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Online and Offline Modulators of Motor Learning

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451661 Year: Pages: 155 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-166-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Abstract

Both the acquisition of new and the modification of previously acquired motor skills are necessary to achieve optimal levels of motor performance in everyday functioning as well as to attain expert performance levels that are evident in sports and arts. A multitude of factors have been shown to influence the various stages of the learning process, from the acquisition (i.e., motor memory encoding) to the consolidation and subsequent retention of a skill. These factors, or modulators, can affect learning through online processes taking place during practice of a new motor skill or through offline processes occurring in the absence of task performance (i.e., after training sessions). Although much of the recent research from various disciplines has placed an increased emphasis on identifying factors that can influence the motor learning process, we lack an integrated understanding of online and offline determinants of motor skill behaviours. Potential motor learning modulators include, but are certainly not limited to, stress, anxiety, attention, executive functioning, social interaction, stimulus-response mapping, training schedule/regimen, learning environment, vigilance/consciousness states including sleep, wakefulness or meditation, brain stimulation, interference as well as resting state brain connectivity. Pathological and non-pathological (i.e., development or aging) changes in the brain can also be conceptualized as potential modulators. The aim of this Research Topic is to bridge research from the cognitive, sensory, motor and psychological domains using various behavioural paradigms and neuroimaging techniques in order to provide a comprehensive view of the online and offline modulators of motor learning, and how they interact to influence motor performance. Critically, the overarching goal is to gain a better understanding of how motor behaviour can be optimized. We believe that merging research from diverse neuroscientific communities would contribute to fulfilling this goal and potentially highlight possible shared neurophysiological mechanisms influencing motor learning.

The Cognition of Sequences

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453986 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-398-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Abstract

It is impossible to perceive the innumerable stimuli impinging on our senses, all at once. Out of the myriad stimuli, external and internal, a few are selected for further processing; and even among these, we try to put each in some sort of relation with the others, to be able to make some sense about them all. Time, of course, is an elementary dimension we use to organize our experiences. Thus, the perception of sequences is basic to human cognition. Nevertheless, research addressing sequences is rather sparse. Partly, this is due to difficulty in designing experiments in this area due to huge individual differences. Then, there is the assumption that temporal order has more to do with memory than perception. Another problem is that sequences seem endemic to the auditory world. So much so that some researchers have suggested that sound provides the ‘auditory scaffolding’ for sequencing behavior. Little wonder that research studies addressing sequences in modalities other than audition are extremely rare.This research topic aimed to gather a holistic picture of sequencing behaviour among humans by collecting snapshots of the current research on the topic of sequencing. We particularly sought contributions which addressed sequences beyond the auditory modality. The single unifying criteria for these diverse contributions was that they shed new light on previously unexplored empirical relationships and/or provoked new lines of research with incisive ideas regarding sequencing behavior. Seasoned researchers contributed their views on perception, memory, and production of sequences.

Sprachen und Kulturen: vermitteln und vernetzen

Author:
Book Series: Salzburger Beiträge zur Lehrer/innen/bildung ISBN: 9783830935063 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 248 Language: german/english/french/italien
Publisher: Waxmann Verlag
Subject: Education
Added to DOAB on : 2020-11-16 10:43:43
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Abstract

Heterogene Klassen bestimmen die heutige Unterrichtsrealität. Das Thema „Sprachen und Kulturen: vermitteln und vernetzen“ erscheint vor diesem Hintergrund aktueller denn je. In den Beiträgen des vorliegenden Bandes geht es daher um die Schlüsselfrage, wie (fremd-)sprachliche Lehr-/Lernprozesse gestaltet werden sollen, um mehrsprachige Lernausgangslagen von Schülerinnen und Schülern, die durch herkunftssprachliche und / oder fremdsprachliche Vorkenntnisse bedingt sind, als Potenzial nutzen zu können. Dabei werden bewährte und innovative Konzepte und Modelle aus theoretischer, empirischer und unterrichtspraktischer Sicht beleuchtet, Einblicke in laufende Forschungsarbeiten gegeben und Projekte aus der Lehrpraxis vorgestellt. Auch Fragen der Messbarkeit sowie empirische Methoden und Befunde, die die Wirkung (fremd-)sprachenunterrichtlichen Handelns sichtbar machen, sind zentrale Themen. Die Handlungsfelder, die auch die Struktur des Bandes vorgeben, betreffen Mehrsprachigkeit und Inter-/Transkulturalität im Unterricht, in Lehrwerken und in der Lehrer/innen/bildung.

Keywords

Sprachunterricht --- Sprachdidaktik --- Fremdsprachendidaktik --- Mehrsprachigkeit --- produktive Fertigkeiten --- vorgelernte Fremdsprachen --- Herkunftssprachen --- Familiensprachen --- rezeptive Varietätenkompetenz --- transkulturelle kommunikative Kompetenz --- Lehrwerkanalyse --- Lehrwerkgestaltung --- Heterogenität --- Lehrwerkverlage --- Lehrwerkrezeption --- interkulturelles Lernen --- transkulturelles Lernen --- Literaturvermittlung --- Englischunterricht --- Fremdsprachenunterricht --- Französischunterricht --- Spanischunterricht --- Italienischunterricht --- transkulturelle Literatur --- Identitätskompetenz --- Alterität --- Hybridität --- Individuation --- Jungendliteratur --- kooperatives Lernen --- Shaun Tan --- Gattungstheorie --- Rezeptionsästhetik --- Sprachvarietäten --- Kulturkunde --- Interkulturalität --- Kompetenzen --- Interkomprehension --- Unterrichtspraxis --- mehrsprachiges Vorlesen --- Lesemotivation --- design-based research --- sprachenübergreifende Rezeptionsstrategien --- Stimulated-Recall-Verfahren --- L3-Sprachproduktion --- kognitive Flüssigkeit --- zwischensprachliche Beeinflussung --- Sprachvergleich --- Varietätenlinguistik --- Plurizentrik --- Englischlehrbuch --- Bildungsstandards --- Lehrpläne --- Grammatikerwerb --- Sprachmittlung --- Sprachreflexion --- language awareness --- Lehrerbildung --- Unterrichtsmaterialien --- Heterogenität --- transkulturelle Literatur --- Inklusion --- kompetenzbasiertes Lernen --- lernorientiertes Assessment --- Qualitätssicherung des Lernens

The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039218349 9783039218356 Year: Pages: 322 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-835-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:21:22
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Abstract

The purpose of this Special Issue is to provide a thorough and up-to-date presentation of research investigating the impact of coffee and/or caffeine intake on various health outcomes. Areas of interest include, but are not limited to, the following topics: Human clinical trials of coffee or caffeine use in relation to disease or intermediate phenotypes. Epidemiological studies of habitual coffee or caffeine intake in relation to human health, among the general public, as well as, among special populations (i.e., children, pregnant women, diabetics, cancer patients, hypertensives, etc.). Mechanisms of action of nutrients and other bioactive components of coffee/caffeine. Studies integrating genetic or physiological markers of coffee/caffeine intake to investigations of coffee and health.

Keywords

accidental death --- caffeine --- caffeine intoxication --- intoxication --- Suicide --- HIV-HCV co-infection --- liver fibrosis --- coffee --- alcohol consumption --- coffee --- tea --- European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition --- 24-h dietary recall --- whole-blood --- mRNA --- transcriptomics --- gene expression --- coffee --- the Norwegian Women and Cancer Cohort (NOWAC) --- caffeine --- myocardial perfusion --- coronary artery disease --- adenosine --- regadenoson --- dipyridamole --- caffeine intake --- assisted reproduction techniques --- risk factors --- implantation --- clinical pregnancy --- live birth --- epidemiology --- bias --- causation --- coffee --- pregnancy --- coffee --- depression --- cohort study --- Mendelian Randomization --- coffee --- caffeine --- behavior --- causality --- genetic epidemiology --- epidemiological methods --- cardiovascular disease --- coffee consumption --- gene-diet interaction --- longevity --- NADH dehydrogenase --- polymorphism --- serum chloride levels --- CYP1A2 --- ADORA2A --- time trial performance --- caffeine metabolism --- pharmacological ergogenic aid --- polymorphism --- anxiety --- ergogenic --- adenosine receptor --- cytochrome P450 --- caffeine --- pharmacogenomics --- coffee --- caffeine --- chlorogenic acids --- phenolic --- cognition --- cognitive --- mood --- age --- sex --- caffeine --- wine --- chocolate --- aging --- cognition --- adult --- coffee --- hearing --- protection --- tinnitus --- Caffeine --- placebo --- sport --- exercise --- health --- expectancy --- cognitions --- caffeine --- coffee --- systematic review --- pregnancy --- safety --- individual responses --- ergogenic aid --- supplement --- did not respond --- responders --- n/a --- caffeine --- coffee --- tea --- soda --- energy drinks --- mate --- guidelines --- country --- consumption --- population --- public policy --- coffee --- caffeine --- lipids --- biomarkers --- trial --- lysophosphatidylcholine --- lipidomics --- n/a

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