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Astrocyte - Physiology and Pathology

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ISBN: 9789535138853 9789535138860 9789535140771 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69076 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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A team of authors from prestigious academic schools contributed to draw up a project that would give a detailed account of astrocyte's morphology and physiology, examining thoroughly all the astrocyte's types; giving an accurate description of their morphology, location, function in the brain; and illustrating their physiology and pathology in terms of dealing with neurons through ""gliotransmitters,"" ionic channels, and membrane receptors expression. This book gives an overview of the crucial role of astrocytes in the physiology of the CNS and in the pathogenesis of several CNS disorders suggesting that the shift from a neurocentric view to one that incorporates astrocytes in disease models for drug discovery is a critical step in renewing drug development strategies to treat neurodegenerative diseases.

Hypothalamus in Health and Diseases

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781789844443 9781789844450 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69694 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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The human hypothalamus, a small structure at the base of the brain, has strategic importance for the harmonic function of the human body. It controls the autonomic nervous system, neuroendocrine function, circadian and circannual rhythms, somatic activities, and behavior, and is situated at the borders between the brain and the body and the brain and the soul, meeting points for mind and body. The hypothalamus is involved in a wide range of higher mental functions, including attention, learning and reinforcement of mnemonic processes, emotional control, mood stability, and cognitive-emotional interactions. It also has a role to play in behavioral disorders, panic reactions, cluster headache, gelastic epilepsy, mental deficiency, periodic disorders, depression, autism, and schizophrenia, and in a substantial number of neurodegenerative diseases. It enlarges greatly the dimensions of the hypothalamic contribution in controlling psychosomatic equilibrium and retaining internal unity of the human existence.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

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ISBN: 9789533078069 Year: Pages: 740 DOI: 10.5772/1054 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Though considerable amount of research, both pre-clinical and clinical, has been conducted during recent years, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) remains one of the mysterious diseases of the 21st century. Great efforts have been made to develop pathophysiological models and to clarify the underlying pathology, and with novel instruments in genetics and transgenic techniques, the aim for finding a durable cure comes into scope. On the other hand, most pharmacological trials failed to show a benefit for ALS patients. In this book, the reader will find a compilation of state-of-the-art reviews about the etiology, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of ALS, the molecular basis of disease progression and clinical manifestations, the genetics familial ALS, as well as novel diagnostic criteria in the field of electrophysiology. An overview over all relevant pharmacological trials in ALS patients is also included, while the book concludes with a discussion on current advances and future trends in ALS research.

Dialogues in Music Therapy and Music Neuroscience: Collaborative Understanding Driving Clinical Advances

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451371 Year: Pages: 179 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-137-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Music is a complex, dynamic stimulus with an un-paralleled ability to stimulate a global network of neural activity involved in attention, emotion, memory, communication, motor co-ordination and cognition. As such, it provides neuroscience with a highly effective tool to develop our understanding of brain function, connectivity and plasticity. Increasingly sophisticated neuroimaging technologies have enabled the expanding field of music neuroscience to reveal how musical experience, perception and cognition may support neuroplasticity, with important implications for the rehabilitation and assessment of those with acquired brain injuries and neurodegenerative conditions. Other studies have indicated the potential for music to support arousal, attention and emotional regulation, suggesting therapeutic applications for conditions including ADHD, PTSD, autism, learning disorders and mood disorders. In common with neuroscience, the music therapy profession has advanced significantly in the past 20 years. Various interventions designed to address functional deficits and health care needs have been developed, alongside standardised behavioural assessments. Historically, music therapy has drawn its evidence base from a number of contrasting theoretical frameworks. Clinicians are now turning to neuroscience, which offers a unifying knowledge base and frame of reference to understand and measure therapeutic interventions from a biomedical perspective. Conversely, neuroscience is becoming more enriched by learning about the neural effects of ‘real world’ clinical applications in music therapy. While neuroscientific imaging methods may provide biomarking evidence for the efficacy of music therapy interventions it also offers important tools to describe time-locked interactive therapy processes and feeds into the emerging field of social neuroscience. Music therapy is bound to the process of creating and experiencing music together in improvisation, listening and reflection. Thus the situated cognition and experience of music developing over time and in differing contexts is of interest in time series data. We encouraged researchers to submit papers illustrating the mutual benefits of dialogue between music therapy and other disciplines important to this field, particularly neuroscience, neurophysiology, and neuropsychology. The current eBook consists of the peer reviewed responses to our call for papers.

Neurophysiology in Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199303 Year: Pages: 106 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-930-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia are the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Since the number of individuals with AD and dementia is expected to increase considerably in the near future, reliable treatment and diagnosis are critical. EEG and neurophysiological technique could be used as a cost-effective screening tool for early detection and diagnosis in the Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) stage. The aim in neurophysiology research is to develop signal processing methods that improve the specificity for diagnosing dementia; we wish to discover signal features that not only significantly differ in AD patients, but also allow us to reliably separate AD patients and control subjects. This approach is valuable for clinical purposes (as diagnostic tool for dementia), and it also more fundamentally contributes to a better understanding of brain dynamics of MCI patients. Finally, the development of neurophysiological biomarker could be useful in monitoring pharmacological treatments. The main focus of this special issue will be on the most recent developments and ideas in the field of EEG and neurophysiology which will enable us to extract features that improve the specificity for diagnosing AD and dementia.

Neuroscience of Human Attachment

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452217 Year: Pages: 214 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-221-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Attachment is a biologically emotion regulation based system guiding cognitive and emotional processes with respect to intimate and significant relationships. Secure relationships promote infants’ exploration of the world and expand their mastery of the environment. Adverse attachment experiences like, maltreatment, loss, and separation have long been known to have enduring unfavorable effects on human mental health. Research on the neurobiological basis of attachment started with animal studies focusing on emotional deprivation and its behavioral, molecular and endocrine consequences. The present book presents an interdisciplinary synthesis of existing knowledge and new perspectives on the human neuroscience of attachment, showing the tremendous development of this field. The following chapters include innovative studies that are representative of the broad spectrum of current approaches. These involve both differing neurobiological types of substrates using measures like fMRI, EEG, psychophysiology, endocrine parameters, and genetic polymorphisms, as well as psychometric approaches to classify attachment patterns in individuals. The findings we have acquired in the meanwhile on the neural substrates of attachment in healthy subjects lay the foundation of studies with clinical groups. The final section of the book addresses evidence on changes in the functioning of these neural substrates in psychopathology.

Embodying the Self: Neurophysiological Perspectives on the Psychopathology of Anomalous Bodily Experiences

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454563 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-456-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Since the beginning of the 20th Century, phenomenology has developed a distinction between lived body (Leib) and physical body (Koerper), a distinction well known as body-subject vs. body-object (Hanna and Thompson 2007). The lived body is the body experienced from within - my own direct experience of my body lived in the first-person perspective, myself as a spatiotemporal embodied agent in the world. The physical body on the other hand, is the body thematically investigated from a third person perspective by natural sciences as anatomy and physiology. An active topic affecting the understanding of several psychopathological disorders is the relatively unknown dynamic existing between aspects related to the body-object (that comprises the neurobiological substrate of the disease) and the body-subject (the experiences reported by patients) (Nelson and Sass 2017). A clue testifying the need to better explore this dynamic in the psychopathological context is the marked gap that still exists between patients’ clinical reports (generally entailing disturbing experiences) and etiopathogenetic theories and therapeutic practices, that are mainly postulated at a bodily/brain level of description and analysis. The phenomenological exploration typically targets descriptions of persons’ lived experience. For instance, patients suffering from schizophrenia may describe their thoughts as alien (‘‘thoughts are intruding into my head’’) and the world surrounding them as fragmented (‘‘the world is a series of snapshots’’) (Stanghellini et al., 2015). The result is a rich and detailed collection of the patients’ qualitative self-descriptions (Stanghellini and Rossi, 2014), that reveal fundamental changes in the structure of experiencing and can be captured by using specific assessment tools (Parnas et al. 2005; Sass et al. 2017; Stanghellini et al., 2014).The practice of considering the objective and the subjective levels of analysis as separated in the research studies design has many unintended consequences. Primarily, it has the effect of limiting actionable neuroscientific progress within clinical practice. This holds true both in terms of availability of evidence-based treatments for the disorders, as well as for early diagnosis purposes. In response to this need, this collection of articles aims to promote an interdisciplinary endeavor to better connect the bodily, objective level of analysis with its experiential corollary. This is accomplished by focusing on the convergence between (neuro) physiological evidence and the phenomenological manifestations of anomalous bodily experiences present in different disorders.

Challenging the Functional Connectivity Disruption in Neurodegenerative Diseases: New Therapeutic Perspectives through Non-Invasive Neuromodulation and Cutting-Edge Technologies

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455935 Year: Pages: 143 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-593-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The neurorehabilitation field is increasingly focused on understanding how to efficiently revert the effects that acute (i.e., stroke or traumatic brain injury) or chronic (i.e., neurodegenerative diseases) insults play either on small or large-scale networks, encompassing motor, sensory and cognitive domains. The link between the disrupted neuronal pulse generators and their effectors is being re-shaped through a wide scenario that embraces biorobotics, robot-aided rehabilitation, non-invasive neurostimulation, nanoprosthetics and neuroengineering. For the past decade and at an amazing speed, large investments and efforts allowed enthusiastic and only apparently heterogeneous researchers to borrow theories from neurophysiology, pharmacology, physics and quantum mechanics in order to generate together highly sophisticated tools that restore, resemble or even substitute the basic biological architecture. The idea of actually reverting weakened functions and/or replacing the faulty parts either of the human body or the central and peripheral nervous system is becoming a new reality, opening a fascinating era in this field.In this Research Topic, several researchers showed how the above principles became reality, from theory to the bedside of patients, providing full explanations of the whole mechanistic processes and how they were implemented, up to the final stage.

Integrating Computational and Neural Findings in Visual Object Perception

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198733 Year: Pages: 137 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-873-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The articles in this Research Topic provide a state-of-the-art overview of the current progress in integrating computational and empirical research on visual object recognition. Developments in this exciting multidisciplinary field have recently gained momentum: High performance computing enabled breakthroughs in computer vision and computational neuroscience. In parallel, innovative machine learning applications have recently become available for datamining the large-scale, high resolution brain data acquired with (ultra-high field) fMRI and dense multi-unit recordings. Finally, new techniques to integrate such rich simulated and empirical datasets for direct model testing could aid the development of a comprehensive brain model. We hope that this Research Topic contributes to these encouraging advances and inspires future research avenues in computational and empirical neuroscience.

Using neurophysiological signals that reflect cognitive or affective state

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196135 Year: Pages: 314 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-613-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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What can we learn from spontaneously occurring brain and other physiological signals about an individual’s cognitive and affective state and how can we make use of this information? One line of research that is actively involved with this question is Passive Brain-Computer-Interfaces (BCI). To date most BCIs are aimed at assisting patients for whom brain signals could form an alternative output channel as opposed to more common human output channels, like speech and moving the hands. However, brain signals (possibly in combination with other physiological signals) also form an output channel above and beyond the more usual ones: they can potentially provide continuous, online information about an individual’s cognitive and affective state without the need of conscious or effortful communication. The provided information could be used in a number of ways. Examples include monitoring cognitive workload through EEG and skin conductance for adaptive automation or using ERPs in response to errors to correct for a behavioral response. While Passive BCIs make use of online (neuro)physiological responses and close the interaction cycle between a user and a computer system, (neuro)physiological responses can also be used in an offline fashion. Examples of this include detecting amygdala responses for neuromarketing, and measuring EEG and pupil dilation as indicators of mental effort for optimizing information systems. The described field of applied (neuro)physiology can strongly benefit from high quality scientific studies that control for confounding factors and use proper comparison conditions. Another area of relevance is ethics, ranging from dubious product claims, acceptance of the technology by the general public, privacy of users, to possible effects that these kinds of applications may have on society as a whole. In this Research Topic we aimed to publish studies of the highest scientific quality that are directed towards applications that utilize spontaneously, effortlessly generated neurophysiological signals (brain and/or other physiological signals) reflecting cognitive or affective state. We especially welcomed studies that describe specific real world applications demonstrating a significant benefit compared to standard applications. We also invited original, new kinds of (proposed) applications in this area as well as comprehensive review articles that point out what is and what is not possible (according to scientific standards) in this field. Finally, we welcomed manuscripts on the ethical issues that are involved. Connected to the Research Topic was a workshop (held on June 6, during the Fifth International Brain-Computer Interface Meeting, June 3-7, 2013, Asilomar, California) that brought together a diverse group of people who were working in this field. We discussed the state of the art and formulated major challenges, as reflected in the first paper of the Research Topic.

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