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New Translational Insights on Metabolic Syndrome: Obesity, Hypertension, Diabetes and Beyond

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199242 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-924-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) can be considered as a clustering of several risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, which could lead to the development of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). There are several underlying causes for MetS including overweight, physical inactivity and genetic factors. However, the underlying mechanisms that leads to MetS are still poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this E-book is to provide a space where researchers holding different backgrounds could shed some light onto the pathophysiology of different risk factors involved in MetS, mostly from translational research worldwide.

Bigger Than You: Big Data and Obesity

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ISBN: 9780692652831 Year: Pages: 70 DOI: 10.21983/P3.0135.1.00 Language: English
Publisher: punctum books
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-12 09:24:36
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In her first inquiry toward a decelerationist aesthetics, Katherine Behar explores in this essay chapbook the rise of two “big deal” contemporary phenomena, big data and obesity. In both, scale rearticulates the human as a diffuse informational pattern, causing important shifts in political form as well as aesthetic form. Bigness redraws relationships between the singular and the collective. Understood as informational patterns, collectives can be radically inclusive, even incorporating nonhumans. As a result, the political subject is slowly becoming a new object. This social and informational body belongs to no single individual, but is shared in solidarity with something “bigger than you.” In decelerationist aesthetics, the aesthetic properties, proclivities, and performances of objects come to defy the accelerationist imperative to be nimbly individuated. Decelerationist aesthetics rejects atomistic, liberal, humanist subjects; this unit of self is too consonant with capitalist relations and functions. Instead, decelerationist aesthetics favors transhuman sociality embodied in particulate, mattered objects; the aesthetic form of such objects resists capitalist speed and immediacy by taking back and taking up space and time. In just this way, big data calls into question the conventions by which humans are defined as discrete entities, and individual scales of agency are made to form central binding pillars of social existence through which bodies are drawn into relations of power and pathos

Food cravings

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195176 Year: Pages: 101 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-517-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Food craving refers to an intense desire or urge to consume a specific food. In Western or Westernized societies, these craved foods usually have high palatability and are energy dense, that is, they have high sugar and/or fat content. Accordingly, the most often craved food is chocolate. Food craving is a multidimensional experience as it includes cognitive (e.g. thinking about food), emotional (e.g. desire to eat or changes in mood), behavioral (e.g. seeking and consuming food), and physiological (e.g. salivation) aspects. Experiences of food craving are common, that is, they do not reflect abnormal eating behavior per se. However, very intense and frequent food craving experiences are associated with obesity and eating disorders such as bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. The aim of this research topic was to gather new contributions to a variety of aspects of food craving, which include its assessment, cognitive and emotional triggers, moderators, and correlates of food craving, and the relevance of food cravings in clinical issues, among others.

Attachment Assessment in treatments, prevention and intervention programs

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195237 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-523-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Attachment theory, assessment and research offers a broad, far-reaching view of human functioning, and it can enrich a psychologist's understanding of subjects and their relational adjustment, both in clinical and non-clinical settings. Ongoing research in attachment has led to a number of individual treatments and prevention and intervention programs. The assessment of an individual's attachment organization, can play a crucial role in explaining and previewing the unfolding treatment, the relational adjustments or concerns, and the psychological well-being. We hope to receive empirical papers that give evidence for the usefulness of attachment assessment in both clinical (e.g., patients with Eating Disorder; or Axis-II; psychotherapy patients…) or not clinical population (e.g. Adoptive and/or foster families or couples, Mother-infant assessment in prevention field…). These papers should include methodological issues and information about the participants, the methods used to assess attachment, the process of scorer training and the availability of the manual used to obtain inter-scorer reliability. Case studies may be of interest to the extent that they demonstrate the value of a systematic approach to attachment material. A range of theoretical perspectives is welcome as well presentation of new emergent tools on attachment. Because Frontiers in Psychology is an international journal, each empirical paper should comment on the international implications of the findings and discuss its cross-cultural use. Such comments may include, for example, its linguistic specificity, its robustness in translation, and the cross-cultural generalizability of the constructs and behaviors of the measure and its usual correlates. Cross-cultural generalizability is not, however, a requirement.

Keywords

Attachment --- Parenting --- Trauma --- Anorexia --- Addiction --- Obesity --- autism --- Adoption --- Treatment

Impact of Diet on Learning, Memory and Cognition

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452286 Year: Pages: 117 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-228-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Changes in food composition and availability have contributed to the dramatic increase in obesity over the past 30-40 years in developed and, increasingly, in developing countries. The modern diet now contains many foods that are rich in saturated fat and refined sugar. People who eat excessive amounts of this diet are not only likely to become overweight, even obese, develop metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, some forms of cancer, but also undergo a more rapid rate of normal age-related cognitive decline and more rapid progression of neurological diseases such as dementia. A central problem is why people persist in consuming this diet in spite of its adverse health effects and when alternative food choices are available. As high fat / high sugar foods are inherently rewarding, eating for pleasure, like taking psychoactive drugs, can modulate reward neurocircuitry, causing changes in responsiveness to reward-predicting stimuli and incentive motivation. Indeed, the excessive ingestion in modern societies and the resulting obesity epidemic may be viewed as a form of food addiction. Thus, a diet high in palatable foods is proposed to impact upon reward systems in the brain, modulating appetitive learning and altering reward thresholds. Impairments in other forms of cognition have been associated with obesity, and these have a rapid onset. The hippocampus appears to be particularly vulnerable to the detrimental effects of high fat and high sugar diets. Recent research has shown that as little as one week of exposure to a high fat, high sugar diet leads to impairments in place but not object recognition memory in the rat. Excess sugar alone had similar effects, and the detrimental effects of diet consumption was linked to increased inflammatory markers in the hippocampus, a critical region involved in memory. Furthermore, obesity-related inflammatory changes have also been described in the human brain that may lead to memory impairments. These memory deficits may contribute to pathological eating behaviour through changes in the amount consumed and timing of eating. The aim of this eBook is to present up-to-date information about the impact of diet and diet-induced obesity on reward driven learning, memory and cognition, encompassing both animal and human literature, and also potential therapeutic targets to attenuate such deficits.

Keywords

Diet --- Obesity --- Memory --- Cognition --- Famine --- Fat --- Sugar --- Behavior --- Neurodevelopment

Metabolic Adaptation to Cell Growth and Proliferation in Normal and Pathological Conditions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454846 Year: Pages: 70 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-484-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Proliferating cells must adapt their metabolism to fulfill the increased requirements for energy demands and biosynthetic intermediates. This adaptation is particularly relevant in cancer, where sustained rapid proliferation combined with the harsh conditions of the tumor microenvironment represent a major metabolic challenge. Noteworthy, metabolic reprogramming is now considered one of the hallmarks of cancer. However, the one size fits all rarely applies to the metabolic rewiring occurring in cancer cells, which ultimately depends on the combination of several factors such as the tumor’s origin, the specific genetic alterations and the surrounding microenvironment. In the present Research Topic, we compile a series of articles that discuss different metabolic adaptations that proliferating cells undergo to sustain growth and division, as well as the potential therapeutic window to treat certain pathologies, with a special focus on cancer.

Perivascular Adipose Tissue (PVAT) in Health and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456031 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-603-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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In 1991, Soltis and Cassis (Clin Exp Hypertens A 1991 13:277-296) published the first paper that the fat tissue around an artery – perivascular adipose tissue or PVAT – changed how the artery contracted to norepinephrine. Followed later by important work showing that PVAT itself contained vasoactive molecules, the scientific community recognized that PVAT was not simply a store of fat but is a vasoactive tissue that contributes to the functioning and status of the vessel it surrounds. Our goal for this Frontiers Research Topic is to highlight the significant reach of PVAT in vascular function, from contractility to growth in health and in disease. In doing so, we explicitly place findings that can be taken advantage of in creating new therapies for cardiovascular diseases that continue to challenge our community. These include hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes to name a few.

Neuroendocrine mechanisms that connect feeding behavior and stress

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195077 Year: Pages: 189 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-507-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Research during the past decade highlights the strong link between appetitive feeding behavior, reward and motivation. Interestingly, stress levels can affect feeding behavior by manipulating hypothalamic circuits and brain dopaminergic reward pathways. Indeed, animals and people will increase or decrease their feeding responses when stressed. In many cases acute stress leads to a decrease in food intake, yet chronic social stressors are associated to increases in caloric intake and adiposity. Interestingly, mood disorders and the treatments used to manage these disorders are also associated with changes in appetite and body weight. These data suggest a strong interaction between the systems that regulate feeding and metabolism and those that regulate mood. This Research Topic aims to illustrate how hormonal mechanisms regulate the nexus between feeding behavior and stress. It focuses on the hormonal regulation of hypothalamic circuits and/or brain dopaminergic systems, as the potential sites controlling the converging pathways between feeding behavior and stress.

Obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194285 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-428-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Immune response and metabolic regulation are highly integrated and this interface maintains a central homeostatic system, dysfunction of which can cause obesity-associated metabolic disorder such as type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance is an underlying basis for the pathogenesis of these metabolic diseases. Overnutrition or obesity activates the innate immune system with subsequent recruitment of immune cells such as macrophages and T cells, which contributes to the development of insulin resistance. In particular, a significant advance in our understanding of obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance has been recognition of the critical role of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). ATMs are a prominent source of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-a and IL-6, that can block insulin action in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver autocrine/paracrine signaling and cause systemic insulin resistance via endocrine signaling, providing a potential link between inflammation and insulin resistance. All articles in this topic highlight the interconnection between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance in all its diversity to the mechanisms of obesity-induced inflammation and role of immune system in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and diabetes.

Molecular Regulation and Therapeutic Potential of Thermogenic Fat Cells

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198696 Year: Pages: 127 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-869-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Obesity has emerged as a major threat to public health in both the western and developing world. Essentially a disorder of energy balance, obesity occurs when energy intake and storage exceeds expenditure. Much of energy homeostasis depends on the activity and function of adipose tissue. Adipocytes in mammals fall into two categories classified by their primary functions: white fat cells that mediate energy storage and thermogenic fat cells that counteract hypothermia and obesity through adaptive thermogenesis. Whereas white fat and its function as an energy reservoir and endocrine organ have been studied for decades and are relatively well understood, until recently many aspects of the thermogenic fat biology have remained elusive. Accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that thermogenic fat cells arise from at least two different developmental origins: the ones of a skeletal muscle-like lineage are now called “classical” brown fat cells, and the rest of the thermogenic fat cells are normally referred to as the beige fat cells. The last decade has witnessed an explosion of interest and studies focusing on the regulation of thermogenic fat cells and potential therapeutics targeting these adipocytes. Here we summarize the recent advancements in our understanding of these metabolically active fat cells.

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