate promotes neurodevelopment. B vitamins may also play a role in neurocognitive functioning in later life, with some suggestion that lower vitamin B levels are associated with increased risk of dementia (although randomised controlled trials investigating B vitamin supplementation as a cognitive enhancer in the elderly have provided inconclusive evidence as to the benefits of such therapy for dementia). In fact, the nutritional underpinnings of Alzheimer’s disease and other disorders of cognitive ageing is becoming a much researched topic. In addition, consumption of several other foods has been found to convey more acute cognitively enhancing effects. For example, ingestion of carbohydrates (e.g. glucose), caffeine, resveratrol and several ‘nutraceutical’ herbal extracts has been associated with short-term improvements in cognitive performance. Beyond specific micronutrients and macronutrients, the current literature seems to support anecdotal evidence that consumption of a balanced breakfast is crucial to various measures of school performance, including attention in the classroom. What is clear from this emerging literature is that the relationship between nutritional status and neurocognitive functioning at various stages of the lifespan is complex. An aim of this Research Topic is to bring together some recent empirical findings, reviews and commentaries of the literature to date and opinion pieces relating to future directions for this burgeoning field.

Attention, predictions and expectations and their violation: attentional control in the human brain

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193677 Year: Pages: 211 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-367-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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In the burdened scenes of everyday life, our brains must select from among many competing inputs for perceptual synthesis - so that only the most relevant receive full attention and irrelevant (distracting) information is suppressed. At the same time, we must remain responsive to salient events outside our current focus of attention - and balancing these two processing modes is a fundamental task our brain constantly needs to solve. Both the physical saliency of a stimulus, as well as top-down predictions about imminent sensations crucially influence attentional selection and consequently the response to unexpected events. Research over recent decades has identified two separate brain networks involved in predictive top-down control and reorientation to unattended events (or oddball stimuli): the dorsal and ventral fronto-parietal attention systems of the human brain. Moreover, specific electrophysiological brain responses are known to characterize attentional orienting as well as the processing of deviant stimuli. However, many key questions are outstanding. What are the exact functional differences between these cortical attention systems? How are they lateralised in the two hemispheres? How do top-down and bottom-up signals interact to enable flexible attentional control? How does structural damage to one system affect the functionality of the other in brain damaged patients? Are there sensory-specific and supra-modal attentional systems in the brain? In addition to these questions, it is now accepted that brain responses are not only affected by the saliency of external stimuli, but also by our expectations about sensory inputs. How these two influences are balanced, and how predictions are formed in cortical networks, or generated on the basis of experience-dependent learning, are intriguing issues. In this Research Topic, we aim to collect innovative contributions that shed further light on the (cortical) mechanisms of attentional control in the human brain. In particular, we would like to encourage submissions that investigate the behavioural correlates, functional anatomy or electrophysiological markers of attentional selection and reorientation. Special emphasis will be given to studies investigating the context-sensitivity of these attentional processes in relation to prior expectations, trial history, contextual cues or physical saliency. We would like to encourage submissions employing different research methods (psychophysical recordings, neuroimaging techniques such as fMRI, MEG, EEG or ECoG, as well as neurostimulation methods such as TMS or tDCS) in healthy volunteers or neurological patients. Computational models and animal studies are also welcome. Finally, we also welcome submission of meta-analyses and reviews articles that provide new insights into, or conclusions about recent work in the field.

Abstract Mathematical Cognition

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198160 Year: Pages: 111 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-816-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Despite the importance of mathematics in our educational systems little is known about how abstract mathematical thinking emerges. Under the uniting thread of mathematical development, we hope to connect researchers from various backgrounds to provide an integrated view of abstract mathematical cognition. Much progress has been made in the last 20 years on how numeracy is acquired. Experimental psychology has brought to light the fact that numerical cognition stems from spatial cognition. The findings from neuroimaging and single cell recording experiments converge to show that numerical representations take place in the intraparietal sulcus. Further research has demonstrated that supplementary neural networks might be recruited to carry out subtasks; for example, the retrieval of arithmetic facts is done by the angular gyrus. Now that the neural networks in charge of basic mathematical cognition are identified, we can move onto the stage where we seek to understand how these basics skills are used to support the acquisition and use of abstract mathematical concepts.

Music, Brain, and Rehabilitation: Emerging Therapeutic Applications and Potential Neural Mechanisms

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198313 Year: Pages: 308 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-831-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Music is an important source of enjoyment, learning, and well-being in life as well as a rich, powerful, and versatile stimulus for the brain. With the advance of modern neuroimaging techniques during the past decades, we are now beginning to understand better what goes on in the healthy brain when we hear, play, think, and feel music and how the structure and function of the brain can change as a result of musical training and expertise. For more than a century, music has also been studied in the field of neurology where the focus has mostly been on musical deficits and symptoms caused by neurological illness (e.g., amusia, musicogenic epilepsy) or on occupational diseases of professional musicians (e.g., focal dystonia, hearing loss). Recently, however, there has been increasing interest and progress also in adopting music as a therapeutic tool in neurological rehabilitation, and many novel music-based rehabilitation methods have been developed to facilitate motor, cognitive, emotional, and social functioning of infants, children and adults suffering from a debilitating neurological illness or disorder. Traditionally, the fields of music neuroscience and music therapy have progressed rather independently, but they are now beginning to integrate and merge in clinical neurology, providing novel and important information about how music is processed in the damaged or abnormal brain, how structural and functional recovery of the brain can be enhanced by music-based rehabilitation methods, and what neural mechanisms underlie the therapeutic effects of music. Ideally, this information can be used to better understand how and why music works in rehabilitation and to develop more effective music-based applications that can be targeted and tailored towards individual rehabilitation needs. The aim of this Research Topic is to bring together research across multiple disciplines with a special focus on music, brain, and neurological rehabilitation. We encourage researchers working in the field to submit a paper presenting either original empirical research, novel theoretical or conceptual perspectives, a review, or methodological advances related to following two core topics: 1) how are musical skills and attributes (e.g., perceiving music, experiencing music emotionally, playing or singing) affected by a developmental or acquired neurological illness or disorder (for example, stroke, aphasia, brain injury, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, autism, ADHD, dyslexia, focal dystonia, or tinnitus) and 2) what is the applicability, effectiveness, and mechanisms of music-based rehabilitation methods for persons with a neurological illness or disorder? Research methodology can include behavioural, physiological and/or neuroimaging techniques, and studies can be either clinical group studies or case studies (studies of healthy subjects are applicable only if their findings have clear clinical implications).

Recent advances and the future generation of neuroinformatics infrastructure

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196777 Year: Pages: 388 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-677-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The huge volume of multi-modal neuroimaging data across different neuroscience communities has posed a daunting challenge to traditional methods of data sharing, data archiving, data processing and data analysis. Neuroinformatics plays a crucial role in creating advanced methodologies and tools for the handling of varied and heterogeneous datasets in order to better understand the structure and function of the brain. These tools and methodologies not only enhance data collection, analysis, integration, interpretation, modeling, and dissemination of data, but also promote data sharing and collaboration. This Neuroinformatics Research Topic aims to summarize the state-of-art of the current achievements and explores the directions for the future generation of neuroinformatics infrastructure. The publications present solutions for data archiving, data processing and workflow, data mining, and system integration methodologies. Some of the systems presented are large in scale, geographically distributed, and already have a well-established user community. Some discuss opportunities and methodologies that facilitate large-scale parallel data processing tasks under a heterogeneous computational environment. We wish to stimulate on-going discussions at the level of the neuroinformatics infrastructure including the common challenges, new technologies of maximum benefit, key features of next generation infrastructure, etc. We have asked leading research groups from different research areas of neuroscience/neuroimaging to provide their thoughts on the development of a state of the art and highly-efficient neuroinformatics infrastructure. Such discussions will inspire and help guide the development of a state of the art, highly-efficient neuroinformatics infrastructure.

Mind-Brain Plasticity and Rehabilitation of Cognitive Functions: What Techniques Have Been Proven Effective?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451876 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-187-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Rehabilitation of cognitive functions is a primary goal in neurological and psychiatric settings. Cognitive treatments include individual and group exercises, as well as the use of computer programs and virtual reality. Besides, ongoing studies have been examining the clinical usefulness of non-invasive cerebral cortex stimulation in increasing the efficacy of cognitive protocols. Cognitive rehabilitation is based on neuroplasticity and affects brain morphological and physiological responses by integration of behavioral and cognitive changes. The brain correlates of rehabilitation-induced modifications can be investigated through magnetic resonance imaging, both at structural and functional macro-levels. Animal research can integrate such information providing data on axonal regrowth and reshaping of synaptic connectivity in response to treatment. Animal models of neurological and psychiatric conditions have been developed, and preclinical test batteries for the assessment of cognitive functions in animal models of such conditions have been created. The question is then: how does rehabilitation drive reorganization at the neuronal level? The focus of this Research Topic is on rehabilitation-induced cognitive and neural plasticity in adult humans and animal models. The goal is to provide an integrated picture highlighting what techniques have been proven to be effective.

MAPPING MAnagement and Processing of images for Population ImagiNG

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452606 Year: Pages: 139 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-260-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Several recent papers underline methodological points that limit the validity of published results in imaging studies in the life sciences and especially the neurosciences (Carp, 2012; Ingre, 2012; Button et al., 2013; Ioannidis, 2014). At least three main points are identified that lead to biased conclusions in research findings: endemic low statistical power and, selective outcome and selective analysis reporting. Because of this, and in view of the lack of replication studies, false discoveries or solutions persist. To overcome the poor reliability of research findings, several actions should be promoted including conducting large cohort studies, data sharing and data reanalysis. The construction of large-scale online databases should be facilitated, as they may contribute to the definition of a “collective mind” (Fox et al., 2014) facilitating open collaborative work or “crowd science” (Franzoni and Sauermann, 2014). Although technology alone cannot change scientists’ practices (Wicherts et al., 2011; Wallis et al., 2013, Poldrack and Gorgolewski 2014; Roche et al. 2014), technical solutions should be identified which support a more “open science” approach. Also, the analysis of the data plays an important role. For the analysis of large datasets, image processing pipelines should be constructed based on the best algorithms available and their performance should be objectively compared to diffuse the more relevant solutions. Also, provenance of processed data should be ensured (MacKenzie-Graham et al., 2008). In population imaging this would mean providing effective tools for data sharing and analysis without increasing the burden on researchers. This subject is the main objective of this research topic (RT), cross-listed between the specialty section “Computer Image Analysis” of Frontiers in ICT and Frontiers in Neuroinformatics. Firstly, it gathers works on innovative solutions for the management of large imaging datasets possibly distributed in various centers. The paper of Danso et al. describes their experience with the integration of neuroimaging data coming from several stroke imaging research projects. They detail how the initial NeuroGrid core metadata schema was gradually extended for capturing all information required for future metaanalysis while ensuring semantic interoperability for future integration with other biomedical ontologies. With a similar preoccupation of interoperability, Shanoir relies on the OntoNeuroLog ontology (Temal et al., 2008; Gibaud et al., 2011; Batrancourt et al., 2015), a semantic model that formally described entities and relations in medical imaging, neuropsychological and behavioral assessment domains. The mechanism of “Study Card” allows to seamlessly populate metadata aligned with the ontology, avoiding fastidious manual entrance and the automatic control of the conformity of imported data with a predefined study protocol. The ambitious objective with the BIOMIST platform is to provide an environment managing the entire cycle of neuroimaging data from acquisition to analysis ensuring full provenance information of any derived data. Interestingly, it is conceived based on the product lifecycle management approach used in industry for managing products (here neuroimaging data) from inception to manufacturing. Shanoir and BIOMIST share in part the same OntoNeuroLog ontology facilitating their interoperability. ArchiMed is a data management system locally integrated for 5 years in a clinical environment. Not restricted to Neuroimaging, ArchiMed deals with multi-modal and multi-organs imaging data with specific considerations for data long-term conservation and confidentiality in accordance with the French legislation. Shanoir and ArchiMed are integrated into FLI-IAM1, the national French IT infrastructure for in vivo imaging.

Keywords

Database --- Infrastructure --- Data --- Workflow --- Neuroimaging --- Image Analysis --- Brain --- MRI

The Role of Primary Motor Cortex as a Marker for and Modulator of Pain Control and Emotional-Affective Processing

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452613 Year: Pages: 169 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-261-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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The sensory and motor cortical homunculi proposed by Walter Penfield were a major landmark for the anatomical mapping of the brain. More than 60 years after, the development of new tools to investigate brain function non-invasively has increased our knowledge about the structure and functions of the primary motor Cortex (M1) beyond motor control in both humans and animals. This book highlights the role of the motor cortex that goes way beyond motor functioning. We were interested in both theoretical and empirical contributions related to electrophysiological, pharmacological, neuroimaging, and neuromodulatory studies exploring the role of M1 on non-motor functions, such as pain, abnormal neuroplasticity that may lead to chronic pain conditions; or the relationship between M1 and mental imagery or emotion. This book is comprised of 15 articles published in this edited volume as a research topic collection in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience titled “The Role of Primary Motor Cortex as a Marker and Modulator of Pain Control and Emotional-Affective Processing.”

A Multidisciplinary Approach to Motor Learning and Sensorimotor Adaptation

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193653 Year: Pages: 214 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-365-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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The plasticity of the living matter of our nervous system, in short, is the reason why we do a thing with difficulty the first time, but soon do it more and more easily, and finally, with sufficient practice, do it semi-mechanically, or with hardly any consciousness at all. William James, 1899. It is over 100 years since James described the acquisition of skill. How much, or how little, have recent advances in science changed the way we think about skill learning? What theories and ideas do we still hold dear and which have we discarded? Advances in neuroimaging over the past 20 years have provided insight into the dynamic neural processes underlying human motor skill acquisition, focusing primarily on brain networks that are engaged during early versus late stages of learning. What has been challenging for the field is to tightly link these shifting neural processes with what is known about measureable behavioral changes and strategic processes that occur during learning. The complex nature of behavior and strategy in motor learning often result in a trade-off between experimental control and external validity. The articles assembled for this special issue cut across a number of related disciplines and investigate skill learning across multiple domains. The broad range of theoretical, analytical and methodological approaches offer complementary approaches that can be exploited to develop integrated models of skilled learning. It is our hope that this collection inspires innovation and collaboration amongst researchers, and thereby, accelerates development of societally relevant translational paradigms.

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