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Identification and Characterization of Antimicrobial Peptides with Therapeutic Potential

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ISBN: 9783038424628 9783038424635 Year: Pages: X, 280 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-27 08:54:14
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Antimicrobial peptides are key defense molecules adopted by all life forms to prevent infection. They also have other beneficial effects such as boosting immune response, anticancer, and wound healing. The antiviral effects of antimicrobial peptides have laid the foundations for developing new agents to combat seasonal Flu, HIV-1, RSV, Zika, and Ebola. This eBook is constructed to systematically deal with antimicrobial peptides from a variety of natural sources, including fungi, plants, and animals (insects, fish, amphibians, birds, and reptiles). It covers peptide discovery, antimicrobial activity, 3D structure, mechanisms of action and potential applications. Naturally Occurring Antimicrobial Peptides, an eBook published by the journal Pharmaceuticals, provides a helpful introduction to newcomers and refreshes the minds of veterans.

Trends in Regulatory Peptides

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455379 Year: Pages: 282 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-537-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Regulatory peptides represent the most diverse and versatile family of messenger molecules. They are produced by all living organisms from bacteria to mammals. They are involved in a wide variety of biological functions. Biologically active peptides and their receptors thus constitute an unlimited source of inspiration for the development of innovative drugs and cosmetics.The present eBook is a unique collection of research articles and reviews that provide a representative examplification of the latest progress in regulatory peptide research.

Antimicrobial compounds from natural sources

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192595 Year: Pages: 149 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-259-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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The nature is a generous source of a number of compounds with potential application for the treatment of several diseases including the infectious diseases, which is of utmost concern for the modern medicine due to the observed striding antimicrobial resistance. A number of sources of natural compounds with valuable and clinical antimicrobial activity can be listed, comprising medicinal plants, marine and terrestrial organisms, which includes fungi and bacteria. Nevertheless, there is still a vast fauna and flora that, once systematically explored, could provide additional antimicrobial leads and drugs. Investigators were invited to contribute with original research and/or review articles on this area, specifically with studies exploiting the mechanism of action and the structure-activity aspects of natural compounds with antimicrobial activity that provides insights on potential ways to overcome the antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, thanks to the contribution of active researchers in the field, several scientific studies mainly focused on natural products with antimicrobial activity are presented in this Research Topic Ebook.

Marine Proteins and Peptides

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ISBN: 9783038426462 9783038426479 Year: Pages: 476 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-08 13:06:14
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Marine proteins and peptides have great potential application in developing pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, and cosmeceuticals. Proteins and peptides from marine sources are considered to be safe and inexpensive. Protein- and peptide-based drugs have been increasing in recent days to cure various diseases by serving multiple roles, such as antioxidants, anticancer drugs, antimicrobials, and anticoagulants. There are different marine sources (macroalgae, fish, shellfish, and bivalves), which possibly contain specific protein and peptides.

2015: Which new directions for Alzheimer's disease?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195350 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-535-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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According to the World Health Organization, more than 40 million people in the world are affected with dementia. To date, 60-70% of the cases of dementia are attributed to the Alzheimer's disease (AD). This neurodegenerative disorder gradually takes place over a period of at least 20 years before the onset of symptoms, which are impaired memory, apathy and depression. The characteristics of AD consist in neurofibrillary tangles (intraneuronal aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins) and senile plaques (dense extraneuronal deposits composed of amyloid ß (Aß)). The other features linked to these two core pathological hallmarks of AD are inflammation, oxidative stress, progressive synaptic and neuronal loss. In past years, some of the emerging therapeutic strategies against AD were employed to deal with the pathological hallmarks of the disease. Science teams all over the world try to restore the tau phosphorylation equilibrium. Their purpose is to interfere with the aggregation of tau and decrease its amount of proteins per se as well. Furthermore, they are trying either to stimulate the elimination processes of the aggregated tau proteins or to stop the formation of Aß peptides. This could be reached by the stimulation of the classic techniques of protein degradation such as the autophagic pathway, or by the targeted immunotherapy. In this Research Topic, we wish to summarize and review the etiology of AD and the related therapeutic opportunities for the next decades. To fully understand the precise mechanisms underlying AD, research findings, reviews, new insights and new approaches include AD and related tauopathies, tau phosphorylation balance, pharmacological compounds against AD, neuroprotection strategies and new therapeutic ways but also risk factors for AD and AD genetic information are included in this issue.

A comparative survey of the RF-amide peptide superfamily

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197309 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-729-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General) --- Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The discovery, twelve years ago, that the RF-amide peptide kisspeptin, acting via GPR54, is essential for the onset of puberty and reproduction, has been a major breakthrough in reproductive physiology. It has also put in front of the spotlights RF-amide peptides and allowed to revive research on this superfamily. The first member of this family to be characterized, in 1977, was the cardioexcitatory peptide, FMRFamide, isolated from the ganglia of the clam Macrocallista nimbosa. Since then, a large number of these peptides, designated after their C-terminal arginine (R) and amidated phenylalaline (F) residues, have been identified in representative species of all major phyla. By means of phylogenetic analyses, the superfamily of RFamide peptides has been divided into five families in vertebrates: kisspeptin, QFRP (including 26RFa), LPXRFa (including GnIH and RFRP), PQRFa (including NPFF) and PrRP. Recent data reveal that SIFamide-type neuropeptides in protostomian invertebrates and SALMFamide-type neuropeptides in deuterostomian invertebrates share a common evolutionary origin with vertebrate LPXRFa and PQRFa. Interestingly, in invertebrates as in vertebrates, multiple genes, as well as multiple mature peptides, are often present in a single species, questioning the need for such diversity in term of function. Comparative studies on non-mammalian vertebrates and invertebrates allow major advances in the knowledge of the evolutionary history of the RF-amide peptide superfamily. Such phylogenetical studies also contribute to improve classification and nomenclature of both peptides and receptors. RF-amide peptides from different families have major evolutionary conserved roles in the control of reproduction, but also of food intake, metabolism, energy expenditure, cardiovascular function, nociception and stress. They are also involved in the integration of environmental signals, notably the photoperiod, to regulate reproduction. For instance, in most vertebrate species and especially in seasonal mammals, kisspeptin and GnIH/RFRP have complementary but opposite effects in the control of reproductive function. In addition, recent data show cross-activities between the members of the RF-amide peptide superfamily and their receptors. For example, PrRP, kisspeptin and 26RFa are able to modulate nociception via NPFF receptors. Comparative studies have the potential to reveal novel regulatory mechanisms that could give a better comprehension of physiological functions and lead to new therapeutic treatments for related human pathologies. Thus, kisspeptin antagonists have been developed as novel tools for treatment of hormone-dependent disorders of reproduction such as precocious puberty and endometriosis or kisspeptin agonists for treatment of infertility, in humans. Studies on lower vertebrate models can also contribute to the discovery of new roles of these peptides, as seen recently with kisspeptin being involved in the early development of the medaka. This research topic will aim at gathering major advances achieved through comparative studies in (mammalian and non-mammalian) vertebrates and invertebrates, in the knowledge of RF-amide peptides in term of evolutionary history and physiological roles.

Keywords

RF-amide peptides --- GPCRs --- Kisspeptin --- GnIH --- PrRP --- NPFF --- QRFP --- evolution

Antimicrobial peptides and Complement - Maximising the inflammatory response

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197378 Year: Pages: 157 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-737-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Antimicrobial peptides and complement are distinct components of the innate immune defence. While antimicrobial peptides, after cleavage of a preproprotein, have the ability to insert directly in non host membranes, complement requires a sequential enzymatic activation in the fluid phase in order to produce a transmembrane membrane attack complex. Its insertion is controlled by membrane bound regulators. Deficiencies are described for both effectors and relate to increased susceptibility of infection. In addition, however, antimicrobial peptides and complement each influence the activity of inflammatory cells as recent data in the respective research areas shows. This series of articles draws together for the entities of antimicrobial peptides and complement a balance of contributions in the areas of evolution, roles, functions and preclinical applications. By comparing and contrasting antimicrobial peptides and complement, greater cross-disciplinary appreciation will be derived for their individual and overlapping spectra of activity, circumstances of activation and their general ability to more completely inform the inflammatory and cellular response.

Toxins in Drug Discovery and Pharmacology

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ISBN: 9783038428619 9783038428626 Year: Pages: XII, 304 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-04 11:37:49
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Venoms from marine and terrestrial animals (cone snails, scorpions, spiders, snakes, centipedes, cnidarian, etc.) can be seen as untapped cocktails of biologically active compounds that are being increasingly recognized as a new emerging source of peptide-based therapeutics. Venomous animals are considered to be specialized predators that have evolved the most sophisticated peptide chemistry and neuropharmacology for their own biological purposes by producing venoms that contain a structural and functional diversity of neurotoxins. These neurotoxins appear to be highly selective ligands for a wide range of ion channels and receptors. Therefore, they represent interesting lead compounds for the development of analgesics, anti-cancer drugs, drugs for neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson' s disease, Alzheimer' s disease, and other therapeutics.This Special Issue of Toxins aims to provide a comprehensive look at toxins and toxin-inspired leads and will focus on the mechanisms of action, structure–function relationships, and evolution of pharmacologically interesting venom components, including the most recent developments related to the emergence of venoms as an underutilized source of highly evolved bioactive peptides with clinical potential.

Special Protein Molecules Computational Identification

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ISBN: 9783038970439 9783038970446 Year: Pages: VIII, 296 Language: english
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-09 12:10:11
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It is time consuming and costly to detect new molecules of some special proteins. These special proteins include cytokines, enzymes, cell-penetrating peptides, anticancer peptides, cancer lectins, G-protein-coupled receptors, etc. Researchers often employ computer programs to list some candidates, and to validate the candidates with molecular experiments. These computer programs are key to possible savings on wet experiment costs. Software results with high false positive will lead to high costs in the validation process.In this Special Issue, we focus on these computer program approaches and algorithms. Some "golden features" from protein primary sequences have been proposed for these problems, such as Chou’s PseAAC (pseudo amino acid composition). PseAAC has been tried on nearly all kinds of protein identification, together with SVM (support vector machines, a type of classifier). However, I prefer special features, and classification methods should be proposed for special protein molecules. "Golden features" cannot work well on all kinds of proteins. I hope that submissions will focus on a type of special protein molecule, collect related data sets, obtain better prediction performance (especially low false positives), and develop user-friendly software tools or web servers.

Mass Spectrometry Application in Biology

ISBN: 9783906980898 9783906980904 Year: Pages: 252 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 06:39:08
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Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a vital tool for scientist in exploring how biological systems function and how therapeutic drug intervention (both small molecules and biologics) impact these systems. The application of mass spectrometry has advanced our knowledge in the biological sciences through the study of proteins and peptides in proteomics and as biomarkers, imaging via MALDI MS, and analysis of SNP’s in the genome to allow personalized medical treatment.The aim of this book is to provide a glimpse of some of the many applications of the advancing field of mass spectrometry and its application to complex biological problems. The topics presented here touch on many of the areas listed above will hopefully serve as a catalyst to generate new ideas for the continued innovative application of mass spectrometry to the fields of medicine, biology and beyond.

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