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Tsunami Science and Engineering II

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ISBN: 9783039216727 9783039216734 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-673-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Earthquake-tsunamis, including the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami and the 2011 T?hoku Tsunami in Japan, serve as tragic reminders that such waves pose a major natural hazard. Landslide-tsunamis, including the 1958 Lituya Bay case, may exceed 150 m in height, and similar waves generated in lakes and reservoirs may overtop dams and cause significant devastation. This book includes nine peer-review articles from some of the leading experts in the field of tsunami research. The collection represents a wide range of topics covering (i) wave generation, (ii) wave propagation, and (iii) their effects. Within (i), a tsunami source combining an underwater fault rupture and a landslide are addressed in the laboratory. Within (ii), frequency dispersion with the nonlinear shallow-water equations is considered and a detailed account of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, tsunami, and fire in downtown Lisbon is presented. Two articles involve all three phases (i) to (iii), including runup and dam over-topping. Within (iii), a new semi-empirical equation for runup is introduced and the interaction of tsunamis with bridges and pipelines is investigated in large laboratory experiments. This state-of-the-art collection of articles is expected to improve modelling and mitigate the destructive effects of tsunamis and inspire many future research activities in this challenging and exciting research field.

Symmetries of Nonlinear PDEs on Metric Graphs and Branched Networks

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ISBN: 9783039217205 9783039217212 Year: Pages: 144 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-721-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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This Special Issue focuses on recent progress in a new area of mathematical physics and applied analysis, namely, on nonlinear partial differential equations on metric graphs and branched networks. Graphs represent a system of edges connected at one or more branching points (vertices). The connection rule determines the graph topology. When the edges can be assigned a length and the wave functions on the edges are defined in metric spaces, the graph is called a metric graph. Evolution equations on metric graphs have attracted much attention as effective tools for the modeling of particle and wave dynamics in branched structures and networks. Since branched structures and networks appear in different areas of contemporary physics with many applications in electronics, biology, material science, and nanotechnology, the development of effective modeling tools is important for the many practical problems arising in these areas. The list of important problems includes searches for standing waves, exploring of their properties (e.g., stability and asymptotic behavior), and scattering dynamics. This Special Issue is a representative sample of the works devoted to the solutions of these and other problems.

Turbulence in River and Maritime Hydraulics

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ISBN: 9783038975946 Year: Pages: 296 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-595-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 15:50:41
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Understanding of the role of turbulence in controlling transport processes is of paramount importance for the preservation and protection of aquatic ecosystems, the minimization of the deleterious consequences of anthropogenic activity, and the successful sustainable development of river and maritime areas. In this context, the present Special Issue collects 15 papers which provide a representation of the present understanding of turbulent processes and their effects in river and maritime environments. The presented collection of papers is not exhaustive, but it highlights the key priority areas and knowledge gaps in this field of research. The published papers present the state-of-the-art knowledge of complex environmental flows which are useful for researchers and practitioners. The paper contents are an overview of some recent topics of research and an exposure of the current and future challenges associated with these topics.

Keywords

breaking waves --- turbulence invariants --- laboratory experiments --- flow-through system --- tidal inlets --- residence time --- coastal lagoon --- MIKE 3 FM (HD & --- TR) --- MIKE 21 FM (HD) --- dense jet --- current flow --- velocity --- trajectory --- turbulence --- dissipation --- rivers --- meanders --- turbulence --- secondary motion --- prediction --- bedrock canyon --- ADCP --- eddy viscosity --- bed shear stress --- spatial analysis --- smoothed particle hydrodynamics models --- physical modelling --- plunging breaking waves --- vorticity --- turbulent jet --- wave–current interaction --- spectral dissipation --- bottom friction --- numerical model --- hydrodynamic model --- spectral model --- wave attenuation --- energy dissipation --- drag coefficient --- flexible vegetation --- Spartina maritima --- vegetation patch --- wake region --- submerged ratio --- SVF --- channel confluences --- junction angle --- flow deflection zone --- flow retardation zone --- flow separation zone --- numerical modelling --- PANORMUS --- jets --- waves --- turbulence --- mixing --- diffusion --- advection --- river mouth --- flow mixing --- nonlinear shallow water equations --- macrovortices --- sub-grid turbulence --- seabed friction --- flow resistance --- roughness --- gravel-bed rivers --- casting technique --- CFD --- Kelvin–Helmholtz --- billow --- lobe --- cleft --- gravity current --- surface waves --- inclined negatively buoyant jets --- regular waves --- dilution --- sea discharges --- rivers --- maritime areas --- turbulent processes

Dynamics of the Coastal Zone

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ISBN: 9783039284849 9783039284856 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-485-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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The coastal zone is the host to many human activities, which have significantly increased in the last decades. However, sea level rise and more frequent storm events severely affect beaches and coastal structures, with negative consequences and dramatic impacts on coastal communities. These aspects add to typical coastal problems, like flooding and beach erosion, which already leading to large economic losses and human fatalities. Modeling is thus fundamental for an exhaustive understanding of the nearshore region in the present and future environment. Innovative tools and technologies may help to better understand coastal processes in terms of hydrodynamics, sediment transport, bed morphology, and their interaction with coastal structures. This book collects several contributions focusing on nearshore dynamics, and span among several time and spatial scales using both physical and numerical approaches. The aim is to describe the most recent advances in coastal dynamics.

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