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Face Perception across the Life-Span

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451142 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-114-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Face perception is a highly evolved visual skills in humans. This complex ability develops across the life-span, steeply rising in infancy, refining across childhood and adolescence, reaching highest levels in adulthood and declining in old age. As such, the development of face perception comprises multiple skills, including sensory (e.g., mechanisms of holistic, configural and featural perception), cognitive (e.g., memory, processing speed, attentional control), and also emotional and social (e.g., reading and interpreting facial expression) domains. Whereas our understanding of specific functional domains involved in face perception is growing, there is further pressing demand for a multidisciplinary approach toward a more integrated view, describing how face perception ability relates to and develops with other domains of sensory and cognitive functioning. In this research topic we bring together a collection of papers that provide a shot of the current state of the art of theorizing and investigating face perception from the perspective of multiple ability domains. We would like to thank all authors for their valuable contributions that advanced our understanding of face and emotion perception across development.

Philosophie du langage et de la connaissance

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ISSN: 9782722600300 ISBN: 9782722600300 9782722602175 Year: Language: French
Publisher: Collège de France
Added to DOAB on : 2014-02-27 14:16:29
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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Le langage nous importe en philosophie parce que la réalité nous importe. Si, comme il est dit dans les Recherches philosophiques, on doit se garder en philosophie contre la tentation constante de prédiquer de la chose ce qui réside dans le mode de représentation, c’est bien parce que ce qui nous intéresse est la réalité elle-même, et non ce que le langage nous oblige apparemment à supposer ou à croire à son sujet. J’entends ici par « réalisme » la conviction qu’entre la pensée ou le langage,...

Brain and Art

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193608 Year: Pages: 440 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-360-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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Could we understand, in biological terms, the unique and fantastic capabilities of the human brain to both create and enjoy art? In the past decade neuroscience has made a huge leap in developing experimental techniques as well as theoretical frameworks for studying emergent properties following the activity of large neuronal networks. These methods, including MEG, fMRI, sophisticated data analysis approaches and behavioral methods, are increasingly being used in many labs worldwide, with the goal to explore brain mechanisms corresponding to the artistic experience. The 37 articles composing this unique Frontiers Research Topic bring together experimental and theoretical research, linking state-of-the-art knowledge about the brain with the phenomena of Art. It covers a broad scope of topics, contributed by world-renowned experts in vision, audition, somato-sensation, movement, and cinema. Importantly, as we felt that a dialog among artists and scientists is essential and fruitful, we invited a few artists to contribute their insights, as well as their art. Joan Miró said that “art is the search for the alphabet of the mind.” This volume reflects the state of the art search to understand neurobiological alphabet of the Arts. We hope that the wide range of articles in this volume will be highly attractive to brain researchers, artists and the community at large.

Les sociétés de frontière

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ISBN: 9788496820500 9788490961353 Year: Language: French
Publisher: Casa de Velázquez
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-29 12:09:57
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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Au moment où se crée un espace européen sans frontières intérieures, au sein d'un monde globalisé, il est temps de renouveler l'histoire des conflits en les considérant comme des espaces vécus et non plus seulement comme des lieux de construction des États. Cet ouvrage aborde la question des sociétés de frontière à l'âge moderne dans la complexité des mécanismes sociaux et politiques liés à la force des connexions transfrontalières. Portant une attention particulière aux tensions qui s'exerce...

Seeing Things: literature and the visual

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ISBN: 9782869062009 9782869065031 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Presses universitaires François-Rabelais
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-04 12:27:07
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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The Papers collected here are representative of the four seminars of the symposium, and, in their various ways, explore many of the concerns of the conference in dealing with literature and various aspects of the visual: painting, cinema, television, theatre, travel writing and photography.

Mechanical Signaling in Plants: From Perception to Consequences for Growth and Morphogenesis (Thigmomorphogenesis) and Ecological Significance

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450749 Year: Pages: 93 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-074-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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During the 1970s, renewed interest in plant mechanical signaling led to the discovery that plants subjected to mechanical stimulation develop shorter and thicker axes than undisturbed plants, a syndrome called thigmomorphogenesis. Currently, mechanosensing is being intensively studied because of its involvement in many physiological processes in plants and particularly in the control of plant morphogenesis. From an ecological point of view, the shaping of plant architecture has to be precisely organized in space to ensure light capture as well as mechanical stability. In natural environments terrestrial plants are subjected to mechanical stimulation mainly due to wind, but also due to precipitation, while aquatic and marine plants are subjected to current and wave energy. Plants acclimate to mechanically challenging environments by sensing mechanical stimulations and modifying their growth in length and diameter and their tissue properties to reduce potential for buckling or breakage. From a morphogenetic point of view, both external and internal mechanical cues play an important role in the control of cell division and meristem development likely by modulating microtubule orientation. How mechanical stimulations are being sensed by plants is an area of intense research. Different types of mechanosensors have been discovered or proposed, including ion channels gated by membrane tension (stretch activation) and plasma membrane receptor-like kinases that monitor the cell wall deformations. Electrophysiologists have measured the conductances of some stretch-activated channels and have showed that SAC of different structures can exhibit different conductances. The role of these differences in conductance has not yet been established. Once a mechanical stimulus has been perceived, it must be converted into a biological signal that can lead to variations of plant phenotype. Calcium has been shown to function as an early second messenger, tightly linked with changes in cytosolic and apoplastic pH. Transcriptional analyses of the effect of mechanical stimulation have revealed a considerable number of differentially expressed genes, some of which appear to be specific to mechanical signal transduction. These genes can thus serve as markers of mechanosensing, for example, in studies attempting to define signalling threshold, or variations of mechanosensitivity (accommodation). Quantitative biomechanical studies have lead to a model of mechanoperception which links mechanical state and plant responses, and provides an integrative tool to study the regulation of mechanosensing. This model includes parameters (sensitivity and threshold) that can be estimated experimentally. It has also been shown that plants are desensitized when exposed to multiple mechanical signals as a function of their mechanical history. Finally, mechanosensing is also involved in osmoregulation or cell expansion. The links between these different processes involving mechanical signalling need further investigation. This frontier research topic provides an overview of the different aspects of mechanical signaling in plants, spanning perception, effects on plant growth and morphogenesis, and broad ecological significance.During the 1970s, renewed interest in plant mechanical signaling led to the discovery that plants subjected to mechanical stimulation develop shorter and thicker axes than undisturbed plants, a syndrome called thigmomorphogenesis. Currently, mechanosensing is being intensively studied because of its involvement in many physiological processes in plants and particularly in the control of plant morphogenesis. From an ecological point of view, the shaping of plant architecture has to be precisely organized in space to ensure light capture as well as mechanical stability. In natural environments terrestrial plants are subjected to mechanical stimulation mainly due to wind, but also due to precipitation, while aquatic and marine plants are subjected to current and wave energy. Plants acclimate to mechanically challenging environments by sensing mechanical stimulations and modifying their growth in length and diameter and their tissue properties to reduce potential for buckling or breakage. From a morphogenetic point of view, both external and internal mechanical cues play an important role in the control of cell division and meristem development likely by modulating microtubule orientation. How mechanical stimulations are being sensed by plants is an area of intense research. Different types of mechanosensors have been discovered or proposed, including ion channels gated by membrane tension (stretch activation) and plasma membrane receptor-like kinases that monitor the cell wall deformations. Electrophysiologists have measured the conductances of some stretch-activated channels and have showed that SAC of different structures can exhibit different conductances. The role of these differences in conductance has not yet been established. Once a mechanical stimulus has been perceived, it must be converted into a biological signal that can lead to variations of plant phenotype. Calcium has been shown to function as an early second messenger, tightly linked with changes in cytosolic and apoplastic pH. Transcriptional analyses of the effect of mechanical stimulation have revealed a considerable number of differentially expressed genes, some of which appear to be specific to mechanical signal transduction. These genes can thus serve as markers of mechanosensing, for example, in studies attempting to define signalling threshold, or variations of mechanosensitivity (accommodation). Quantitative biomechanical studies have lead to a model of mechanoperception which links mechanical state and plant responses, and provides an integrative tool to study the regulation of mechanosensing. This model includes parameters (sensitivity and threshold) that can be estimated experimentally. It has also been shown that plants are desensitized when exposed to multiple mechanical signals as a function of their mechanical history. Finally, mechanosensing is also involved in osmoregulation or cell expansion. The links between these different processes involving mechanical signalling need further investigation. This frontier research topic provides an overview of the different aspects of mechanical signaling in plants, spanning perception, effects on plant growth and morphogenesis, and broad ecological significance.

Vestibular Contributions to Health and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455201 Year: Pages: 243 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-520-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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This eBook reviews recent developments in vestibular physiology and pathophysiology and covers a range of topics, including diagnostic tests, treatment approaches, central and peripheral vestibular mechanisms, and vestibulo-automonic interactions.

Body, space and pain

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192915 Year: Pages: 127 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-291-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:07
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There is growing interest in understanding how the perception of pain (and touch) is influenced by the way we represent our body and the space surrounding it. Recent views argue that pain can only be understood in a larger framework of body perception and action. This attention is driven by accumulating research in experimental and clinical domains, indicating that pain perception depends largely on cognitive factors and multisensory integration. The interest is also boosted by studies on chronic pain conditions suggesting a tight link between body perception and the maintenance of pain. Many aspects remain yet to be elucidated. We welcomed submissions from researchers in cognitive neuroscience and pain to increase our understanding of the interplay among body, space, pain, touch and movement. We aimed to gather insights from different theoretical frameworks and encouraged investigators using a broad range of methods including (but not limited to) behavioural and neuropsychological approaches, imaging techniques, electrophysiology, psychophysiology and TMS to present their results in this Research Topic. In the attempt to go from bench- to bedside we also strongly encouraged submissions from clinicians and physiotherapist whose contribution may help rising some future key questions. Qualitative and phenomenological approaches were also welcome.

Perception, Action, and Cognition

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199792 Year: Pages: 169 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-979-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Even as simple a task as quenching thirst with a glass of water involves a sequence of perceptions and actions woven together by expectations and experience. What are the myriad links between perception and action, and what does cognition have to do with them? Intuitively we think that perception precedes action, but we also know that action moulds perception. The reciprocal links between perception and action are now accepted almost universally. The discovery of mirror neurons that encode observed actions has further emphasized the coupling of perception and action. The real aim of this research topic is to go beyond identifying the evidence for perception-action coupling, and study the cognitive entities and processes that influence the perception-action link. For example, the internal representations of perceived and produced events are created and modified through experience. Yet the perception action link is considered relatively automatic. To what extent is the perception-action link affected by representations and their manipulations by cognitive processes? Does selective attention modify the perception action coupling? How, and to what extent, does the context provide sources of cognitive control? The developmental trajectory of the perception-action link and the influence of cognition at various stages of development could be another line of important evidence. The responses to these and other such questions contribute to our understanding of this research area with significant implications for perception-action coupling.

Neural Mechanisms of Perceptual Categorization as Precursors to Speech Perception

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451586 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-158-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Perceptual categorization is fundamental to the brain’s remarkable ability to process large amounts of sensory information and efficiently recognize objects including speech. Perceptual categorization is the neural bridge between lower-level sensory and higher-level language processing. A long line of research on the physical properties of the speech signal as determined by the anatomy and physiology of the speech production apparatus has led to descriptions of the acoustic information that is used in speech recognition (e.g., stop consonants place and manner of articulation, voice onset time, aspiration). Recent research has also considered what visual cues are relevant to visual speech recognition (i.e., the visual counter-parts used in lipreading or audiovisual speech perception). Much of the theoretical work on speech perception was done in the twentieth century without the benefit of neuroimaging technologies and models of neural representation. Recent progress in understanding the functional organization of sensory and association cortices based on advances in neuroimaging presents the possibility of achieving a comprehensive and far reaching account of perception in the service of language. At the level of cell assemblies, research in animals and humans suggests that neurons in the temporal cortex are important for encoding biological categories. On the cellular level, different classes of neurons (interneurons and pyramidal neurons) have been suggested to play differential roles in the neural computations underlying auditory and visual categorization. The moment is ripe for a research topic focused on neural mechanisms mediating the emergence of speech representations (including auditory, visual and even somatosensory based forms). Important progress can be achieved by juxtaposing within the same research topic the knowledge that currently exists, the identified lacunae, and the theories that can support future investigations. This research topic provides a snapshot and platform for discussion of current understanding of neural mechanisms underlying the formation of perceptual categories and their relationship to language from a multidisciplinary and multisensory perspective. It includes contributions (reviews, original research, methodological developments) pertaining to the neural substrates, dynamics, and mechanisms underlying perceptual categorization and their interaction with neural processes governing speech perception.

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