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Investigations of Angular Light Scattering by Complex Atmospheric Particles

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ISBN: 9783731505549 Year: Pages: XVI, 230 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000056601 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Astronomy (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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This book experimentally investigates the angular light scattering properties of three atmospherically relevant particles: ice crystals, dust particles and secondary organic aerosol particles. Key optical quantities under examination are the near-backscattering depolarisation properties and the angular light scattering function. The main question is how these parameters are related to the particle microphysical properties, such as particle size and complexity.

Modalpartikeln als multimodale Konstruktionen. Eine korpusbasierte Kookkurrenzanalyse von Modalpartikeln und Gestik im Deutschen

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Book Series: Empirische Linguistik / Empirical Linguistics ISSN: 21988676 ISBN: 9783110566260 Year: Volume: 8 Pages: 331 DOI: 10.1515/9783110566260 Language: German
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-06 16:06:17
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This study presents the gestures typically combined with seven German modal particles (denn, doch, eben, eigentlich, einfach, halt, and ja) and analyzes the degree to which the co-occurrences discovered should be seen as multimodal constructions as defined by construction grammar. The study also explores the grammaticalization of such gestures (especially head-shakes and pointing gestures).

Collider Physics within the Standard Model: A Primer

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Book Series: Lecture Notes in Physics ISSN: 0075-8450 ISBN: 9783319519197 9783319519203 Year: Pages: 173 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-51920-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-26 17:06:33
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With this graduate-level primer, the principles of the standard model of particle physics receive a particular skillful, personal and enduring exposition by one of the great contributors to the field.In 2013 the late Prof. Altarelli wrote: The discovery of the Higgs boson and the non-observation of new particles or exotic phenomena have made a big step towards completing the experimental confirmation of the standard model of fundamental particle interactions. It is thus a good moment for me to collect, update and improve my graduate lecture notes on quantum chromodynamics and the theory of electroweak interactions, with main focus on collider physics. I hope that these lectures can provide an introduction to the subject for the interested reader, assumed to be already familiar with quantum field theory and some basic facts in elementary particle physics as taught in undergraduate courses.

Principles of Mechanics

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Book Series: Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation ISBN: 9783030151959 Year: Pages: 173 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-15195-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:03
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This open access textbook takes the reader step-by-step through the concepts of mechanics in a clear and detailed manner. Mechanics is considered to be the core of physics, where a deep understanding of the concepts is essential in understanding all branches of physics. Many proofs and examples are included to help the reader grasp the fundamentals fully, paving the way to deal with more advanced topics. After solving all of the examples, the reader will have gained a solid foundation in mechanics and the skills to apply the concepts in a variety of situations. The book is useful for undergraduate students majoring in physics and other science and engineering disciplines. It can also be used as a reference for more advanced levels.

Graphene-Polymer Composites

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ISBN: 9783038970415 9783038970422 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-042-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-13 11:10:39
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Presenting very high surface-to-volume ratio, relatively simple processability and low cost, graphene and graphene-related materials were soon identified as promising nanofillers for polymer matrixes. Reports have shown notorious property enhancements for graphene-polymer composites (GPC) at very low filler loadings. Uses of GPC in varied fields, such as energy, electronics, catalysis, separation and purification, biomedicine, aerospace, tribology, etc., have been demonstrated and, in some cases, put into industrial practice. However, challenges still exist. Platelet agglomeration within the polymer matrix is often seen to hinder performance improvements. Poor interfacial adhesion between filler and matrix is also a limiting factor in many systems, demanding for tuning the surface chemistry to promote physical or chemical interactions with the polymer chains. The range of routes for fabrication of graphene-related materials, leading to different morphologies, oxidation states, and degrees of platelet exfoliation, have an impact on the final properties of the composites that has not yet been fully addressed. Some argue that the potential of graphene, and its advantages in relation to other nanofillers, has not yet been clearly demonstrated for polymer composites. This Special Issue provides a state of the art view on the different facets of graphene-polymer composite materials, showing that this area of research is thriving and relevant advancements are still to be expected.

Colloid Chemistry

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ISBN: 9783038974598 / 9783038974604 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-460-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 11:06:27
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The Special Issue Colloid Chemistry presents a comprehensive overview of what opportunities the colloidal scale, i.e., the nanoscale, offers to scientists from chemistry, physics, materials sciences, and biomedicine. Sophistically designed colloids are used for studying physical and physicochemical phenomena to gain a deeper understanding of interparticle interactions, not forgetting that such insights can be used to create tailored materials for a variety of applications. This Issue covers aspects from the synthesis to the analysis of colloidal properties and presents opportunities for their further application.

Chemical, Physical and Mineralogical Properties of Atmospheric Particulate Matter in the Megacity Beijing

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Book Series: Karlsruher mineralogische und geochemische Hefte : Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Mineralogie und Geochemie ISSN: 16182677 ISBN: 9783866448278 Year: Volume: 38 Pages: XIII, 263 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000026820 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Astronomy (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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The scope of this work is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the aerosol pollution in the megacity Beijing. The focus lies on the interaction of anthropogenic and geogenic aerosol particles, their spatio-temporal variation, the most important pollution sources as well as the impact of particulate aerosols on human health and the environment. Furthermore, the bioavailable fraction of metal concentrations and the effect of mitigation measures during the 2008 Olympic Games were evaluated.

Tensor Network Contractions

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Lecture Notes in Physics ISBN: 9783030344894 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-34489-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Computer Science --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:17
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Tensor network is a fundamental mathematical tool with a huge range of applications in physics, such as condensed matter physics, statistic physics, high energy physics, and quantum information sciences. This open access book aims to explain the tensor network contraction approaches in a systematic way, from the basic definitions to the important applications. This book is also useful to those who apply tensor networks in areas beyond physics, such as machine learning and the big-data analysis. Tensor network originates from the numerical renormalization group approach proposed by K. G. Wilson in 1975. Through a rapid development in the last two decades, tensor network has become a powerful numerical tool that can efficiently simulate a wide range of scientific problems, with particular success in quantum many-body physics. Varieties of tensor network algorithms have been proposed for different problems. However, the connections among different algorithms are not well discussed or reviewed. To fill this gap, this book explains the fundamental concepts and basic ideas that connect and/or unify different strategies of the tensor network contraction algorithms. In addition, some of the recent progresses in dealing with tensor decomposition techniques and quantum simulations are also represented in this book to help the readers to better understand tensor network. This open access book is intended for graduated students, but can also be used as a professional book for researchers in the related fields. To understand most of the contents in the book, only basic knowledge of quantum mechanics and linear algebra is required. In order to fully understand some advanced parts, the reader will need to be familiar with notion of condensed matter physics and quantum information, that however are not necessary to understand the main parts of the book. This book is a good source for non-specialists on quantum physics to understand tensor network algorithms and the related mathematics.

Charged Particles in Oncology

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453917 Year: Pages: 650 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-391-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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High-energy charged particles represent a cutting-edge technique in radiation oncology. Protons and carbon ions are used in several centers all over the world for the treatment of different solid tumors. Typical indications are ocular malignancies, tumors of the base of the skull, hepatocellular carcinomas and various sarcomas. The physical characteristics of the charged particles (Bragg peak) allow sparing of much more normal tissues than it is possible using conventional X-rays, and for this reason all pediatric tumors are considered eligible for protontherapy. Ions heavier than protons also display special radiobiological characteristics, which make them effective against radioresistant and hypoxic tumors. On the other hand, protons and ions with high charge (Z) and energy (HZE particles) represent a major risk for human space exploration. The main late effect of radiation exposure is cancer induction, and at the moment the dose limits for astronauts are based on cancer mortality risk. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) measured the dose on the route to Mars and on the planet’s surface, suggesting that a human exploration missions will exceed the radiation risk limits. Notwithstanding many studies on carcinogenesis induced by protons and heavy ions, the risk uncertainty remains very high. In this research topic we aim at gathering the experiences and opinions of scientists dealing with high-energy charged particles either for cancer treatment or for space radiation protection. Clinical results with protons and heavy ions, as well as research in medical physics and pre-clinical radiobiology are reported. In addition, ground-based and spaceflight studies on the effects of space radiation are included in this book. Particularly relevant for space studies are the clinical results on normal tissue complications and second cancers. The eBook nicely demonstrates that particle therapy in oncology and protection of astronauts from space radiation share many common topics, and can learn from each other.

The Effects of Internal Stress and Lithium Transport on Fracture in Storage Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783731504559 Year: Volume: 54 Pages: IX, 216 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000050956 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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Fracture of storage particles is considered to be one of the major reasons for capacity fade and increasing power loss in Li-ion batteries. In this work, we tackle the problem by merging a coupled model of mechanical stress and diffusion of Li-ions with a phase field description of an evolving crack. The novel approach allows us to study the evolution of the Li concentration together with the initiation and growth of a crack in an arbitrary geometry and without presuming a specific crack path.

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