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Brain Reward & Stress Systems in Addiction

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194575 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-457-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychiatry --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Addiction to drugs and alcohol is a dynamic and multi-faceted disease process in humans, with devastating health and financial consequences for the individual and society-at-large. In humans, drug and alcohol use disorders (i.e., abuse and dependence) are defined by clusters of behavioral symptoms that can be modeled to various degrees in animals. Hallmark behavioral symptoms associated with drug and alcohol dependence are compulsive drug use, loss of control during episodes of drug use, the emergence of a negative emotional state in the absence of the drug, and chronic relapse vulnerability during drug abstinence. The transition to drug dependence is defined by neuroadaptations in brain circuits that, in the absence of drugs, mediate a variety of critical behavioral and physiological processes including natural reward, positive and negative emotional states, nociception, and feeding. Chronic drug exposure during the transition to dependence spurs (1) within-systems changes in neural circuits that contribute to the acute rewarding effects of the drug and (2) recruitment of brain stress systems (neuroendocrine and extra-hypothalamic). There are substantial genetic contributions to the propensity to use and abuse drugs, and drug abuse is highly co-morbid with various other psychiatric conditions (e.g., anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder) that may precede or follow the development of drug use problems. Across drugs of abuse, there are overlapping and dissociable aspects of the behavioral and neural changes that define the transition to dependence. Even within a single drug, people abuse drugs for a variety of reasons. The picture is further complicated by the fact that humans often abuse more than one drug concurrently. Even in the face of these challenges, pre-clinical and clinical research is making exponential gains into understanding the neurobiology of drug addiction. With the advent of new technologies and their combination with traditional approaches, the field is able to ask and answer addiction-related research questions in increasingly sophisticated ways. Here, we hope to assemble a collection of articles that provide an up-to-the-moment snapshot of the prevailing empirical, theoretical and technical directions in the addiction research field. We encourage submissions from all investigators working to understand the neurobiology of addiction, especially as it pertains to reward and stress pathways in the brain.

Keywords

relapse --- reward --- stress --- pain --- alcohol --- Nicotine --- Heroin --- Methamphetamine

Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Signaling in Neuroprotection

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ISBN: 9789811084874 9789811084881 Year: Pages: 191 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-8488-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: Smoking Research Foundation
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-29 14:19:40
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This open access book presents the roles and mechanisms of signal transduction triggered by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) stimulation in neuroprotection against toxic effects of risk factors of neurodegenerative diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests that nAChRs in the CNS play important roles not only in excitatory neurotransmission but also in neuronal survival and related functions. Neuroprotection mediated by nAChRs in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease is the major topic of this book. In response to rapidly evolving areas in clinical and laboratory neuropharmacology and neurochemistry, this volume provides in-depth coverage of neuroprotection in basic research and future developments in the clinical application of effective neuroprotective strategies in neurodegenerative diseases. This work appeals to both basic and clinical researchers in several fields, such as neuroscience, neurology, and pharmacology.

Ethanol, Its Active Metabolites, and Their Mechanisms of Action: Neurophysiological and Behavioral Effects

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455164 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-516-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Ethanol, the main psychopharmacologically active ingredient of alcoholic drinks, represents a paradigmatic example of a research subject intrinsically able to perpetually self-generate interdisciplinary cutting-edge investigations.This eBook was inspired by the aim of providing an up-to-date characterization of the diverse effects of ethanol, of the possible mechanisms of action on different intracellular systems as well as of the hypothesized actions of ethanol and/or its metabolites on various neurotransmitters and neuromodulators.Indeed, the eBook provides a factual example of an excellent synthesis on the complex relationship between ethanol and its main biologically active metabolites (Chapter 1), on the behavioral and molecular consequences of early exposure to them (Chapter 2), on the recent proposals, advanced by the preclinical research, for new therapeutic approaches to distinct aspects of alcoholism (Chapter 3) and on the most recent and original preclinical evidence of the interactions between ethanol and/or its metabolites and the dopaminergic, adenosinergic and endocannabinoidergic systems (Chapter 4).Overall we believe that this eBook accomplishes its main goals of widening the perspective on this research subject and offering the readership a newer and, simultaneously, up-to-date and comprehensive scenery on ethanol’s and ethanol's active metabolites neurophysiological and behavioral effects.

Long-Term Consequences of Adolescent Drug Use: Evidence from Pre-Clinical and Clinical Models

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455300 Year: Pages: 201 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-530-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychiatry --- Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics --- Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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The purpose of this collection is to provide a forum to integrate pre-clinical and clinical investigations regarding the long-term consequences of adolescent exposure to drugs of abuse. Adolescence is characterized by numerous behavioral and biological changes, including substantial neurodevelopment. Behaviorally, adolescents are more likely to engage in risky activities and make impulsive decisions. As such, the majority of substance use begins in adolescence, and an earlier age of onset of use (<15 yr) is strongly associated with the risk for developing a substance use disorder later in life. Furthermore, adolescent drug use may negatively impact ongoing neurological development, which could lead to long-term cognitive and emotional deficits. A large number of clinical studies have investigated both the acute and long-term effects of adolescent drug use on functional outcomes. However, the clinical literature contains many conflicting findings, and is often hampered by the inability to know if functional differences existed prior to drug use. Moreover, in human populations it is often very difficult to control for the numerous types of drugs, doses, and combinations used, not to mention the many other environmental factors that may influence adult behavior. Therefore, an increase in the number of carefully controlled studies using relevant animal models has the potential to clarify which adolescent experiences, particularly what drugs used when, have long-term negative consequences. Despite the advantages of animal model systems in clarifying these issues, the majority of pre-clinical addiction research over the past 50+ years has been conducted in adult animals. Moreover, few addiction-related studies have investigated the long-term neurocognitive consequences of drug exposure at any age. In the past 10 years of so, however, the field of adolescent drug abuse research has burgeoned. To date, the majority of this research has focused on adolescent alcohol exposure using a variety of animal models. The results have given the field important insight into why adolescents are more likely to drink alcohol to excess relative to adults, and the danger of adolescent alcohol use (e.g., in leading to a persistence of excessive drinking in adulthood). More recently, research regarding the effects of adolescent exposure to other drugs of abuse, including nicotine, cocaine, and cannabinoids has expanded. Therefore, we are at unique point in time, when emerging results from carefully controlled pre-clinical studies can inform the sometimes confusing clinical literature. In addition, we expect an influx of prospective clinical studies in response to a cross-institute initiative at NIH, known as the ABCD grant. Several institutes are enrolling children prior to adolescence (and the initiation of drug use), in order to control for pre-existing neurobiological and neurobehavioral differences and to monitor the age of initiation and amount of drug used more carefully than is possible using retrospective designs.

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