Search results: Found 4

Listing 1 - 4 of 4
Sort by
Biosignal processing and computational methods to enhance sensory motor neuroprosthetics

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197187 Year: Pages: 228 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-718-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Though there have been many developments in sensory/motor prosthetics, they have not yet reached the level of standard and worldwide use like pacemakers and cochlear implants. One challenging issue in motor prosthetics is the large variety of patient situations, which depending on the type of neurological disorder. To improve neuroprosthetic performance beyond the current limited use of such systems, robust bio-signal processing and model-based control involving actual sensory motor state (with biosignal feedback) would bring about new modalities and applications, and could be a breakthrough toward adaptive neuroprosthetics. Recent advances of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) now enable patients to transmit their intention of movement. However, the functionality and controllability of motor prosthetics itself can be further improved to take advantage of BCI interfaces. In this Research Topic we welcome contribution of original research articles, computational and experimental studies, review articles, and methodological advances related to biosignal processing that may enhance the functionality of sensory motor neuroprosthetics. The scope of this topic includes, but is not limited to, studies aimed at enhancing: 1) computational biosignal processing in EMG (Electromyography), EEG (Electroencephalography), and other modalities of biofeedback information;2) the computational method in modeling and control of sensory motor neuroprosthetics;3) the systematic functionality aiming to provide solutions for specific pathological movement disorders;4) human interfaces such as BCI - but in the case of BCI study, manuscripts should be experimental studies which are applied to sensory/motor neuroprosthetics in patients with motor disabilities.

Neuroplasticity and Neurorehabilitation

Author:
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193929 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-392-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

In the history of neuroscience it had long been a virtually axiomatic belief that the mature mammalian nervous system was hardwired and fixed. This view goes back to the work of Louis Broca in the 1850s and has been perhaps most famously articulated by Ramon y Cajal. The immature nervous system was thought to have considerable plasticity, but after maturity the CNS was not considered to be capable of repairing itself after damage. In the last two decades, however, persuasive evidence has been accumulating at an increasing rate that the plasticity of the nervous system persists throughout the lifespan. Beginning 14 years ago, an efficacious form of neurorehabilitation termed Constraint-Induced Movement therapy or CI therapy was shown to produce marked neuroplastic changes in the brain. It has been proposed that CI therapy harnesses neuroplasticity in the service of restoring motor and language function lost as a result of such injuries to the central nervous system as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and cerebral palsy. The proposed journal issue will include articles by the main investigators involved in the development of this body of research. There will also be articles on the role of neurogenesis in the recovery of function after CNS damage encouraged by the stimulation of endogenous stem cell production, exogenous stem cell implantation, and pharmacological means. There will also be two articles describing the work carried out to date on the use of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (TDCS) to increase the excitability of the brain in order to enhance the recovery of function after stroke.

Revisiting the Effectiveness of Transcranial Direct Current Brain Stimulation for Cognition: Evidence, Challenges, and Open Questions

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453252 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-325-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The aim of this Frontiers Research Topic is to assemble a collection of papers from experts in the field of non-invasive brain stimulation that will discuss (1) the strength of the evidence regarding the potential of tDCS to modulate different aspects of cognition; (2) methodological caveats associated with the technique that may account for the variability in the reported findings; and (3) a set of challenges and future directions for the use of tDCS that can determine its potential as a reliable method for cognitive rehabilitation, maintenance, or enhancement.

Principles Underlying Post-Stroke Recovery of Upper Extremity Sensorimotor Function - A Neuroimaging Perspective

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197675 Year: Pages: 153 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-767-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Neuroimaging post-stroke has the potential to uncover underlying principles of disturbed hand function and recovery characterizing defined patient groups, including their long term course as well as individual variations. The methods comprise functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measuring task related activation as well as resting state. Functional MRI may be complemented by arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI to investigate slowly varying blood flow and associated changes in brain function. For structural MRI robust and accurate computational anatomical methods like voxel-based morphometry and surface based techniques are available. The investigation of the connectivity among brain regions and disruption after stroke is facilitated by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Intra- and interhemispheric coherence may be studied by electromagnetic techniques such as electroencephalography and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Consecutive phases of stroke recovery (acute, subacute, early chronic and late chronic stages) are each distinguished by intrinsic processes. The site and size of lesions entail partially different functional implications. New strategies to establish functional specificity of a lesion site include calculating contrast images between patients exhibiting a specific disorder and control subjects without the disorder. Large-size lesions often imply poor cerebral blood flow which impedes recovery significantly and possibly interferes with BOLD response of functional MRI. Thus, depending on the site and size of the infarct lesion the patterns of recovery will vary. These include recovery sensu stricto in the perilesional area, intrinsic compensatory mechanisms using alternative cortical and subcortical pathways, or behavioral compensatory strategies e.g. by using the non-affected limb. In this context, behavioral and neuroimaging measures should be developed and employed to delineate aspects of learning during recovery. Of special interest in recovery of hand paresis is the interplay between sensory and motor areas in the posterior parietal cortex involved during reaching and fine motor skills as well as the interaction with the contralesional hemisphere. The dominant disability should be characterized, from the level of elementary to hierarchically higher processes such as neglect, apraxia and motor planning. In summary, this Research Topic covers new trends in state of the art neuroimaging of stroke during recovery from upper limb paresis. Integration of behavioral and neuroimaging findings in probabilistic brain atlases will further advance knowledge about stroke recovery.

Listing 1 - 4 of 4
Sort by
Narrow your search

Publisher

Frontiers Media SA (4)


License

CC by (4)


Language

english (4)


Year
From To Submit

2017 (1)

2016 (2)

2015 (1)