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Photon counting is a unified name for the techniques using singlephoton detection for accumulative measurements of the light flux, normally occurring under extremely lowlight conditions. Nowadays, this approach can be applied to the wide variety of the radiation wavelengths, starting from Xray and deep ultraviolet transitions and ending with farinfrared part of the spectrum. As a special tribute to the photon counting, the studies of cosmic microwave background radiation in astronomy, the experiments with muon detection, and the largescale fundamental experiments on the nature of matter should be noted. The book provides readers with an overview on the fundamentals and stateoftheart applications of photon counting technique in the applied science and everyday life.
Physical Sciences, Engineering and Technology  Physics  Optics and Lasers  Quantum Optics
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Tensor network is a fundamental mathematical tool with a huge range of applications in physics, such as condensed matter physics, statistic physics, high energy physics, and quantum information sciences. This open access book aims to explain the tensor network contraction approaches in a systematic way, from the basic definitions to the important applications. This book is also useful to those who apply tensor networks in areas beyond physics, such as machine learning and the bigdata analysis. Tensor network originates from the numerical renormalization group approach proposed by K. G. Wilson in 1975. Through a rapid development in the last two decades, tensor network has become a powerful numerical tool that can efficiently simulate a wide range of scientific problems, with particular success in quantum manybody physics. Varieties of tensor network algorithms have been proposed for different problems. However, the connections among different algorithms are not well discussed or reviewed. To fill this gap, this book explains the fundamental concepts and basic ideas that connect and/or unify different strategies of the tensor network contraction algorithms. In addition, some of the recent progresses in dealing with tensor decomposition techniques and quantum simulations are also represented in this book to help the readers to better understand tensor network. This open access book is intended for graduated students, but can also be used as a professional book for researchers in the related fields. To understand most of the contents in the book, only basic knowledge of quantum mechanics and linear algebra is required. In order to fully understand some advanced parts, the reader will need to be familiar with notion of condensed matter physics and quantum information, that however are not necessary to understand the main parts of the book. This book is a good source for nonspecialists on quantum physics to understand tensor network algorithms and the related mathematics.
Physics  Physics  Quantum physics  Quantum optics  Statistical physics  Machine learning  Elementary particles (Physics)  Quantum field theory
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Light and light based technologies have played an important role in transforming our lives via scientific contributions spanned over thousands of years. In this book we present a vast collection of articles on various aspects of light and its applications in the contemporary world at a popular or semipopular level. These articles are written by the world authorities in their respective fields. This is therefore a rare volume where the world experts have come together to present the developments in this most important field of science in an almost pedagogical manner. This volume covers five aspects related to light. The first presents two articles, one on the history of the nature of light, and the other on the scientific achievements of IbnHaitham (Alhazen), who is broadly considered the father of modern optics. These are then followed by an article on ultrafast phenomena and the invisible world. The third part includes papers on specific sources of light, the discoveries of which have revolutionized optical technologies in our lifetime. They discuss the nature and the characteristics of lasers, Solidstate lighting based on the Light Emitting Diode (LED) technology, and finally modern electron optics and its relationship to the Muslim golden age in science. The book’s fourth part discusses various applications of optics and light in today's world, including biophotonics, art, optical communication, nanotechnology, the eye as an optical instrument, remote sensing, and optics in medicine. In turn, the last part focuses on quantum optics, a modern field that grew out of the interaction of light and matter. Topics addressed include atom optics, slow, stored and stationary light, optical tests of the foundation of physics, quantum mechanical properties of light fields carrying orbital angular momentum, quantum communication, and WaveParticle dualism in action.
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Various cosmological observations support not only cosmological inflation in the early universe, which is also known as exponential cosmic expansion, but also that the expansion of the latetime universe is accelerating. To explain this phenomenon, the existence of dark energy is proposed. In addition, according to the rotation curve of galaxies, the existence of dark matter, which does not shine, is also suggested. If primordial gravitational waves are detected in the future, the mechanism for realizing inflation can be revealed. Moreover, there exist two main candidates for dark matter. The first is a new particle, the existence of which is predicted in particle physics. The second is an astrophysical object which is not found by electromagnetic waves. Furthermore, there are two representative approaches to account for the accelerated expansion of the current universe. One is to assume the unknown dark energy in general relativity. The other is to extend the gravity theory to large scales. Investigation of the origins of inflation, dark matter, and dark energy is one of the most fundamental problems in modern physics and cosmology. The purpose of this book is to explore the physics and cosmology of inflation, dark matter, and dark energy.
bransdicke theory  dark energy model  cosmological parameters  Dark Energy  statistical analysis  Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO)  Supernovae  cosmological model  Hubble constant  Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature  n/a  Dark Energy  Dark Matter  memory  dark matter  galactic rotation curve  cosmoligical parameters  dark energy models  loop quantum cosmology  dark energy  spacetime symmetry  de Sitter vacuum  quantum optical systems  astronomical and spaceresearch instrumentation  instruments, apparatus, and components common to several branches of physics and astronomy  normal galaxies, extragalactic objects and systems  field theory  comparative planetology  properties of specific particles  quantum optics  fundamental astronomy  EinsteinAether theory of gravity  dosmological parameters  dark energy models  cosmology  particle physics  cosmo–particle physics  QCD  hypercolor  dark atoms  composite dark matter  scalar–tensor gravity  junction conditions  null hypersurfaces  higher dimension gauged supergravity black hole  quantum gravity  quantum tunneling phenomenon  Hawking radiation  dynamical Chern–Simons modified gravity  parametrizations  cosmological parameters
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