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Dies Irae

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ISBN: 9781912656318 9781912656301 9781912656325 9781912656332 Year: Pages: 107 DOI: 10.16997/book36 Language: English
Publisher: University of Westminster Press Grant: University of Westminster
Subject: Law --- Philosophy --- Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-15 11:21:03
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What does it mean to judge when there is no general and universal norm to define what is right and what is wrong? Can laws be absent and is law always necessary? This is the first publication of an English translation of Jean-Luc Nancy’s acclaimed consideration of the law’s most pervasive principles in the context of actual systems and contemporary institutions, power, norms, laws. In a world where it is clearly impossible to imagine the realization of an ideal of justice that corresponds to every person’s ideal of justice, Nancy probes the limits of legal normativity starting from this problem. Moreover, the question is asked: how can legal normativity be legitimized? A legal order based on performativity and formal validity is questionable and forces below that of juridical normativity are at the heart of Dies Irae’s critical inquiry. This leads inevitably to the processes of inclusion and exclusion that characterize contemporary juridical systems and those issues of identity, hostility and self-representation so central to contemporary European and global political and legal debates.

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law --- judgement --- justice --- normativity --- Kant --- reason

Emotion, Reason and Action in Kant

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ISBN: 9781350078369 9781350078376 9781350078383 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 102499
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-15 11:21:16
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This book explores how, in Kant’s world view, our actions are informed, contextualized and dependent on the tension between emotion and reason. Arguing that affects and passions are illnesses of the mind, because both hinder the sovereignty of reason, Borges demonstrates Kant’s recognition of the malleability of reason. To this end, the book explores the full range of negative and positive emotions in Kant’s work, including self-control, compassion, sympathy, as well as anger. Kant’s argument on the gendered nature of emotion, that women’s innate morality disciplined men’s tendency to behave in immoral ways, is also discussed. Finally, Borges shows how Kant’s theory of emotion includes both physiological and cognitive aspects.Emotion, Reason and Action in Kant is an important new contribution to Kant Studies, suitable for students of Kant, ethics, and moral psychology.

Keywords

Philosophy --- Philosophy --- Immanuel Kant --- Emotion --- Reason

Karl Popper, Science and Enightenment

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ISBN: 9781787350397 Year: Pages: 390 Language: English
Publisher: UCL Press
Subject: Philosophy --- Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-09-27 11:01:14
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Here is an idea that just might save the world. It is that science, properly understood, provides us with the methodological key to the salvation of humanity. A version of this idea can be found in the works of Karl Popper. Famously, Popper argued that science cannot verify theories but can only refute them, and this is how science makes progress. Scientists are forced to think up something better, and it is this, according to Popper, that drives science forward. But Nicholas Maxwell finds a flaw in this line of argument. Physicists only ever accept theories that are unified – theories that depict the same laws applying to the range of phenomena to which the theory applies – even though many other empirically more successful disunified theories are always available. This means that science makes a questionable assumption about the universe, namely that all disunified theories are false. Without some such presupposition as this, the whole empirical method of science breaks down. By proposing a new conception of scientific methodology, which can be applied to all worthwhile human endeavours with problematic aims, Maxwell argues for a revolution in academic inquiry to help humanity make progress towards a better, more civilized and enlightened world.

The Reasoning Brain: The Interplay between Cognitive Neuroscience and Theories of Reasoning

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451180 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-118-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Despite the centrality of rationality to our identity as a species (let alone the scientific endeavour), and the fact that it has been studied for several millennia, the present state of our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying logical reasoning remains highly fragmented. For example, a recent review concluded that none of the extant (12!) theories provide an adequate account (Khemlani & Johnson- Laird, 2011), while other authors argue that we are on the brink of a paradigm change, where the old binary logic framework will be washed away and replaced by more modern (and correct) probabilistic and Bayesian approaches (see for example Elqayam & Over, 2012; Oaksford & Chater, 2009; Over, 2009). Over the past 15 years neuroscience brain imaging techniques and patient studies have been used to map out the functional neuroanatomy of reasoning processes. The aim of this research topic is to discuss whether this line of research has facilitated, hindered, or has been largely irrelevant for understanding of reasoning processes. The answer is neither obvious nor uncontroversial. We would like to engage both the cognitive and the neuroscience community in this discussion. Some of the questions of interest are: How have the data generated by the patient and neuroimaging studies: • influenced our thinking about modularity of deductive reasoning • impacted the debate between mental logic theory, mental model theory and the dual mechanism accounts • affected our thinking about dual mechanism theories • informed discussion of the relationship between induction and deduction • illuminated the relationship between language, visual spatial processing and reasoning • affected our thinking about the unity of deductive reasoning processes Have any of the cognitive theories of reasoning helped us explain deficits in certain patient populations? Do certain theories do a better job of this than others? Is there any value to localizing cognitive processes and identifying dissociations (for reasoning and other cognitive processes)? What challenges have neuroimaging data raised for cognitive theories of reasoning? How can cognitive theory inform interpretation of patient data or neuroimaging data? How can patient data or neuroimaging data best inform cognitive theory? This list of questions is not exhaustive. Manuscripts addressing other related questions are welcome. We are interested in hearing from skeptics, agnostics and believers, and welcome original research contributions as well as reviews, methods, hypothesis & theory papers that contribute to the discussion of the current state of our knowledge of how neuroscience is (or is not) helping us to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms underlying logical reasoning processes.

Thoughts and Ways of Thinking

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ISBN: 9781911529200 9781911529217 9781911529224 9781911529231 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.5334/bbh Language: English
Publisher: Ubiquity Press
Subject: Law --- Religion --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2017-09-08 11:01:12
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"Why do we think differently from one another? Why do religious people adhere to their faith even against reason, whilst atheist thinkers label it “nonsense”? Why do some judges turn more to moral values and others less? Why do we attach different meanings to the same words? These questions can be tackled on psychological or sociological levels, but we can also analyze the subjects on the epistemological level. That is the purpose of this book.
Thoughts and Ways of Thinking offers Source Theory as a single explanation for epistemic processes and their religious, legal and linguistic derivatives. The idea is simple: our senses, our understanding, our memory, the testimonies that we trust, and many other objects transmit data to us and so shape our beliefs. In this function they serve as our truth sources. Different beliefs stem from different sources or different hierarchies between same sources. This notion is formalized here through the new tool of Source Calculus, and, after balancing its relativistic consequences by adding pragmatic constraints, it is applied to the philosophies of religion, law and language. With this unified theory, old doubts are framed in new perspectives, and some of them even find their solution."

Teleologie und politische Vernunft

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ISBN: 9783789077814 Year: Pages: 443 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_574812 Language: German
Publisher: Nomos Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 3398
Added to DOAB on : 2015-09-08 11:01:16
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This book describes stages of development of the conception of an ideal republic that is fundamentally based on practical reason. It is widely understood that this conception is paradigmatically represented in the political thought of Aristotle and conveyed by its reception by Thomas Aquinas. This early concept of a liberal republic - which is in some ways certainly marked by the constraints of ancient philosophy on the whole, is even considered to have contributed to the development of the modern state and its instruments of political reason.Part 1 presents Aristotle's conception of "civil society" which is built upon man in his specific nature of humanity. From this point of view "political" government is intrinsically related to the mutual recognition of free and equal fellow citizens. Thus establishes a strict standard of criticism of any arbitrary or illegitimate presumption of political power. Nevertheless, Aristotle's "Republic" relies on limiting conditions of political subsistence as they arise from a specific ancient point of view that sets a clear limit to our modern expectation of freedom and equality. Above all, subjectivity, at least the perfection of virtuous citizenship, is supposed to be indispensably linked to a specific political, institutional and moral framework. This framework is derived from Aristotle's concept of "teleology", which pervades his whole philosophy. Therefore, Aristotle's approach shall be investigated in a most complex and comprehensive way in its close systematic link to all fields of philosophy, including practical reason, physics and metaphysics, in order to enable a most distinct historical judgement that will also finally reveal its actual significance. E.g. Aristotle's concept of teleology, though introduced by the investigation of "natural movement", is also applied to his ethics of practical reason. This does not imply, however, any dependence of law or politics on natural goals, but only reclaims a fundamental structural analogy between both, nature and habits, while adhering to their clear methodological separation.Part 2 is devoted to elaborate the systematic transformations and shifts of emphasis that have occurred, when Aristotle's concept of teleology and practical reason - within the work of Thomas Aquinas - encountered the specific philosophical demands and the different approach of Christian tradition. As a religion that is concerned with the view of eschatological anticipation and the experience of historical revelation, Christianity turned out to introduce a first perspective of "historical" thinking that was aimed to partly break down the more restricted ancient concept of ethics and politics. Being however constrained to a mere theological explanation, freedom of man is gaining a more universal and transcendent notion. The fulfilment of human nature is basically detached from its ancient close link to politics. But this development also changes the significance and the structures of the political and public sphere. It turns out to weaken and dilute the institutional achievements of the aristotelian republic. On the other hand the new resort to the universal demand of the transcendent "common good" as the ultimate goal of human life, rather than to the developed customs of the ancient city, also favours a process of accelerating and diversifying individual and social human goals and practices. And this development focuses the status of Aquinas' concept of the "Law" that however transcends a mere authoritarian or "material" notion of ethics and law. Furthermore it takes over the legitimising tasks of the ancient community of free and virtuous citizens in procuring a legitimate basis of politics. And this basis is now gaining a higher degree of "universality" with regard to its transcendental reason as well as its concern with the expansion of moral subjectivity, which finally leads up to the political demands of modern times.

Aufbruch in die Öffentlichkeit?

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Book Series: Religionswissenschaft ISBN: 9783839442272 9783837642278 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.14361/9783839442272 Language: German
Publisher: transcript Verlag Grant: OGeSoMo
Subject: Religion
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:01
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The public religious education is lacking critique of the term »the public«. This book analytically disposes this desideratum, processing it constructively.

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