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Genetic Diversity in Plants

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ISBN: 9789535101857 Year: Pages: 512 DOI: 10.5772/2640 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Genetic diversity is of fundamental importance in the continuity of a species as it provides the necessary adaptation to the prevailing biotic and abiotic environmental conditions, and enables change in the genetic composition to cope with changes in the environment. Genetic Diversity in Plants presents chapters revealing the magnitude of genetic variation existing in plant populations. The increasing availability of PCR-based molecular markers allows the detailed analyses and evaluation of genetic diversity in plants and also, the detection of genes influencing economically important traits. The purpose of the book is to provide a glimpse into the dynamic process of genetic variation by presenting the thoughts of scientists who are engaged in the generation of new ideas and techniques employed for the assessment of genetic diversity, often from very different perspectives. The book should prove useful to students, researchers, and experts in the area of conservation biology, genetic diversity, and molecular biology.

Fungicides

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ISBN: 9789533072661 Year: Pages: 550 DOI: 10.5772/555 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Microbiology
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Plant and plant products are affected by a large number of plant pathogens among which fungal pathogens. These diseases play a major role in the current deficit of food supply worldwide. Various control strategies were developed to reduce the negative effects of diseases on food, fiber, and forest crops products. For the past fifty years fungicides have played a major role in the increased productivity of several crops in most parts of the world. Although fungicide treatments are a key component of disease management, the emergence of resistance, their introduction into the environment and their toxic effect on human, animal, non-target microorganisms and beneficial organisms has become an important factor in limiting the durability of fungicide effectiveness and usefulness. This book contains 25 chapters on various aspects of fungicide science from efficacy to resistance, toxicology and development of new fungicides that provides a comprehensive and authoritative account for the role of fungicides in modern agriculture.

Pesticides - The Impacts of Pesticides Exposure

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ISBN: 9789533075310 Year: Pages: 460 DOI: 10.5772/1003 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Plant Sciences
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Pesticides are supposed to complete their intended function without ""any unreasonable risk to man or the environment"". Pesticides approval and registration are performed ""taking into account the economic, social and environmental costs and benefits of the use of any pesticide"". The present book documents the various adverse impacts of pesticides usage: pollution, dietary intake and health effects such as birth defects, neurological disorders, cancer and hormone disruption. Risk assessment methods and the involvement of molecular modeling to the knowledge of pesticides are highlighted, too. The volume summarizes the expertise of leading specialists from all over the world.

Herbicides, Theory and Applications

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789533079752 Year: Pages: 624 DOI: 10.5772/1430 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Plant Sciences
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The content selected in Herbicides, Theory and Applications is intended to provide researchers, producers and consumers of herbicides an overview of the latest scientific achievements. Although we are dealing with many diverse and different topics, we have tried to compile this ""raw material"" into three major sections in search of clarity and order - Weed Control and Crop Management, Analytical Techniques of Herbicide Detection and Herbicide Toxicity and Further Applications. The editors hope that this book will continue to meet the expectations and needs of all interested in the methodology of use of herbicides, weed control as well as problems related to its use, abuse and misuse.

Pesticides in the Modern World - Pests Control and Pesticides Exposure and Toxicity Assessment

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ISBN: 9789533074573 Year: Pages: 628 DOI: 10.5772/948 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Plant Sciences
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The present book is a collection of selected original research articles and reviews providing adequate and up-to-date information related to pesticides control, assessment, and toxicity. The first section covers a large spectrum of issues associated with the ecological, molecular, and biotechnological approaches to the understanding of the biological control, the mechanism of the biocontrol agents action, and the related effects. Second section provides recent information on biomarkers currently used to evaluate pesticide exposure, effects, and genetic susceptibility of a number of organisms. Some antioxidant enzymes and vitamins as biochemical markers for pesticide toxicity are examined. The inhibition of the cholinesterases as a specific biomarker for organophosphate and carbamate pesticides is commented, too. The third book section addresses to a variety of pesticides toxic effects and related issues including: the molecular mechanisms involved in pesticides-induced toxicity, fish histopathological, physiological, and DNA changes provoked by pesticides exposure, anticoagulant rodenticides mode of action, the potential of the cholinesterase inhibiting organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides, the effects of pesticides on bumblebee, spiders and scorpions, the metabolic fate of the pesticide-derived aromatic amines, etc.

Pesticides in the Modern World - Risks and Benefits

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ISBN: 9789533074580 Year: Pages: 574 DOI: 10.5772/949 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Plant Sciences
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This book is a compilation of 29 chapters focused on: pesticides and food production, environmental effects of pesticides, and pesticides mobility, transport and fate. The first book section addresses the benefits of the pest control for crop protection and food supply increasing, and the associated risks of food contamination. The second book section is dedicated to the effects of pesticides on the non-target organisms and the environment such as: effects involving pollinators, effects on nutrient cycling in ecosystems, effects on soil erosion, structure and fertility, effects on water quality, and pesticides resistance development. The third book section furnishes numerous data contributing to the better understanding of the pesticides mobility, transport and fate. The addressed in this book issues should attract the public concern to support rational decisions to pesticides use.

Herbicides - Properties, Synthesis and Control of Weeds

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ISBN: 9789533078038 Year: Pages: 504 DOI: 10.5772/2511 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Plant Sciences
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This book is divided into two sections namely: synthesis and properties of herbicides and herbicidal control of weeds. Chapters 1 to 11 deal with the study of different synthetic pathways of certain herbicides and the physical and chemical properties of other synthesized herbicides. The other 14 chapters (12-25) discussed the different methods by which each herbicide controls specific weed population. The overall purpose of the book, is to show properties and characterization of herbicides, the physical and chemical properties of selected types of herbicides, and the influence of certain herbicides on soil physical and chemical properties on microflora. In addition, an evaluation of the degree of contamination of either soils and/or crops by herbicides is discussed alongside an investigation into the performance and photochemistry of herbicides and the fate of excess herbicides in soils and field crops.

Advances in Photosynthesis - Fundamental Aspects

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ISBN: 9789533079288 Year: Pages: 600 DOI: 10.5772/1385 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Biology
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Photosynthesis is one of the most important reactions on Earth. It is a scientific field that is the topic of many research groups. This book is aimed at providing the fundamental aspects of photosynthesis, and the results collected from different research groups. There are three sections in this book: light and photosynthesis, the path of carbon in photosynthesis, and special topics in photosynthesis. In each section important topics in the subject are discussed and (or) reviewed by experts in each book chapter.

Integrated Pest Management and Pest Control - Current and Future Tactics

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789535100508 Year: Pages: 684 DOI: 10.5772/1383 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Plant Sciences
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Integrated Pest Management is an effective and environmentally sensitive approach that relies on a combination of common-sense practices. Its programs use current and comprehensive information on the life cycles of pests and their interactions with the environment. This information, in combination with available pest control methods, is used to manage pest damage by the most economical means and with the least possible hazard to people, property, and the environment.

Current Topics in Phylogenetics and Phylogeography of Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems

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ISBN: 9789535102175 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.5772/1947 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
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Mapping phylogenetics on geographical scales is one of the most important scientific aspects of bioscience research. Changes in the environment have evidently shaped the geographical distribution of organisms on land and in the oceans seen today. Overexploitation of key species has caused not only changes in the distribution and diversity of organisms and composition of the ecosystems, but is also leading to species extinction at accelerating rates. It is our duty as scientists to find ways of protecting the species endangered with extinction and preventing other species from entering the endangered stage. To manage this effectively, we need to map species distribution, understand life-history traits, define genetic variation within species and populations, identify lineages - especially at the molecular level - and correlate the historical, phylogenetic components with the spatial distributions of gene lineages. In this book, phylogenetics and phylogeography of a diverse range of organisms are reviewed: from microorganisms causing gastroenteritis in humans, fishes in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean and spiders of the western Indian Ocean, to mountain tapirs in South America and birch tree species of the Arctic tundra.

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