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L’œil littéraire : La vision comme opérateur scriptural

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ISBN: 9782753557673 DOI: 10.4000/books.pur.52083 Language: French
Publisher: Presses universitaires de Rennes
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:47
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Le regard, qu'il soit insensible ou insistant, discret ou fuyant, semble être inhérent à l'écriture littéraire, quels que soient l'époque, l'aire géographique, le genre ou le type d'écrivain considérés. Toutes les strates textuelles recèlent quelque dispositif optique, du coup d'œil de tel personnage à la visualisation par l'auteur de fragments de son texte en passant par les figures de style imagé ou la focalisation du narrateur. Écriture littéraire et perception visuelle apparaissent comme naturellement coextensives. À telle enseigne que cette relation passe souvent pour une évidence qui ne demande plus vraiment à être examinée. En dix chapitres consacrés à autant de corpus relevant des principaux genres et couvrant les XVIIe-XXIe siècles, ce livre fait le point sur la question, tout en ouvrant de nouvelles pistes de recherche. Ainsi, l'écriture littéraire entendue comme « écriture-vision » permet de réévaluer le rôle de la lecture en termes de « lecture-vision » plus ou moins compatible. Véritable matrice de vision spécifiquement littéraire, cet « œil littéraire » est également un révélateur singulier des options poétiques ou éthiques qui travaillent le texte. Il permet d'avoir une perspective enrichissante sur l'œuvre d'auteurs aussi différents que La Bruyère, Diderot, Woolf ou Bonnefoy, mais aussi sur les logiques et l'évolution du champ littéraire dans son ensemble, espace de points de vue sur la littérature.

Keywords

regard --- perception visuelle --- image

Face Perception across the Life-Span

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451142 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-114-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Face perception is a highly evolved visual skills in humans. This complex ability develops across the life-span, steeply rising in infancy, refining across childhood and adolescence, reaching highest levels in adulthood and declining in old age. As such, the development of face perception comprises multiple skills, including sensory (e.g., mechanisms of holistic, configural and featural perception), cognitive (e.g., memory, processing speed, attentional control), and also emotional and social (e.g., reading and interpreting facial expression) domains. Whereas our understanding of specific functional domains involved in face perception is growing, there is further pressing demand for a multidisciplinary approach toward a more integrated view, describing how face perception ability relates to and develops with other domains of sensory and cognitive functioning. In this research topic we bring together a collection of papers that provide a shot of the current state of the art of theorizing and investigating face perception from the perspective of multiple ability domains. We would like to thank all authors for their valuable contributions that advanced our understanding of face and emotion perception across development.

Philosophie du langage et de la connaissance

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ISSN: 9782722600300 ISBN: 9782722600300 9782722602175 Year: Language: French
Publisher: Collège de France
Added to DOAB on : 2014-02-27 14:16:29
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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Le langage nous importe en philosophie parce que la réalité nous importe. Si, comme il est dit dans les Recherches philosophiques, on doit se garder en philosophie contre la tentation constante de prédiquer de la chose ce qui réside dans le mode de représentation, c’est bien parce que ce qui nous intéresse est la réalité elle-même, et non ce que le langage nous oblige apparemment à supposer ou à croire à son sujet. J’entends ici par « réalisme » la conviction qu’entre la pensée ou le langage,...

Brain and Art

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193608 Year: Pages: 440 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-360-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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Could we understand, in biological terms, the unique and fantastic capabilities of the human brain to both create and enjoy art? In the past decade neuroscience has made a huge leap in developing experimental techniques as well as theoretical frameworks for studying emergent properties following the activity of large neuronal networks. These methods, including MEG, fMRI, sophisticated data analysis approaches and behavioral methods, are increasingly being used in many labs worldwide, with the goal to explore brain mechanisms corresponding to the artistic experience. The 37 articles composing this unique Frontiers Research Topic bring together experimental and theoretical research, linking state-of-the-art knowledge about the brain with the phenomena of Art. It covers a broad scope of topics, contributed by world-renowned experts in vision, audition, somato-sensation, movement, and cinema. Importantly, as we felt that a dialog among artists and scientists is essential and fruitful, we invited a few artists to contribute their insights, as well as their art. Joan Miró said that “art is the search for the alphabet of the mind.” This volume reflects the state of the art search to understand neurobiological alphabet of the Arts. We hope that the wide range of articles in this volume will be highly attractive to brain researchers, artists and the community at large.

Les sociétés de frontière

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ISBN: 9788496820500 9788490961353 Year: Language: French
Publisher: Casa de Velázquez
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-29 12:09:57
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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Au moment où se crée un espace européen sans frontières intérieures, au sein d'un monde globalisé, il est temps de renouveler l'histoire des conflits en les considérant comme des espaces vécus et non plus seulement comme des lieux de construction des États. Cet ouvrage aborde la question des sociétés de frontière à l'âge moderne dans la complexité des mécanismes sociaux et politiques liés à la force des connexions transfrontalières. Portant une attention particulière aux tensions qui s'exerce...

Seeing Things: literature and the visual

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ISBN: 9782869062009 9782869065031 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Presses universitaires François-Rabelais
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-04 12:27:07
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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The Papers collected here are representative of the four seminars of the symposium, and, in their various ways, explore many of the concerns of the conference in dealing with literature and various aspects of the visual: painting, cinema, television, theatre, travel writing and photography.

Mechanical Signaling in Plants: From Perception to Consequences for Growth and Morphogenesis (Thigmomorphogenesis) and Ecological Significance

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450749 Year: Pages: 93 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-074-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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During the 1970s, renewed interest in plant mechanical signaling led to the discovery that plants subjected to mechanical stimulation develop shorter and thicker axes than undisturbed plants, a syndrome called thigmomorphogenesis. Currently, mechanosensing is being intensively studied because of its involvement in many physiological processes in plants and particularly in the control of plant morphogenesis. From an ecological point of view, the shaping of plant architecture has to be precisely organized in space to ensure light capture as well as mechanical stability. In natural environments terrestrial plants are subjected to mechanical stimulation mainly due to wind, but also due to precipitation, while aquatic and marine plants are subjected to current and wave energy. Plants acclimate to mechanically challenging environments by sensing mechanical stimulations and modifying their growth in length and diameter and their tissue properties to reduce potential for buckling or breakage. From a morphogenetic point of view, both external and internal mechanical cues play an important role in the control of cell division and meristem development likely by modulating microtubule orientation. How mechanical stimulations are being sensed by plants is an area of intense research. Different types of mechanosensors have been discovered or proposed, including ion channels gated by membrane tension (stretch activation) and plasma membrane receptor-like kinases that monitor the cell wall deformations. Electrophysiologists have measured the conductances of some stretch-activated channels and have showed that SAC of different structures can exhibit different conductances. The role of these differences in conductance has not yet been established. Once a mechanical stimulus has been perceived, it must be converted into a biological signal that can lead to variations of plant phenotype. Calcium has been shown to function as an early second messenger, tightly linked with changes in cytosolic and apoplastic pH. Transcriptional analyses of the effect of mechanical stimulation have revealed a considerable number of differentially expressed genes, some of which appear to be specific to mechanical signal transduction. These genes can thus serve as markers of mechanosensing, for example, in studies attempting to define signalling threshold, or variations of mechanosensitivity (accommodation). Quantitative biomechanical studies have lead to a model of mechanoperception which links mechanical state and plant responses, and provides an integrative tool to study the regulation of mechanosensing. This model includes parameters (sensitivity and threshold) that can be estimated experimentally. It has also been shown that plants are desensitized when exposed to multiple mechanical signals as a function of their mechanical history. Finally, mechanosensing is also involved in osmoregulation or cell expansion. The links between these different processes involving mechanical signalling need further investigation. This frontier research topic provides an overview of the different aspects of mechanical signaling in plants, spanning perception, effects on plant growth and morphogenesis, and broad ecological significance.During the 1970s, renewed interest in plant mechanical signaling led to the discovery that plants subjected to mechanical stimulation develop shorter and thicker axes than undisturbed plants, a syndrome called thigmomorphogenesis. Currently, mechanosensing is being intensively studied because of its involvement in many physiological processes in plants and particularly in the control of plant morphogenesis. From an ecological point of view, the shaping of plant architecture has to be precisely organized in space to ensure light capture as well as mechanical stability. In natural environments terrestrial plants are subjected to mechanical stimulation mainly due to wind, but also due to precipitation, while aquatic and marine plants are subjected to current and wave energy. Plants acclimate to mechanically challenging environments by sensing mechanical stimulations and modifying their growth in length and diameter and their tissue properties to reduce potential for buckling or breakage. From a morphogenetic point of view, both external and internal mechanical cues play an important role in the control of cell division and meristem development likely by modulating microtubule orientation. How mechanical stimulations are being sensed by plants is an area of intense research. Different types of mechanosensors have been discovered or proposed, including ion channels gated by membrane tension (stretch activation) and plasma membrane receptor-like kinases that monitor the cell wall deformations. Electrophysiologists have measured the conductances of some stretch-activated channels and have showed that SAC of different structures can exhibit different conductances. The role of these differences in conductance has not yet been established. Once a mechanical stimulus has been perceived, it must be converted into a biological signal that can lead to variations of plant phenotype. Calcium has been shown to function as an early second messenger, tightly linked with changes in cytosolic and apoplastic pH. Transcriptional analyses of the effect of mechanical stimulation have revealed a considerable number of differentially expressed genes, some of which appear to be specific to mechanical signal transduction. These genes can thus serve as markers of mechanosensing, for example, in studies attempting to define signalling threshold, or variations of mechanosensitivity (accommodation). Quantitative biomechanical studies have lead to a model of mechanoperception which links mechanical state and plant responses, and provides an integrative tool to study the regulation of mechanosensing. This model includes parameters (sensitivity and threshold) that can be estimated experimentally. It has also been shown that plants are desensitized when exposed to multiple mechanical signals as a function of their mechanical history. Finally, mechanosensing is also involved in osmoregulation or cell expansion. The links between these different processes involving mechanical signalling need further investigation. This frontier research topic provides an overview of the different aspects of mechanical signaling in plants, spanning perception, effects on plant growth and morphogenesis, and broad ecological significance.

Vestibular Contributions to Health and Disease

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455201 Year: Pages: 243 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-520-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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This eBook reviews recent developments in vestibular physiology and pathophysiology and covers a range of topics, including diagnostic tests, treatment approaches, central and peripheral vestibular mechanisms, and vestibulo-automonic interactions.

Agir dans l'espace

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ISBN: 9782735118625 DOI: 10.4000/books.editionsmsh.7128 Language: French
Publisher: Éditions de la Maison des sciences de l’homme
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:30
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Le traitement cognitif de l'espace par un être vivant se décompose en différentes phases : il perçoit l'espace – ce qui implique certains mécanismes de catégorisation et d'abstraction –, se le représente, conserve en mémoire cette représentation qu'il peut rappeler et utiliser pour conduire des actions adaptées et interagir de façon optimale avec l'environnement. Ce traitement ainsi défini a déjà fait l'objet d'un grand nombre de travaux dans le domaine des sciences de la vie et de la psychologie expérimentale, de l'intelligence artificielle ou encore de la robotique. Pourtant les réalisations des sciences dites « dures » ne laissent pas de poser des questions sur lesquelles les sciences humaines et sociales sont susceptibles d'apporter un éclairage pertinent. D'une part, leur apport est de nature à renouveler la problématique cognitive de l'espace, notamment en mettant en lumière l'incidence des facteurs culturels et sociétaux sur les représentations spatiales ainsi que la complexité des interactions entre la nature de ces représentations et l'utilisation effective de l'espace depuis la conception et la gestion des cartes géographiques, jusqu'à celle de l'habitat urbain. D'autre part, ces mêmes sciences s'avèrent incontournables si l'on veut tenter de répondre aux multiples questions soulevées par la notion d'action en vue de l'étude de ses différents déterminants : le mécanisme et les représentations mis en œuvre dans la prise de décision, la programmation motrice et sa régulation dans la conscience d'agir et l'interprétation de l'action, dans son caractère multidimensionnel et évolutif, dans la dynamique des interactions et de l'action collective, etc. Les contributions ici rassemblées illustrent toutes ces perspectives, démontrant que seule une interdisciplinarité bien conduite peut permettre de répondre aux défis posés par la problématique cognitive de l'agir dans l'espace.

Keywords

perception spatiale --- son --- mouvement --- langage --- travail --- jeux

Esthétique du motif : cinéma musique peinture

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ISBN: 9782842929510 DOI: 10.4000/books.puv.1413 Language: French
Publisher: Presses universitaires de Vincennes
Subject: Arts in general
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:52
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Souvent associé à la musique et à la peinture, le motif est ici envisagé comme une forme qui affecte d’autres champs esthétiques. À partir d’exemples tirés en particulier des films Le Vent (Sjöström, 1927), La Nuit du carrefour (Renoir, 1932) et Gertrud (Dreyer, 1964), Emmanuelle André montre la pertinence d’une notion pour une réflexion plus générale sur l’écoute et le visuel. Compris comme une entité plastique et dynamique, le motif se déploie et nous informe sur les circulations secrètes entre les arts.

Keywords

perception --- esthétique --- cinéma --- peinture --- musique --- rythme --- motif

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