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Spanish Economic Growth, 1850–2015

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Book Series: Palgrave Studies in Economic History ISBN: 9783319580418 9783319580425 Year: Pages: 383 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-58042-5 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-23 18:43:20
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This text offers a comprehensive and nuanced view of the economic development of Spain since 1850. It provides a new set of historical GDP estimates for Spain from the demand and supply sides, and presents a reconstruction of production and expenditure series for the century prior to the introduction of modern national accounts. The author splices available national accounts sets over the period 1958–2015 through interpolation, as an alternative to conventional retropolation. The resulting national accounts series are linked to the historical estimates providing yearly series for GDP and its components since 1850. On the basis of new population estimates, the author derives GDP per head, decomposed into labour productivity and the amount of work per person, and placed into international perspective.With theoretical reasoning and historiographical implications, Prados de la Escosura provides a useful methodological reference work for anyone interested in national accounting.

Keywords

economics --- productivity --- consumption --- value --- income --- expenditure

Expanding the Lexicon. Linguistic Innovation, Morphological Productivity, and Ludicity

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: The Dynamics of Wordplay ISBN: 9783110501933 9783110498165 Year: Volume: 5 Pages: vi, 304 DOI: 10.1515/9783110501933 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Linguistics --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-19 12:24:06
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The creation of new lexical units and patterns has been studied in different research frameworks, focusing on either system-internal or system-external aspects, from which no comprehensive view has emerged. The volume aims to fill this gap by studying dynamic processes in the lexicon – understood in a wide sense as not being necessarily limited to the word level – by bringing together approaches directed to morphological productivity as well as approaches analyzing general types of lexical innovation and the role of discourse-related factors. The papers deal with ongoing changes as well as with historical processes of change in different languages and reflect on patterns and specific subtypes of lexical innovation as well as on their external conditions and the speakers’ motivations for innovating. Moreover, the diffusion and conventionalization of innovations will be addressed. In this way, the volume contributes to understanding the complex interplay of structural, cognitive and functional factors in the lexicon as a highly dynamic domain.

Microbial Ecology in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456468 Year: Pages: 139 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-646-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The microbial community in the oligotrophic North Pacific Subtropical Gyre is dominated by unicellular microorganisms less than a few micrometers in size. Despite the persistent low nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton growth rates appear near maximal, sustained by the recycling of nutrients with plankton population sizes regulated by processes such as zooplankton grazing and viral lysis. Seasonal pulses of particle export to the deep sea and increases in phytoplankton abundance occur during the summer months; however, the factors that result in these imbalances in growth and loss processes are not well understood. Nonetheless, as a result of persistent fieldwork and development of sensitive methodologies, the biogeochemical and ecological dynamics occurring over timescales ranging from diel to interannual are being revealed. This Research Topic covers multiple aspects of microbial oceanography in the oligotrophic North Pacific Subtropical Gyre including identification and isolation of microorganisms, quantification of microbial biomass and turnover, metabolism and physiological activities, and microbial-mediated biogeochemical cycling.All of the papers use field data collected by either the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) program, the Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education (C-MORE) or the Simons Collaboration on Ocean Processes and Ecology (SCOPE). These three programs have greatly increased our understanding of microbial ecology and biogeochemical cycling in the NPSG, in part by providing unparalleled access to the NPSG on oceanographic research vessels.

Water Policy, Productivity and Economic Efficiency

ISBN: 9783038420125 9783038420132 Year: Pages: 212 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 06:56:29
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Over the past few decades, water policies have undergone significant changes in many countries, notably due to the development of national and international political, social, and environmental issues, including globalization, trade liberalization, institutional and legal requirements, changing standards of living, management practices, and technological innovation. Policy changes include both “high level” views about water status and practical instruments, in particular with an emphasis on integrated basin management and economic policy instruments. A relevant part of the water policy literature addresses this topic, mainly as an issue related to environmental conservation. However, water remains a major productive factor, particularly in agriculture. This role is made even more prominent in light of economic crises, increased competition across markets and climate change, as well as fossil energy limitations, which also highlight the water–energy nexus as a key resource issue for future economic viability. The delay, in the past, in recognizing the economic consequences of a limited water supply, and in decoupling economic development from water demand and supply, has resulted in a water-dependent growth model, currently threatened by increasing scarcity and droughts. Consequently, there is now an urgent need for new perspectives for promoting a more sustainable and efficient use of water resources. This calls for, on the one hand, a comprehensive understanding of water efficiency and productivity and, on the other hand, an investigation of the linkages among economic sectors to illustrate trade-offs in water reallocations. In addition, this also points to the need to study the institutional innovations and economic evaluation instruments that are able to better assess policy performance and provide evidence for improved mechanism designs aimed specifically at water efficiency and productivity.

Forage Plant Ecophysiology

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ISBN: 9783038424888 9783038424895 Year: Pages: XVI, 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-489-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-17 13:01:36
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Forage plant ecophysiology has been described, perhaps mischievously, as the selective application of useful information from pure plant physiology research to provide human benefit through improved agricultural output. The intention of creating this Special Issue was to create a volume that future researchers will find user friendly and want to consult, while ensuring it is rich in scientific quality. Contributions were sought that provide a broad geographic representation and a snapshot of present knowledge and research on a range of forage species in use around the world.

Designing Sustainable Technologies, Products and Policies

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783319669809/9783319669816 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 520 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-66981-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-09-10 16:32:12
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This open access book provides insight into the implementation of Life Cycle approaches along the entire business value chain, supporting environmental, social and economic sustainability related to the development of industrial technologies, products, services and policies; and the development and management of smart agricultural systems, smart mobility systems, urban infrastructures and energy for the built environment. The book is based on papers presented at the 8th International Life Cycle Management Conference that took place from September 3-6, 2017 in Luxembourg, and which was organized by the Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST) and the University of Luxembourg in the framework of the LCM Conference Series.

Nutrient Cycling and Plant Nutrition in Forest Ecosystems

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038423850 9783038423843 Year: Pages: XII, 252 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-30 09:18:22
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Nutrient cycling is essential for maintaining nutrient supply to forest plants and for enhancing forest productivity. Nutrient cycling is also strongly linked to greenhouse gas emissions and thus to global climate change. Nutrient cycling and plant nutrition can be severely affected by anthropogenic and natural disturbance regimes. This Special Issue will provide an avenue to publish recent progress on research on nutrient cycling and plant nutrition in forest ecosystems and how nutrient cycling and plant nutrition are affected by disturbance regimes such as harvesting, atmospheric deposition and climate change.

Virtual Plants: Modeling Plant Architecture in Changing Environments

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450923 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-092-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Plant architecture is a major determinant of the resource use efficiency of crops. The architecture of a plant shows ontogenetic structural changes which are modified by multiple environmental factors: Plant canopies are exposed to natural fluctuations in light quantity and the dynamically changing canopy architecture induces local variations in light quality. Changing temperature conditions or water availability during growth additionally affect plant architecture and thus crop productivity, because plants have various options to adapt their architecture to the available resources. Meeting the challenge of ensuring food security we must understand the plant’s mechanisms for integrating and responding to an orchestra of environmental factors. ‘Virtual plants’ describe plant architecture in silico. Virtual plants have the potential to help us understanding the complex feedback processes between canopy architecture, multiple environmental factors and crop productivity. As a research tool, they have become increasingly popular within the last decade due to their great power of realistically visualizing the plant’s architecture. This Research Topic highlights current research carried out on modeling plant architecture in changing environments.

Selected Papers from Building A Better New Zealand (BBNZ 2014) Conference

ISBN: 9783038420965 9783038420958 Year: Pages: 240 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-12 12:03:19
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Employment, Well-Being and Gender

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Book Series: Goettinger Studien zur Entwicklungsoekonomik / Goettingen Studies in Development Economics ISBN: 9783631623022 Year: Pages: 158 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics --- Sociology --- Gender Studies
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:28
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This book examines welfare effects of gender-related inequalities in Korean households and labor markets. It uses subjective well-being data to show that reductions of excessive levels of working hours did improve family well-being in the past decade. Moreover, benefits from major life events like marriage can differ greatly by sex if traditional gender roles dominate and women contribute much less than men to household earnings. Furthermore, the study examines dynamics in rural East Asian economies and their impact on individual welfare outcomes. Both land redistribution and productivity-enhancing reforms are found to have been highly beneficial for Korean development. The Indonesian case study demonstrates the importance of cash-crop decisions and the growing non-farm sector for rural development.

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