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Towards Gender Equity in Development

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Book Series: WIDER Studies in Development Economics ISBN: 9780198829591 Year: Pages: 448 DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198829591.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: UNU WIDER
Subject: Economics --- Sociology --- Gender Studies --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-14 11:21:02
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As a result of widespread mistreatment and overt discrimination in all dimensions of their lives, women lack significant autonomy. The central preoccupation of this book is to explore key sources of female empowerment and discuss the current challenges and opportunities for the future. Schematically, three main domains are distinguished. The first is marriage and women’s relative bargaining position within the household. Since in developing countries marriage is essentially universal and generally arranged by the parents, women have little say in the choice of their partner and largely depend on their husband for their livelihoods and well-being. How marriage, divorce, and remarriage practices have evolved and with what effects for women, is therefore of crucial concern. The second domain is the set of options available to women outside of marriage and in the context of their community. Given the importance of household dynamics in determining female well-being, a crucial step towards women’s empowerment consists of improving such options, economic and collective action opportunities in particular. The third domain belongs to the realm of over-arching discriminatory laws and cultural norms. Can the government acting as lawmaker contribute to modifying norms and practices that disadvantage women? Or, to be effective, do legal moves need to be complemented by other initiatives such as the expansion of economic opportunities for women? Do discriminatory social norms necessarily dissolve with improved legal status for women? These questions, and other related issues, are tackled from different perspectives, by top scholars with well-established experience in gender-focused economic and social research.&#xD;

The structure, form and language of international environmental norms – from absolute to relative normativity (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9781784714642 9781784714659 Year: Pages: 28 DOI: 10.4337/9781784714659 Language: English
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-05 15:10:01
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International environmental law has a dual nature being both formal (attached to explicit state will) and instrumental (detached from explicit state will). In this chapter it is argued that normativity of international environmental legal norms is relativised due to the softening of hard law and hardening of soft law. The softening of hard law is caused primarily by the interpretative nature of language and the interplay between formalism and instrumentalism as interpretative paradigms. As a consequence, the normative content of hard law is always a matter of interpretation which by default causes hard law to be more or less indeterminate. The hardening of soft law is visible inter alia in the informal legal status that several soft law instruments such as UN resolutions, accords, executive board decisions and informal initiatives may enjoy through their legitimacy and effectiveness. This results in some soft law instruments gaining relative legal effect even when lacking formal legal status. Based on these observations it is concluded that the normativity or validity of legal norms in international environmental law can only be evaluated after a careful analysis of all the traces of normativity (form, legitimacy and effectiveness) at play.

The Environment and International Relations

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ISBN: 9780203995525 9780415122146 9780415122153 9781134827794 9781134827787 9781134827749 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203995525 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:09
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Environmental issues and questions of global change are now firmly established on the international political agenda. This book provides a wide-ranging survey of the current treatment of environmental issues in international relations. This book begins by looking at the relevance of the different theoretical approaches current in international relations to the study of the environment. It analyzses a wide range of approaches from the debate between neo-realism and liberal institutionalism to the significant connections between gender and global environmental change. The book goes on to consider a range of key international processes, discussing the monitoring and implementation of environmental agreements, the place of ideology in negotiations and the role of international organisations.

Retirement Timing and Social Stratification. A Comparative Study of Labor Market Exit and Age Norms in Western Europe

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ISBN: 9788376560410 9783110399240 Year: Pages: 329 DOI: 10.2478/9788376560410 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2014-03-05 13:28:39
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The monograph disseminates the very topical issue of retirement and its timing as the key to one of the greatest challenges facing ageing societies. Postponing retirement is now almost universally regarded as indispensable in order to relieve European welfare states from the demography-related financial pressures. This seminal study, derived from a statistical analysis of a large-scale survey data, provides a thorough understanding of the micro- and macro-level determinants of retirement timing in contemporary Western Europe. The book is the first monograph to combine the analysis of the retirement attitudes with the analysis of the retirement behaviour within one research. It tackles the question as to whether early retirement can be explained by “early exit culture”, triangulating life course theory with a social stratification approach. The author used a novel and innovative approach to obtain the results. The methodology includes: tobit models of proscriptive age norms; simulations of the impact of class structure on a country’s average retirement age; competing risks models of different work-exit modalities; duration selection models of retirement timing.

Body Law and the Body of Law. A Comparative Study of Social Norm Inclusion in Norwegian and American Laws

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ISBN: 9783110412772 9783110441215 Year: Pages: 362 DOI: 10.2478/9783110412772 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Law --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2015-04-13 10:42:11
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For some legal philosophers, if a law is procedurally correct, enacted in ways constitutionally recognised and agreed upon, then the content is of no significance. It is a “good” law, no matter what it does or justifies. The question of one's consent or opposition to any particular law is extraneous to the legality and is regarded merely as a political matter. The assumption is that a certain procedure and logic in law creation has taken place, and the law can be altered by a change in political leaders in a subsequent political election. However, this view and assumption obscure an uncomfortable fact. Some laws can be “bad” or “immoral.” Critical legal theory suggests that there are often two (or more) sets of laws, and it makes no difference if Lady Justice is blindfolded or not.Laws change in the process of history, in part, because societal norms change. As common understandings of morality evolve, law adapts itself to the new moral environment. Norms can change slowly or rapidly, even within a lifetime. This book examines both social and legal norms and theories of how they are both created.Christine M. Hassenstab investigates how laws on sterilization, birth control and abortion were created, by focusing on the act of legislation; how the law was driven by scientific and social norms during the first and closing decades of the 20th century in the USA (especially in the state of Indiana) and Norway. The primary focus of Body Law and the Body of Law is the sociology of law and how and why the law changes. The author develops the notion “body law” for reproductive policies and uses sociological theories to untie the various strands of social history and legal history and looks at two cases of legislation. The book is divided in to two main sections. The first examines eugenic laws in the USA state of Indiana and Norway during the first decades of 20th century. The second part is about the birth control and abortion debate in both countries throughout the late 1960s and 1970s.Christine M. Hassenstab is a lawyer and sociologist. She served as a criminal defense attorney for 15 years (1987—2001) in Seattle, Washington. Currently, she is an adviser in the EU Grants Office at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, Norway.

The Romantic Age in Russian Literature - Poetic and Esthetic Norms

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Book Series: Slavistische Beitraege ISBN: 9783876901046 Year: Pages: 300 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:06
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The Anthology is intended to provide such a systematic and analitical compendium of original texts, so as to afford some insight in the poetic, stylistic, and conceptual norms which determined the nature and evolution of literature during the first half oft the 19th century.

Handbuch Europäische Sprachkritik Online

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Book Series: Handbuch Europäische Sprachkritik Online ISBN: 9783946054603 9783946054597 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.17885/heiup.heso.2017.1 Language: German|English|French|Italian|Croatian
Publisher: Heidelberg University Publishing (heiUP)
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-28 11:21:03
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The process of setting norms for language and language use is closely related to critique of language and its use. The German term Sprachnormenkritik as yet has no equivalent in English, French, Italian, or Croatian linguistics. Notwithstanding, the concept of ›critique of language norms‹, or aspects of it, have been debated in all these languages for centuries.

Serbische Vergangenheitsaufarbeitung

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Book Series: Global Studies ISBN: 9783837628500 9783839428504 Year: DOI: 10.14361/9783839428504 Language: German
Publisher: transcript Verlag Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 103341
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-30 11:01:59
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Muss ein Staat seine Untaten bereuen, um außenpolitische Legitimität zu erhalten? Was bedeutet es, Kriegsverbrechen aufzuarbeiten? Und wie agieren und kommunizieren Politiker, die unter internationalem Druck aufarbeiten müssen? Am Beispiel des serbischen Umgangs mit während der Jugoslawienkriege begangener Kriegsverbrechen sucht Daniela Mehler Erklärungen für Politikwandel und Ambivalenzen. Sie rekonstruiert die serbischen Aufarbeitungsdebatten vom Beginn der Jugoslawienkriege bis zur Verhaftung von Ratko Mladic und stellt die Positionen und Norminterpretationen der serbischen Akteure vor.

Multinational teams in the European Commission and the European Parliament

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Book Series: Forschungsergebnisse der Wirtschaftsuniversitaet Wien ISBN: 9783631543320 Year: Pages: 144 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Sociology --- Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:23
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International public organizations, as the European Commission and the European Parliament, are under almost permanent political pressure to improve efficiency. While teamwork is considered to be a possible remedy, so far little research on effectiveness of multinational teams was undertaken in international public organizations. The purpose of this book is to identify the distinctive characteristics that influence multinational team performance in a public management context. Based on a qualitative research approach a complexity model of multinational team performance was developed. This model can be used as a checklist to identify possible problems in multinational teams. Additionally, managerial implications of how to deal with the inherent complexity of multinational teams are given.

Harmful Trademarks

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Book Series: Munich Intellectual Property Law Center – MIPLC ISBN: 9783845294568 Year: Volume: 36 Language: en
Publisher: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2019-09-05 10:58:20
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Between 2013-2017, around 115 EU trademark applications were rejected on morality and public order grounds. In the GCC (six Arab and Islamic countries), anecdotal evidence suggests some refusals have bemused foreign applicants and highlighted cultural blindspots. In this context, this work examines how three Arab Gulf states that have Islamic law as the main source of legislation and large expatriate communities, apply moral bars to trademark registration. It draws comparison with Western jurisdictions. Three main questions are explored: 1) To what extent do immoral or borderline trademarks/goods proceed to registration in conservative Islamic countries that apply trademark law in conformity with Shari’a law? 2) What reasoning is guiding decisions? 3) Can a concept of ‘harm’ improve our understanding of the power of trademarks and thus the moral thresholds that countries set?The author is an innovation and IP commercialisation professional. She acquired a passion for trademark law while completing a Master of Laws in ‘Intellectual Property and Competition Law’ in Munich, Germany. She is now pursuing a career in trademark law in the UK.

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