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Transformation and Development

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ISBN: 9783030427757 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-42775-7 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: History --- Migration --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2020-05-14 09:30:32
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This open access book features various studies on democratization, transformation, political and economic development, and security issues in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) geographical region and beyond. Written by experts and academics in the fields of human rights, security, transformation and development, particularly in post-soviet and communist countries, it examines the status quo of regime development in various member states of the OSCE; their economic, security and human rights performance; institutional reforms and transformations and the challenges that these countries and their societies face, including the USA, Canada, Germany, Macedonia, Russia, Turkey, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Mongolia. This is the 2019 edition of this Compilation Series of the OSCE Academy. The OSCE works to promote Minority Protection, Security, Democratic Development and Human Rights guided by the Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR), and to enhance securitization and development policies in Eurasia, Europe, Central Asia and North America. Since being founded in 1993, the OSCE and its agencies and departments have attracted a wealth of academic research in various fields and disciplines, ranging from economic development and election monitoring to enhancing global principles of human rights and securitization. About the OSCE Academy in Bishkek: Founded in 2004, the Academy offers post-Doc research fellowships and runs two Master Degrees, one in Economic Governance and Development and one in Politics and Security in Central Asia. The Academy"s regular academic programs and conference contributes to developing human professional capital in the sectors of particular importance for Central Asian states and societies. The Academy's graduates and visiting researchers contribute to economic development, governance and policy-making in Central Asia and beyond the OSCE region. Website: http://www.osce-academy.net/en/about/

Arid Land Systems: Sciences and Societies

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ISBN: 9783039213474 9783039213481 Year: Pages: 380 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-348-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Understanding deserts and drylands is essential, as arid landscapes cover >40% of the Earth and are home to two billion people. Today's problematic environment–human interaction needs contemporary knowledge to address dryland complexity. Physical dimensions in arid zones—land systems, climate and hazards, ecology—are linked with social processes that directly impact drylands, such as land management, livelihoods, and development. The challenges require integrated research that identifies systemic drivers across global arid regions. Measurement and monitoring, field investigation, remote sensing, and data analysis are effective tools to investigate natural dynamics. Equally, inquiry into how policy and practice affect landscape sustainability is key to mitigating detrimental activity in deserts. Relations between socio-economic forces and degradation, agro-pastoral rangeland use, drought and disaster and resource extraction reflect land interactions. Contemporary themes of food security, conflict, and conservation are interlinked in arid environments. This book unifies desert science, arid environments, and dryland development. The chapters identify land dynamics, address system risks and delineate human functions through original research in arid zones. Mixed methodologies highlight the vital links between social and environmental science in global deserts. The book engages with today's topical themes and presents novel analyses of arid land systems and societies.

Keywords

Central Asia --- landscape --- One Belt --- One Road --- Kazakhstan --- Kyrgyzstan --- infrastructure --- environment --- New Silk Road --- drylands --- wind erosion modelling --- drag partition --- aerodynamic roughness --- remote sensing --- computational fluid dynamics --- cellular automata --- remote sensing --- modelling --- coverage --- grass height --- Cuchillas de la Zarca --- Chobe --- forest resources --- ecosystem services --- non-linear change --- protected areas --- disturbance --- drought --- sustainable livelihoods --- ecotone --- dryland --- KAZA --- Southern Africa --- nomadic pastoralism --- spatial migration model --- Afar --- livestock --- fodder demand --- fodder supply --- Asian dust --- human health --- Mongolia --- Japan --- subarctic agriculture --- Greenland --- soil quality index --- farming at its limits --- air temperature increase --- increase of growing season --- dry lake beds --- dust storm emission --- remote sensing --- Gobi Desert region --- communal rangelands --- property rights --- environmental impacts --- policy implementation --- drylands --- arid region --- LUCC --- driving forces --- snow index --- SPOT VGT --- Kashgar Region --- degrading --- tamarind age --- regeneration --- invasive vine --- vegetation survey --- erosion --- rotational grazing --- continuous grazing --- grassland degradation --- case study of nomadic and settlement grazing system --- remote sensing --- Mongolian grassland --- arid area --- land use change --- soil carbon storage --- global carbon balance --- the Shiyang River Basin --- riparian ecosystems --- Sonoran desert --- remote sensing --- land cover/land use --- drip irrigation --- groundwater --- common-pool resource --- water rights --- local farming --- desert reclamation --- desertification --- river basin development --- political ecology --- water --- vegetation response to precipitation --- dust storm outbreak --- cross correlation analysis --- the Hovmoller diagram --- environmental regime shift --- Gobi desert of Mongolia --- climate hazard --- Asia --- drylands --- risk --- drought --- desert --- Central Asia --- Kyrgyzstan --- infrastructure --- environment --- mining --- social movements --- protest --- environmental justice --- subversive clientelism --- China --- Tibetan Plateau --- Sanjiangyuan region --- social–ecological systems --- pastoralism --- partnerships --- co-management --- national parks --- Belt and Road Initiative --- mountains of Central Asia --- pastoralism --- Ethiopia --- South Omo --- Nyangatom --- Jordan River Basin --- water productivity --- Jordan --- Israel --- Palestine --- agriculture --- agricultural water intensity --- decoupling --- water security --- institutional change --- ecosystem services --- economic valuation --- drylands --- absence --- afforestation --- charisma --- China --- conservation --- desertification --- Gobi --- Mongolia

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