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REDD+ Crossroads Post Paris: Politics, Lessons and Interplays

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ISBN: 9783038427070 9783038427087 Year: Pages: 414 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-08 13:02:47
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Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation, conserving and enhancing forest carbon stocks, and sustainably managing forests (REDD+), has become a reference framework for national forest governance across many tropical and sub-tropical forest countries. These countries have used international funding to re-organize forest and conservation policy around the idea of mitigating climate change, including the development of carbon accounting protocols and national REDD+ strategies. In parallel, international conservation organizations have promoted small-scale pilot project activities, in order to capture the economic value of any resulting land-use emission reductions, mostly through voluntary carbon markets.This collection contributes with new evidence to the burgeoning research on REDD+. The first section of the collection includes eight articles that explore the politics of REDD+ design, which analyze how various governments have designed and rolled out their REDD+ strategies, and how and why a range of public and private actors become (or not) involved in such processes. These contributions explore which rationales, techniques, views and values are being contested and constructed in the design of REDD+ national strategies, which conflicts have emerged and why, or how coordination across competing actors and interests has been pursued. The second section encompasses six articles that examine the lessons of REDD+ early actions, which describe or quantify the effects of such interventions on local environments and participants’ socio-economic status and cultural contexts. Finally, the third section includes five articles that explore the interplays between REDD+ and other land-use policy domains, which focus on the synergies and contradictions between the aims and policy programs conforming REDD+ national strategies and other land-use policies. Specifically, these contributions explore if REDD+ is able to improve forest sector regulations in host countries and to to align other development and land-use planning policies with REDD+ objectives and aspirations.

The Potential Role for Community Monitoring in MRV and in Benefit Sharing in REDD+

ISBN: 9783038420644 9783038420651 Year: Pages: 232 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 08:55:10
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Developing countries interested in REDD+ under the UNFCCC have been requested to prepare a national forest monitoring system (NFMS) and a system to monitor, report and verify implementation (MRV). They have also been requested to engage local communities and indigenous groups as critical stakeholders in this process. The NFMS should be consistent with national inventories of emissions and removals of greenhouse gases. These inventories are, however, usually prepared using national level information with low geographical resolution and without the participation of local communities or other forest owners/managers. However, it has been shown that members of rural forest communities can develop the skills to monitor and measure levels of carbon stock in their forests and changes in these levels over time. If this information could be included and tracked from the local to regional and national levels, this might help to design transparent mechanisms for the assessment of REDD+ implementation, and possibly even for benefit sharing. The objective of this Special Issue is to discuss and explore the social, technical and political implications and potential of including community-based monitoring in MRV systems and benefit-sharing schemes in REDD+.

Sustainability Indicators in Practice

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783110450507 9783110450675 Year: Pages: 271 DOI: 10.1515/9783110450507 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Environmental Engineering --- Sociology --- Ecology --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-06 16:24:03
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The goal of sustainable development is to meet the socio-economic and environmental objectives without comprising the needs of future generations. Since the Rio Summit of 1992, the concept of sustainability has captured our imaginations and aspirations and efforts to develop its indicators have increased. A range of sustainability indicators have been developed within various socio-economic, environmental and cultural contexts- including biodiversity, economy, energy, water, land use and transport. Sustainability indicators are widespread in international development arena. They have become popularized among governments, non-governmental organizations, private sector and the wider public.Based on multiple cases across the world, this book explores opportunities and challenges associated with the practical application of sustainability indicators. The book reflects diversity of professionals of inter-disciplinary backgrounds covering contemporary issues within different socio-economic and environmental contexts. Each chapter presents practical examples of the merits and challenges of using sustainability indicators and draws conclusions and lessons learned. The book targets a range of audience from students, academics to development practitioners and policy-makers.The two editors of this book: Dr. Agnieszka Ewa Latawiec and Dr. Dorice Agol are inter-disciplinary scientists who both have experience in research at the environmental conservation and development nexus

Livelihood and Landscape Change in Africa: Future Trajectories for Improved Well-Being under a Changing Climate

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783039214693 / 9783039214709 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-470-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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This book is based on a Special Issue of the journal LAND that draws together a collection of 11 diverse articles at the nexus of climate change, landscapes, and livelihoods in rural Africa; all explore the links between livelihood and landscape change, including shifts in farming practices and natural resource use and management. The articles, which are all place-based case studies across nine African countries, cover three not necessarily mutually exclusive thematic areas, namely: smallholder farming livelihoods under new climate risk (five articles); long-term dynamics of livelihoods and landscape change and future trajectories (two articles); and natural resource management and governance under a changing climate, spanning forests, woodlands, and rangelands (four articles). The commonalities, key messages, and research gaps across the 11 articles are presented in a synthesis article. All the case studies pointed to the need for an integrated and in-depth understanding of the multiple drivers of landscape and livelihood change and how these interact with local histories, knowledge systems, cultures, complexities, and lived realities. Moreover, where there are interventions (such as new governance systems, REDD+ or climate smart agriculture), it is critical to interrogate what is required to ensure a fair and equitable distribution of emerging benefits.

Participatory Forestry: Involvement, Information and Science

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ISBN: 9783039213313 / 9783039213320 Year: Pages: 250 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-332-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Public participation in forestry is a key issue in ensuring the democratization of decision-making processes, increasing the social acceptance of policies, and reducing conflicts between forest users. Public participation also provides an opportunity for the improvement of the quality of information, public debate, personal reflection, and professionalization, raising awareness. Participation in forestry implies the involvement of stakeholders (the interest group participation approach) and/or the involvement of people (the direct citizen participation approach) in the decision-making process. Since the UN Conference on Environment and Development (1992), new norms and perspectives have emerged encouraging a bottom-up approach in forest governance. Consequently, several participatory techniques, methods, and tools for stakeholder involvement in forest governance have been developed and applied. These different experiences allow us to learn from failures and successes and contribute to knowledge improvement. The future challenges of participatory forestry deal with adaptation to changes in ecological, social, and economic contexts.

Remote Sensing of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Other Vegetation Parameters

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039212392 / 9783039212408 Year: Pages: 334 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-240-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Monitoring of vegetation structure and functioning is critical to modeling terrestrial ecosystems and energy cycles. In particular, leaf area index (LAI) is an important structural property of vegetation used in many land surface vegetation, climate, and crop production models. Canopy structure (LAI, fCover, plant height, and biomass) and biochemical parameters (leaf pigmentation and water content) directly influence the radiative transfer process of sunlight in vegetation, determining the amount of radiation measured by passive sensors in the visible and infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Optical remote sensing (RS) methods build relationships exploiting in situ measurements and/or as outputs of physical canopy radiative transfer models. The increased availability of passive (radar and LiDAR) RS data has fostered their use in many applications for the analysis of land surface properties and processes, thanks also to their insensitivity to weather conditions and the capability to exploit rich structural and textural information. Data fusion and multi-sensor integration techniques are pressing topics to fully exploit the information conveyed by both optical and microwave bands.

Keywords

conifer forest --- leaf area index --- smartphone-based method --- canopy gap fraction --- terrestrial laser scanning --- forest inventory --- density-based clustering --- forest aboveground biomass --- root biomass --- tree heights --- GLAS --- artificial neural network --- allometric scaling and resource limitation --- structure from motion (SfM) --- 3D point cloud --- remote sensing --- local maxima --- fixed tree window size --- managed temperate coniferous forests --- point cloud --- spectral information --- structure from motion (SfM) --- unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) --- chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) --- drought --- Mediterranean --- photochemical reflectance index (PRI) --- photosynthesis --- R690/R630 --- recovery --- BAAPA --- remote sensing --- household survey --- forest --- farm types --- automated classification --- sampling design --- adaptive threshold --- over and understory cover --- LAI --- leaf area index --- EPIC --- simulation --- satellite --- MODIS --- biomass --- evaluation --- southern U.S. forests --- VIIRS --- leaf area index (LAI) --- Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) --- MODIS --- consistency --- uncertainty --- evaluation --- downscaling --- Pléiades imagery --- unmanned aerial vehicle --- stem volume estimation --- remote sensing --- clumping index --- leaf area index --- trunk --- terrestrial LiDAR --- HemiView --- forest above ground biomass (AGB) --- polarization coherence tomography (PCT) --- P-band PolInSAR --- tomographic profiles --- canopy closure --- global positioning system --- hemispherical sky-oriented photo --- signal attenuation --- geographic information system --- digital aerial photograph --- aboveground biomass --- leaf area index --- photogrammetric point cloud --- recursive feature elimination --- machine-learning --- forest degradation --- multisource remote sensing --- modelling aboveground biomass --- random forest --- Brazilian Amazon --- validation --- phenology --- NDVI --- LAI --- spectral analyses --- European beech --- altitude --- forests biomass --- remote sensing --- REDD+ --- random forest --- Tanzania --- RapidEye

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