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Dopaminergic Foundations of Personality and Individual Differences

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194322 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-432-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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For several decades, theory and research has drawn links between dopaminergic neurotransmission and various aspects of personality and individual differences, as well as major personality processes. Recent increases in the availability and affordability of neuroscience methods have permitted thorough investigation of such links as part of the thriving field of personality neuroscience. However, the picture emerging from this body of research is somewhat puzzling; Rather than being linked to only a few converging dimensions of individual differences in psychological functioning, dopamine seems to be associated with a wide range of rather disparate traits and psychopathological conditions including (among various others) impulsivity, extraversion, anxiety, reward sensitivity, approach behaviour, achievement motivation, working memory performance, cognitive flexibility, depression, anhedonia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and schizophrenia. Empirical research in this area typically focuses on only one piece of this puzzle based on a specific strand of theory and a narrow section of relevant prior findings. The present research topic will, for the first time, attempt to provide a fairly complete picture of the whole puzzle including all its disparate parts. Contributors will therefore be explicitly encouraged to go beyond their own specific dopamine-personality hypotheses and place their work in a broader context, thereby helping to forge links between largely non-overlapping research traditions.

Publizistische Freiheit und Persönlichkeitsschutz - zu den Grenzen der Verwertbarkeit realer Biografien

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ISBN: 9783940344489 Year: DOI: 10.17875/gup2008-174 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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Publishing of diaries and biographies is a lucrative business, fictional texts are always looking close to real people and events that a market for the "sale" of life stories has become established. The development of law against this practice is fallen behind. The present study focuses on two questions circles. The first focus is on the systematization of the decision parameters and the derivation of concrete responses from the basics of intellectual property law.

Basiskomponenten der Persönlichkeit

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ISBN: 9783863950392 Year: Pages: 165 DOI: 10.17875/gup2011-465 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2012-04-11 21:20:13
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Thurstone's principle of simple structure is rejected and replaced by its converse, the principle of complex structure. Varimax, the popular simple structure rotation of factors, is replaced by varimin, a novel procedure taking account of the complexity of investigated variables (s. Ertel, 2011). An exploratory factor analysis of a similarity matrix of 16 kinship terms showed that expected semantic features (sex, generation, nuclear family, lineality) manifest themselves by varimin rotation,while distorted clusters of kinship terms are obtained by varimax rotation. Varimin rotation was also applied to five PCA-factors obtained from 30 facet variables of NEO-PI-R (Ostendorf & Angleitner, 2004). As expected, variminrotated factors do not replicate the Big-Five factors neuroticism, extraversion, etc., they rather reveal basic componential features (usually called „dimensions‟): activation level (high-low), activation slope (ascending-descending), source of regulation (endodynamic- exodynamic), phenomenal quality (endomodal-exomodal), and functionality (eufunctional vs. dysfunctional). The well-known Big-Five factors represent clusters of those features rather than simple dimensions. Sensation seeking, internalexternal control, i. e. further constructs of simple structure- oriented research, are likewise conceivable as patterns of functioning based on those five componential features. The validity of the five features obtained by varimin has largely been confirmed by rankings of the 30 NEO-PI-R facets using the features as judgmental criteria. Replacing Thurstonian simple structure by procedures aiming at complex structure might help to generate a systemic architecture in the personality and individual differences domains. More psychological functioning might be made transparent by modelling patterns of basic features.

Character, Responsibility, and Well-Being: Influences on Mental Health and Constructive Behavior Patterns

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198221 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-822-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Character can be defined as self-aware knowledge that helps the individual to set goals, values and ethical principles (Cloninger, 2004). This meta-cognitive dimension of human personality involves ‘Theory of Mind’, and is positively related to measures of well-being, mental health, and constructive behavior patterns. Research from at least three different fields, cultural (Shweder, Much, Mahapatra & Park, 1997), personality (Cloninger, 2004), and social psychology (Abele & Wojcizke, 2007) suggest that character can be organized along three broad principles: agency, which is related to the autonomy and the fulfillment and enhancement of the self; communion, which is related to engagement in the protection and relations to others such as families, companies or nations; and spirituality, which is related to the human ability to transcend the self and find and interconnection with all life and appreciation of the whole world around us (Haidt, 2006; Cloninger, 2013). Using the Temperament and Character Inventory (Cloninger, Svrakic & Przybeck, 1993) researchers have found that agentic (i.e., Self-directedness) and communal (i.e., Cooperativeness) values are associated to high levels of happiness, psychological well-being, and less violent behavior. Moreover, low Self-directedness and Cooperativeness is recurrent among individuals with all types of mental health problems, such as, depression, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and et cetera. Spirituality, in coherence with agency and communion, guides the individual to seek self-realization in harmony with others and nature in the changing world (Cloninger, 2013). Seeing character as self-awareness of the self in three dimensions has also been associated to human responsibility and empowerment. This Research Topic will focus on all article types that put forward findings regarding:•Character as a protective factor against mental illness•Character’s association to conduct disorders and violent behavior•Character as a promoter of happiness, life satisfaction, and well-being•The etiology of character•Longitudinal studies on character•Agency, communion, and spirituality as broad dimensions for the conceptualization of positive measures of mental health•Innovative methods to measure or conceptualize character•Non-linear effects of character on mental health•Character as a measure/conceptualization of responsibility•Character in school and work place settings•Character in relation to empowerment.

Dynamic Personality Science. Integrating Between-Person Stability and Within-Person Change

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453450 Year: Pages: 155 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-345-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Personality can be understood from at least two perspectives. One focuses on stable, between-person differences, or traits. The other perspective focuses on within-person differences and dynamics, i.e., fluctuations in personality in response to situations and across time. This Research Topic reflects recent developments in personality research to integrate both trait and dynamic perspectives. An integrated view on personality recognizes both stability in between-person differences and within-person change. Contributors are drawn from research teams across Europe, North America and Australasia, and from basic and applied fields, including organizational, educational, and clinical. The studies reported provide new evidence in support of an integrative approach, highlight currently active areas of research and propose new directions of research. Current streams of research include the study of contingent units of personality and within-person processes underlying traits, the comparisons of findings based on within- vs. between-person data, the conceptualisation and operationalization of perceived and objective change in situation variables, the malleability of personality and the potential for personality interventions. Integrative approaches using within-person designs provide new, bottom-up insights into general principles of personality that explain differences between people while reflecting the complexities of within-person personality dynamics at the level of the individual.

Historical Memory versus Communist Identity

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ISBN: 9789949326174 9789949326495 Year: Pages: 164 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_507876 Language: English
Publisher: University of Tartu Press
Subject: Political Science --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2014-11-13 11:01:08
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This collection consists of articles on the subjects addressed by the research conference “The Shaping of Identity and Personality under Communist Rule: History in the Service of Totalitarian Regimes in Eastern Europe”, held in Tallinn, Estonia, on 9–10 June 2011 and arranged by the Estonian Institute of Historical Memory Foundation and the Unitas Foundation. The organisers of the conference intended to describe, analyse and explain the state policies and activities used in Eastern Europe for shaping the Communist identity and personality by means of manipulating the historical consciousness, and the efficiency of those policies and activities, proceeding from the official historical approaches of the former Eastern bloc. Ideologically mutated history was the important component of the official, Communist identity. The artificial official history and the new historical identity it forced upon the population aspired to establish the sole possible truth by means of half-truths. Probably the most important thread that comes through every article in this collection is the conflict between the official, communist identity and the nation's historical memory, and its consequences.

Personality and Cognition in Economic Decision Making

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452361 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-236-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Psychologists studying cognitive processes and personality have increasingly benefited from the wealth of theory, methodology, and decision making paradigms used in economics and game theory. Similarly, for the economists, personality traits and basic cognitive processes offer a set of coherent explanatory constructs in economic behavior. Given the debate on preference invariance and behavioral consistency across contexts and domains, the papers in this topic shed light on the existence and effect of stable sets of idiosyncratic features on economic decision-making. While the effects of personality and cognition on economic decisions remain under-explored, the papers contributed in this topic offer more than a stimulus for further research. The general message could be that personality and cognitive processes offer the stable idiosyncratic ground on which individual decisions are made.

The Neural Underpinnings of Vicarious Experience

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192649 Year: Pages: 169 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-264-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Everyday we vicariously experience a range of states that we observe in other people: we may "feel" embarrassed when witnessing another making a social faux pas, or we may feel sadness when we see a loved one upset. In some cases this process appears to be implicit. For instance, observing pain in others may activate pain-related neural processes but without generating an overt feeling of pain. In other cases, people report a more literal, conscious sharing of affective or somatic states and this has sometimes been described as representing an extreme form of empathy. By contrast, there appear to be some people who are limited in their ability to vicariously experience the states of others. This may be the case in several psychiatric, neurodevelopmental, and personality disorders where deficits in interpersonal understanding are observed, such as schizophrenia, autism, and psychopathy. In recent decades, neuroscientists have paid significant attention to the understanding of the “social brain,” and the way in which neural processes govern our understanding of other people. In this Research Topic, we wish to contribute towards this understanding and ask for the submission of manuscripts focusing broadly on the neural underpinnings of vicarious experience. This may include theoretical discussion, case studies, and empirical investigation using behavioural techniques, electrophysiology, brain stimulation, and neuroimaging in both healthy and clinical populations. Of specific interest will be the neural correlates of individual differences in traits such as empathy, how we distinguish between ourselves and other people, and the sensorimotor resonant mechanisms that may allow us to put ourselves in another's shoes.

Emotional Intelligence and Cognitive Abilities

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199228 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-922-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Nowadays, not only psychologists are interested in the study of Emotional Intelligence (EI). Teachers, educator, managers, employers, and people, in general, pay attention to EI. For example, teachers would like to know how EI could affect student’s academic results, and managers are concerned about how EI influences their employees’ performance. The concept of EI has been widely used in recent years to the extent that people start to applying it in daily life. EI is broadly defined as the capacity to process and use emotional information. More specifically, according to Mayer and Salovey, EI is the ability to: “1) accurate perception, appraise, and expression of emotion; 2) access and/or generation of feelings when they facilitate thought; 3) understand emotions and emotional knowledge; and 4) regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth” (Mayer and Salovey 1997, p. 10). When new information arises into one specific area of knowledge, the work of the scientists is to investigate the relation between this new information and other established concepts. In this sense, EI could be considered as a new framework to explain human behaviour. As a young concept in Psychology, EI could be used to elucidate the performance in the activities of everyday life. Over the past two decades, studies of EI have tried to delimitate how EI is linked to other competences. A vast number of studies have reported a relation between EI and a large list of competences such as academic and work success, life satisfaction, attendee to emotions, assertiveness, emotional expression, emotional-based decision making, impulsive control, stress management, among others. Moreover, recent researches have shown that EI plays an important role in the prediction of behaviour besides personality and cognitive factors.However, it is not until quite recently, that studies on EI have considered the importance of individual differences in EI and their interaction with cognitive abilities.The general issue of this Research Topic was to expose the role of individual differences on EI in the development of a large number of competencies that support a more efficient performance in people’s everyday life. The present Research Topic provide an extensive review that may give light to the better understanding of how individual differences in EI affect human behaviour. We have considered studies that analyse: 1) how EI contributes to emotional, cognitive and social process beyond the well-known contribution of IQ and personality traits, as well as the brain system that supports the EI; 2) how EI contributes to relationships among emotions and health and well-being, 3) the roles of EI during early development and the evaluation in different populations, 4) how implicit beliefs about emotions and EI influence emotional abilities.

Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197637 Year: Pages: 87 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-763-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Dear Readers,If you are engaged in the treatment of patients with MS (pwMS), this e-book’s aim is to offer novel insights to improve on an understanding of one of the major problems of pwMS: fatigue. Although there is increasing research into fatigue and its impact on MS, this collection of ten articles supports a better understanding of fatigue in MS patients. It explores pathophysiological concepts, provoking mechanisms, objective measurements, personality interactions, pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions and summarizes clinical management. It is written by neurologists, psychologists, scientists and therapists and addresses this group of people, who deal with pwMS in private, clinical, rehabilitation or scientific settings. Its aim is to communicate high-quality information, knowledge and experience on MS to healthcare professionals, while providing global support for the international MS community.

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