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Manifest Madness: Mental Incapacity in the Criminal Law

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ISBN: 9780199698592 Year: Pages: 307 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199698592.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: OAPEN-UK
Subject: Psychiatry --- Law --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2013-09-21 22:37:34
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Whether it is a question of the age below which a child cannot be held liable for their actions, or the attribution of responsibility to defendants with mental illnesses, mental incapacity is a central concern for legal actors, policy makers, and legislators when it comes to crime and justice. Understanding the terrain of mental incapacity in criminal law is notoriously difficult; it involves tracing overlapping and interlocking legal doctrines, current and past practices including those of evidence and proof, and also medical and social understanding of mental order and incapacity. Bringing together previously disparate discussions on criminal responsibility from law, psychology, and philosophy, this book provides a close study of mental incapacity defences, analysing their development through historical cases to the modern era. It maps the shifting boundaries between normality and abnormality as constructed in law, arguing that ‘manifest madness’ — the distinct character of mental incapacity revealed by this interdisciplinary approach — has a broad significance for understanding the criminal law as a whole.

Unterwegs – Mobiles Leben in der Erdgas- und Erdölindustrie in Russlands Arktis

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ISBN: 9783205796947 Year: Pages: 227 DOI: 10.26530/oapen_594630 Language: English
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 238
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-31 11:01:13
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Barely known in public is the life of long-distance commute workers who extract the „blue and black gold” for the export to Europe. They are travelling people who work and live rotationally for a few weeks at the extraction sites before they go back again to their families in the southern regions. This ethnography takes the reader from the Volga Region to the Arcitc “Russian Gas Capital” Novy Urengoy and provides critically insights into the Russian petroleum industry.

Normalität und Subjektivierung

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Book Series: Pädagogik ISBN: 9783839451700 Year: Pages: 438 DOI: 10.14361/9783839451700 Language: German
Publisher: transcript Verlag
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-11 23:58:16
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New Developments in Statistical Information Theory Based on Entropy and Divergence Measures

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ISBN: 9783038979364 9783038979371 Year: Pages: 344 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-937-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology --- Statistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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This book presents new and original research in Statistical Information Theory, based on minimum divergence estimators and test statistics, from a theoretical and applied point of view, for different statistical problems with special emphasis on efficiency and robustness. Divergence statistics, based on maximum likelihood estimators, as well as Wald’s statistics, likelihood ratio statistics and Rao’s score statistics, share several optimum asymptotic properties, but are highly non-robust in cases of model misspecification under the presence of outlying observations. It is well-known that a small deviation from the underlying assumptions on the model can have drastic effect on the performance of these classical tests. Specifically, this book presents a robust version of the classical Wald statistical test, for testing simple and composite null hypotheses for general parametric models, based on minimum divergence estimators.

Keywords

sparse --- robust --- divergence --- MM algorithm --- Bregman divergence --- generalized linear model --- local-polynomial regression --- model check --- nonparametric test --- quasi-likelihood --- semiparametric model --- Wald statistic --- composite likelihood --- maximum composite likelihood estimator --- Wald test statistic --- composite minimum density power divergence estimator --- Wald-type test statistics --- Bregman divergence --- general linear model --- hypothesis testing --- influence function --- robust --- Wald-type test --- log-linear models --- ordinal classification variables --- association models --- correlation models --- minimum penalized ?-divergence estimator --- consistency --- asymptotic normality --- goodness-of-fit --- bootstrap distribution estimator --- thematic quality assessment --- relative entropy --- logarithmic super divergence --- robustness --- minimum divergence inference --- generalized renyi entropy --- minimum divergence methods --- robustness --- single index model --- model assessment --- statistical distance --- non-quadratic distance --- total variation --- mixture index of fit --- Kullback-Leibler distance --- divergence measure --- ?-divergence --- relative error estimation --- robust estimation --- information geometry --- centroid --- Bregman information --- Hölder divergence --- indoor localization --- robustness --- efficiency --- Bayesian nonparametric --- Bayesian semi-parametric --- asymptotic property --- minimum disparity methods --- Hellinger distance --- Berstein von Mises theorem --- measurement errors --- robust testing --- two-sample test --- misspecified hypothesis and alternative --- 2-alternating capacities --- composite hypotheses --- corrupted data --- least-favorable hypotheses --- Neyman Pearson test --- divergence based testing --- Chernoff Stein lemma --- compressed data --- Hellinger distance --- representation formula --- iterated limits --- influence function --- consistency --- asymptotic normality --- location-scale family --- n/a

Quantum Probability and Randomness

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ISBN: 9783038977148 9783038977155 Year: Pages: 276 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-715-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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The last few years have been characterized by a tremendous development of quantum information and probability and their applications, including quantum computing, quantum cryptography, and quantum random generators. In spite of the successful development of quantum technology, its foundational basis is still not concrete and contains a few sandy and shaky slices. Quantum random generators are one of the most promising outputs of the recent quantum information revolution. Therefore, it is very important to reconsider the foundational basis of this project, starting with the notion of irreducible quantum randomness. Quantum probabilities present a powerful tool to model uncertainty. Interpretations of quantum probability and foundational meaning of its basic tools, starting with the Born rule, are among the topics which will be covered by this issue. Recently, quantum probability has started to play an important role in a few areas of research outside quantum physics—in particular, quantum probabilistic treatment of problems of theory of decision making under uncertainty. Such studies are also among the topics of this issue.

Keywords

quantum logic --- groups --- partially defined algebras --- quasigroups --- viable cultures --- quantum information theory --- bit commitment --- protocol --- entropy --- entanglement --- orthogonality --- quantum computation --- Gram–Schmidt process --- quantum probability --- potentiality --- complementarity --- uncertainty relations --- Copenhagen interpretation --- indefiniteness --- indeterminism --- causation --- randomness --- quantum information --- quantum dynamics --- entanglement --- algebra --- causality --- geometry --- probability --- quantum information theory --- realism --- reality --- entropy --- correlations --- qubits --- probability representation --- Bayes’ formula --- quantum entanglement --- three-qubit random states --- entanglement classes --- entanglement polytope --- anisotropic invariants --- quantum random number --- vacuum state --- maximization of quantum conditional min-entropy --- quantum logics --- quantum probability --- holistic semantics --- epistemic operations --- Bell inequalities --- algorithmic complexity --- Borel normality --- Bayesian inference --- model selection --- random numbers --- quantum-like models --- operational approach --- information interpretation of quantum theory --- social laser --- social energy --- quantum information field --- social atom --- Bose–Einstein statistics --- bandwagon effect --- social thermodynamics --- resonator of social laser --- master equation for socio-information excitations --- quantum contextuality --- Kochen–Specker sets --- MMP hypergraphs --- Greechie diagrams --- quantum foundations --- probability --- irreducible randomness --- random number generators --- quantum technology --- entanglement --- quantum-like models for social stochasticity --- contextuality

Statistical Analysis and Stochastic Modelling of Hydrological Extremes

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ISBN: 9783039216642 9783039216659 Year: Pages: 294 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-665-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Meteorology and Climatology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Hydrological extremes have become a major concern because of their devastating consequences and their increased risk as a result of climate change and the growing concentration of people and infrastructure in high-risk zones. The analysis of hydrological extremes is challenging due to their rarity and small sample size, and the interconnections between different types of extremes and becomes further complicated by the untrustworthy representation of meso-scale processes involved in extreme events by coarse spatial and temporal scale models as well as biased or missing observations due to technical difficulties during extreme conditions. The complexity of analyzing hydrological extremes calls for robust statistical methods for the treatment of such events. This Special Issue is motivated by the need to apply and develop innovative stochastic and statistical approaches to analyze hydrological extremes under current and future climate conditions. The papers of this Special Issue focus on six topics associated with hydrological extremes: Historical changes in hydrological extremes; Projected changes in hydrological extremes; Downscaling of hydrological extremes; Early warning and forecasting systems for drought and flood; Interconnections of hydrological extremes; Applicability of satellite data for hydrological studies.

Keywords

rainfall --- monsoon --- high resolution --- TRMM --- drought prediction --- APCC Multi-Model Ensemble --- seasonal climate forecast --- machine learning --- sparse monitoring network --- Fiji --- drought analysis --- ANN model --- drought indices --- meteorological drought --- SIAP --- SWSI --- hydrological drought --- discrete wavelet --- global warming --- statistical downscaling --- HBV model --- flow regime --- uncertainty --- reservoir inflow forecasting --- artificial neural network --- wavelet artificial neural network --- weighted mean analogue --- variation analogue --- streamflow --- artificial neural network --- simulation --- forecasting --- support vector machine --- evolutionary strategy --- heavy storm --- hyetograph --- temperature --- clausius-clapeyron scaling --- climate change --- the Cauca River --- climate variability --- ENSO --- extreme rainfall --- trends --- statistical downscaling --- random forest --- least square support vector regression --- extreme rainfall --- polynomial normal transform --- multivariate modeling --- sampling errors --- non-normality --- extreme rainfall analysis --- statistical analysis --- hydrological extremes --- stretched Gaussian distribution --- Hurst exponent --- INDC pledge --- precipitation --- extreme events --- extreme precipitation exposure --- non-stationary --- extreme value theory --- uncertainty --- flood regime --- flood management --- Kabul river basin --- Pakistan --- extreme events --- innovative methods --- downscaling --- forecasting --- compound events --- satellite data

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