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Speckle Reduction in Projection Systems

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ISBN: 9783866444188 Year: Pages: XIV, 153 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000012434 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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A speckle pattern is a quasi-random interference pattern which typically emerges when lasers are used as illumination sources in projection applications and which severely degrades the image quality. Since in most projection applications high speckle disturbance is not tolerable, speckle reduction is a major issue. This work gives an introduction into the theoretical description of speckle and investigates different practical methods for speckle reduction in laser projection systems.

Theoretical Comparative Syntax

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Book Series: Routledge Leading Linguists ISBN: 9780203479179 9780415341035 9780415860123 9781134326662 9781134326655 9781134326617 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203479179 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:06
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Collected for the first time in a single volume, these essays and articles by Naoki Fukui form an outline of some of the most significant and formative contributions to syntactic theory. Focusing particularly on the typological differences between Eng/type language and Japanese/type languages, Fukui examines the abstract parameters that both link and divide them. Linguistic universals are considered in the light of cross-linguistic variation and typological (parametric) differences are investigated from the viewpoint of universal principles. The book's main focus is the nature and structure of invariant principles and parameters (variables) and how they interact to give principled accounts to a variety of seemingly unrelated differences between Eng and Japanese. The contrasts between these two types of language is an ideal testing ground, since the languages are superficially different in virtually every aspect of their linguistic structures from word order and wh-movement, to grammatical agreement and case-marking systems, among many others. These articles constitute a considerable contribution to the development of the principles-and-parameters model in its exploration and refinement of theoretical concepts and fundamental principles of linguistic theory, leading to some of the basic insights that lie behind the minimalist program.

Weiterentwicklung der Beleuchtungseinheit LED-basierter Projektionssysteme

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Book Series: Spektrum der Lichttechnik / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Lichttechnisches Institut ISSN: 21951152 ISBN: 9783731508656 Year: Volume: 19 Pages: III, 173 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000087780 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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This work deals with the maximum achievable output flux of LED-projectors which is limited by physics. With the objective of increasing the output flux further, the illumination unit of LED-based projectors is enhanced systematically by improving existing technologies and developing new concepts.

Digital Light

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Book Series: Fibreculture Books ISBN: 9781785420009 9781785420085 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_548050 Language: English
Publisher: Open Humanities Press
Subject: Media and communication
Added to DOAB on : 2015-06-04 11:01:10
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Light symbolises the highest good, it enables all visual art, and today it lies at the heart of billion-dollar industries. The control of light forms the foundation of contemporary vision. Digital Light brings together artists, curators, technologists and media archaeologists to study the historical evolution of digital light-based technologies. Digital Light provides a critical account of the capacities and limitations of contemporary digital light-based technologies and techniques by tracing their genealogies and comparing them with their predecessor media. As digital light remediates multiple historical forms (photography, print, film, video, projection, paint), the collection draws from all of these histories, connecting them to the digital present and placing them in dialogue with one another. Light is at once universal and deeply historical. The invention of mechanical media (including photography and cinematography) allied with changing print technologies (half-tone, lithography) helped structure the emerging electronic media of television and video, which in turn shaped the bitmap processing and raster display of digital visual media. Digital light is, as Stephen Jones points out in his contribution, an oxymoron: light is photons, particulate and discrete, and therefore always digital. But photons are also waveforms, subject to manipulation in myriad ways. From Fourier transforms to chip design, colour management to the translation of vector graphics into arithmetic displays, light is constantly disciplined to human purposes. In the form of fibre optics, light is now the infrastructure of all our media; in urban plazas and handheld devices, screens have become ubiquitous, and also standardised. This collection addresses how this occurred, what it means, and how artists, curators and engineers confront and challenge the constraints of increasingly normalised digital visual media.

While various art pieces and other content are considered throughout the collection, the focus is specifically on what such pieces suggest about the intersection of technique and technology. Including accounts by prominent artists and professionals, the collection emphasises the centrality of use and experimentation in the shaping of technological platforms. Indeed, a recurring theme is how techniques of previous media become technologies, inscribed in both digital software and hardware. Contributions include considerations of image-oriented software and file formats; screen technologies; projection and urban screen surfaces; histories of computer graphics, 2D and 3D image editing software, photography and cinematic art; and transformations of light-based art resulting from the distributed architectures of the internet and the logic of the database.

Digital Light brings together high profile figures in diverse but increasingly convergent fields, from academy award-winner and co-founder of Pixar, Alvy Ray Smith to feminist philosopher Cathryn Vasseleu.

Über Projektionen: Weltkarten und Weltanschauungen

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Book Series: Image ISBN: 9783839446119 9783837646115 Year: Pages: 300 DOI: 10.14361/9783839446119 Language: German
Publisher: transcript Verlag Grant: Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) - OAPEN-CH
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:03
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"About projections" gives insights into world maps, their ways of representation and the associated worldviews. On the one hand, the projection is presented as an ideal projection in the sense of a worldview that describes prevailing mental images, values, order principles, ways of thinking or explanatory models of the world. On the other hand, the focus is on the geometric projection that underlies world maps: every world map faces the difficulty of displaying the spherical surface in a two-dimensional plane. In a reconstruction various paradigmatic worldviews are shown on the basis of world maps. In a deconstruction, conventional ones are contrasted by alternative world maps. The wide variety of possible world maps shows that world maps do not represent a status quo, but are merely a subjective interpretation of the world at a given time, which remain subject to constant upheavals.

Multiple-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) Techniques for Business Processes Information Management

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ISBN: 9783038976424 Year: Pages: 320 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-643-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-08 11:42:05
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Information management is a common paradigm in modern decision-making. A wide range of decision-making techniques have been proposed in the literature to model complex business and engineering processes. In this Special Issue, 16 selected and peer-reviewed original research articles contribute to business information management in various current real-world problems by proposing crisp or uncertain multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) models and techniques, mostly including multi-attribute decision-making (MADM) approaches, in addition to a single paper proposing an interactive multi-objective decision-making (MODM) approach. Particular attention is devoted to information aggregation operators; 65% of papers dealt with this item. The topics of this Special Issue gained attention in Europe and Asia. A total of 48 authors from seven countries contributed to this Issue. The papers are mainly concentrated in three application areas: supplier selection and rational order allocation, the evaluation and selection of goods or facilities, and personnel selection/partner selection. A number of new approaches are proposed that are expected to attract great interest from the research community.

Keywords

multi-criteria decision-making --- group decision-making --- subcontractor evaluation --- MCDM --- MADM --- fuzzy sets --- fuzzy EDAS --- multi-attribute decision making --- projection model --- bi-directional projection model --- Pythagorean uncertain linguistic variable --- rough number --- rough weighted aggregated sum product assessment (WASPAS) --- rough analytical hierarchical process (AHP) --- multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) --- supplier --- supplier selection --- order allocation --- multiobjective optimization --- interactive approach --- desirability function --- Pythagorean fuzzy set --- Muirhead mean --- multiple criteria group decision-making --- multiple attributes decision-making --- group decision-making --- unbalanced linguistic set --- prioritized average operator --- maximizing deviation model --- Pythagorean fuzzy set --- Muirhead mean --- interaction operational laws --- multi-attribute group decision-making --- green supplier --- rough ANP --- trapezoidal fuzzy number --- rough boundary interval --- evidence theory --- trust interval --- multiple attribute decision making --- linguistic cubic variable --- Dombi operations --- linguistic cubic variable Dombi weighted arithmetic average (LCVDWAA) operator --- linguistic cubic variable Dombi weighted geometric average (LCVDWGA) operator --- single-valued linguistic neutrosophic interval linguistic number --- score function --- weighted aggregation operator --- decision making --- multiple attribute decision making --- nonnegative normal neutrosophic number --- aggregation operator --- multi-criteria decision-making --- multi-hesitant fuzzy sets --- aggregation operators --- hesitant probabilistic fuzzy element (HPFE) --- Einstein operations --- hesitant probabilistic fuzzy Einstein aggregation operators --- multiple attribute decision making (MADM). --- ANFIS --- warehouse --- queuing systems --- logistics --- uncertain group decision-making support systems --- multiple criteria decision-making --- reliable group decision-making --- interval multiplicative preference relations --- rough sets --- binary discernibility matrices --- deterministic finite automata --- multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) --- multi-attribute decision-making (MADM) --- fuzzy sets --- neutrosophic sets --- rough sets --- aggregation operators --- adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS)

Optical MEMS

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039213030 / 9783039213047 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-304-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Optical microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), microoptoelectromechanical systems (MOEMS), or optical microsystems are devices or systems that interact with light through actuation or sensing at a micro- or millimeter scale. Optical MEMS have had enormous commercial success in projectors, displays, and fiberoptic communications. The best-known example is Texas Instruments’ digital micromirror devices (DMDs). The development of optical MEMS was impeded seriously by the Telecom Bubble in 2000. Fortunately, DMDs grew their market size even in that economy downturn. Meanwhile, in the last one and half decade, the optical MEMS market has been slowly but steadily recovering. During this time, the major technological change was the shift of thin-film polysilicon microstructures to single-crystal–silicon microsructures. Especially in the last few years, cloud data centers are demanding large-port optical cross connects (OXCs) and autonomous driving looks for miniature LiDAR, and virtual reality/augmented reality (VR/AR) demands tiny optical scanners. This is a new wave of opportunities for optical MEMS. Furthermore, several research institutes around the world have been developing MOEMS devices for extreme applications (very fine tailoring of light beam in terms of phase, intensity, or wavelength) and/or extreme environments (vacuum, cryogenic temperatures) for many years. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on (1) novel design, fabrication, control, and modeling of optical MEMS devices based on all kinds of actuation/sensing mechanisms; and (2) new developments of applying optical MEMS devices of any kind in consumer electronics, optical communications, industry, biology, medicine, agriculture, physics, astronomy, space, or defense.

Keywords

scanning micromirror --- electromagnetic actuator --- angle sensor --- flame retardant 4 (FR4) --- variable optical attenuator (VOA) --- wavelength dependent loss (WDL) --- polarization dependent loss (PDL) --- micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) --- tunable fiber laser --- echelle grating --- DMD chip --- MEMS scanning micromirror --- fringe projection --- laser stripe scanning --- quality map --- large reflection variations --- 3D measurement --- laser stripe width --- vibration noise --- MLSSP --- MEMS scanning mirror --- wavefront sensing --- digital micromirror device --- ocular aberrations --- dual-mode liquid-crystal (LC) device --- infrared Fabry–Perot (FP) filtering --- LC micro-lenses controlled electrically --- spectrometer --- infrared --- digital micromirror device (DMD) --- signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) --- stray light --- programmable spectral filter --- digital micromirror device --- optical switch --- microscanner --- input shaping --- open-loop control --- quasistatic actuation --- residual oscillation --- usable scan range --- higher-order modes --- resonant MEMS scanner --- electrostatic --- parametric resonance --- NIR fluorescence --- intraoperative microscope --- 2D Lissajous --- fluorescence confocal --- metasurface --- metalens --- field of view (FOV) --- achromatic --- Huygens’ metalens --- bio-optical imaging --- optical coherence tomography --- confocal --- two-photon --- spectrometer --- MEMS mirror --- electrothermal bimorph --- Cu/W bimorph --- electrothermal actuation --- reliability --- n/a

Symmetry in Engineering Sciences

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ISBN: 9783039218745 / 9783039218752 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-875-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This book presents interesting samples of theoretical and practical advances of symmetry in multidisciplinary engineering applications. It covers several applications, such as accessibility and traffic congestion management, path planning for mobile robots, analysis of shipment service networks, fault diagnosis methods in electrical circuits and electrical machines, geometrical issues in architecture, geometric modeling and virtual reconstruction, design of noise detectors, filters, and segmentation methods for image processing, and cyclic symmetric structures in turbomachinery applications, to name but a few. The contributions included in this book depict the state of the art in this field and lay the foundation for the possibilities that the study of symmetry has in multidisciplinary applications in the field of engineering.

Keywords

express shipment --- service network design --- linearization technique --- railway network --- path planning --- mobile robot --- environmental modeling --- optimization criteria --- path search --- aged --- high order urban hospitals (HOUHs) --- accessibility --- evaluation model --- trip impedance based on public transportation --- urban traffic planning --- 3D slicer --- classification --- extension --- random forest --- segmentation --- sensitivity analysis --- support vector machine --- tumor --- thin-walled gear --- ring damper --- vibration --- energy dissipation --- friction damping --- fault diagnosis --- lifting wavelet --- local preserving projection --- Fisher linear discriminant analysis --- semi-supervised random forest --- adaptive threshold --- clustering --- edge preserving --- noise detector --- random value impulse noise --- weighted mean filter --- anomaly detection --- local data features --- BP neural network --- local monotonicity --- convexity/concavity --- local inflection --- peaks distribution --- inclined plane --- Coalbrookdale (Shropshire) --- Agustín de Betancourt --- geometric modeling --- virtual reconstruction --- industrial heritage --- industrial archaeology --- symmetry --- rampant arch --- geometry --- optimum --- flying buttresses --- cathedral --- rolling bearings --- fault diagnosis --- broad learning model --- variational mode decomposition --- Hilbert transform --- railway transportation --- time-space network --- A* algorithm --- traffic congestion --- traffic forecasting --- traffic control --- railcar flow distribution --- asymmetry --- synchronization --- topology --- electrical circuits --- electronic devices --- mechanical structures --- robots --- graphic modelling --- complex networks --- optimization --- computing applications --- feature selection --- conditional mutual information --- feature interaction --- classification --- computer engineering

Entropy Applications in Environmental and Water Engineering

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038972228 Year: Pages: 512 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-223-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Engineering --- General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 15:50:41
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Entropy theory has wide applications to a range of problems in the fields of environmental and water engineering, including river hydraulic geometry, fluvial hydraulics, water monitoring network design, river flow forecasting, floods and droughts, river network analysis, infiltration, soil moisture, sediment transport, surface water and groundwater quality modeling, ecosystems modeling, water distribution networks, environmental and water resources management, and parameter estimation. Such applications have used several different entropy formulations, such as Shannon, Tsallis, Reacutenyi Burg, Kolmogorov, Kapur, configurational, and relative entropies, which can be derived in time, space, or frequency domains. More recently, entropy-based concepts have been coupled with other theories, including copula and wavelets, to study various issues associated with environmental and water resources systems. Recent studies indicate the enormous scope and potential of entropy theory in advancing research in the fields of environmental and water engineering, including establishing and explaining physical connections between theory and reality. The objective of this Special Issue is to provide a platform for compiling important recent and current research on the applications of entropy theory in environmental and water engineering. The contributions to this Special Issue have addressed many aspects associated with entropy theory applications and have shown the enormous scope and potential of entropy theory in advancing research in the fields of environmental and water engineering.

Keywords

complexity --- streamflow --- water level --- composite multiscale sample entropy --- trend --- Poyang Lake basin --- four-parameter exponential gamma distribution --- principle of maximum entropy --- precipitation frequency analysis --- methods of moments --- maximum likelihood estimation --- flood frequency analysis --- generalized gamma (GG) distribution --- principle of maximum entropy (POME) --- entropy theory --- principle of maximum entropy (POME) --- GB2 distribution --- flood frequency analysis --- non-point source pollution --- ANN --- entropy weighting method --- data-scarce --- multi-events --- spatio-temporal variability --- soil water content --- entropy --- arid region --- joint entropy --- NDVI --- temperature --- precipitation --- groundwater depth --- Hei River basin --- turbulent flow --- canopy flow --- randomness --- coherent structures --- Shannon entropy --- Kolmogorov complexity --- entropy --- information transfer --- optimization --- radar --- rainfall network --- water resource carrying capacity --- forewarning model --- entropy of information --- fuzzy analytic hierarchy process --- projection pursuit --- accelerating genetic algorithm --- entropy production --- conditional entropy production --- stochastic processes --- scaling --- climacogram --- turbulence --- water resources vulnerability --- connection entropy --- changing environment --- set pair analysis --- Anhui Province --- cross-entropy minimization --- land suitability evaluation --- spatial optimization --- monthly streamflow forecasting --- Burg entropy --- configurational entropy --- entropy spectral analysis time series analysis --- entropy --- water monitoring --- network design --- hydrometric network --- information theory --- entropy applications --- hydrological risk analysis --- maximum entropy-copula method --- uncertainty --- Loess Plateau --- entropy --- water engineering --- Tsallis entropy --- principle of maximum entropy --- Lagrangian function --- probability distribution function --- flux concentration relation --- uncertainty --- information --- informational entropy --- variation of information --- continuous probability distribution functions --- confidence intervals --- precipitation --- variability --- marginal entropy --- crop yield --- Hexi corridor --- flow duration curve --- Shannon entropy --- entropy parameter --- modeling --- spatial and dynamics characteristic --- hydrology --- tropical rainfall --- statistical scaling --- Tsallis entropy --- multiplicative cascades --- Beta-Lognormal model --- rainfall forecast --- cross entropy --- ant colony fuzzy clustering --- combined forecast --- information entropy --- mutual information --- kernel density estimation --- ENSO --- nonlinear relation --- scaling laws --- power laws --- water distribution networks --- robustness --- flow entropy --- entropy theory --- frequency analysis --- hydrometeorological extremes --- Bayesian technique --- rainfall --- entropy ensemble filter --- ensemble model simulation criterion --- EEF method --- bootstrap aggregating --- bagging --- bootstrap neural networks --- El Niño --- ENSO --- neural network forecast --- sea surface temperature --- tropical Pacific --- entropy --- cross elasticity --- mean annual runoff --- water resources --- resilience --- quaternary catchment --- complement --- substitute --- entropy theory --- complex systems --- hydraulics --- hydrology --- water engineering --- environmental engineering

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