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Post-Exercise Recovery: Fundamental and Interventional Physiology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198559 Year: Pages: 78 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-855-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Physiological responses after maximal and submaximal exercise are routinely monitored in a plethora of diseases (e.g. cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, asthma, neuromuscular disorders), and normal populations (e.g. athletes, youth, elderly), while slower or irregular post-exercise recovery usually indicates poor health and/or low fitness level. Abnormal post-exercise recovery (as assessed via blunted post-exercise heart rate dynamics) helps to predict the presence and severity of coronary artery disease, while differences in recovery outcomes in athletes might discriminate between fit and unfit individuals. Disturbances in post-exercise recovery might be due to acute or persistent changes in: (1) adaptive responses mediated by the autonomic nervous system and vasodilator substances, (2) cellular bioenergetics, and/or (3) muscular plasticity. Preliminary evidence suggests possible role of time-dependent modulation of nitric oxide synthase and adenosine receptors during post-exercise recovery, yet no molecular attributes of post-exercise recovery are revealed so far. Currently several markers of post-exercise recovery are used (e.g. heart rate measures, hormone profiles, biochemical and hematological indices); however none of them meets all criteria to make its use generally accepted as the gold standard. In addition, recent studies suggest that different pharmacological agents and dietary interventions, or manipulative actions (e.g. massage, cold-water immersion, compression garments, athletic training) administered before, during or immediately after exercise could positively affect post-exercise recovery. There is a growing interest to provide more evidence-based data concerning the effectiveness and safety of traditional and novel interventions to affect post-exercise recovery. The goals of this research topic are to critically evaluate the current advances on mechanisms and clinical implications of post-exercise recovery, and to summarize recent experimental data from interventional studies. This knowledge may help to identify the hierarchy of key mechanisms, and recognize methods to monitor and improve post-exercise recovery in both health and disease.

Nutrition, Health and Athletic Performance

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038426264 9783038426271 Year: Pages: 528 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-10 13:09:56
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Optimal nutrition is fundamental for enhancing training, recovery and performance in sport. Therefore, research has aimed to determine the efficacy of appropriate intake of nutrients, fluids, and supplements and their role in exercise performance. The purpose of this Special Issue entitled “Nutrition, Health and Athletic Performance” is to highlight recent research examining aspects of sports nutrition and exercise performance. Manuscript submissions of original research, meta-analyses, or reviews of the scientific literature, which targets nutritional strategies to benefit performance and health, are welcome. Studies performed in humans are preferred given the applied nature of this issue.

Misery to Mirth

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ISBN: 9780198779025 9780198779025 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198779025.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-25 11:01:02
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The history of early modern medicine often makes for depressing reading. It implies that people fell ill, took ineffective remedies, and died. This book seeks to rebalance and brighten our overall picture of early modern health by focusing on the neglected subject of recovery from illness in England, c.1580–1720. Drawing on an array of archival and printed materials, Misery to Mirth shows that recovery did exist conceptually at this time, and that it was a widely reported phenomenon. The book takes three main perspectives: the first is physiological or medical, asking what doctors and laypeople meant by recovery, and how they thought it occurred. This includes a discussion of convalescent care, a special branch of medicine designed to restore strength to the patient’s fragile body after illness. Secondly, the book adopts the viewpoint of patients themselves: it investigates how they reacted to the escape from death, the abatement of pain and suffering, and the return to normal life and work. At the heart of getting better was contrast—from ‘paine to ease, sadnesse to mirth, prison to liberty, and death to life’. The third perspective concerns the patient’s loved ones; it shows that family and friends usually shared the feelings of patients, undergoing a dramatic transformation from anguish to elation. This mirroring of experiences, known as ‘fellow-feeling’, reveals the depth of love between many individuals. Through these discussions, the book opens a window onto some of the most profound, as well as the more prosaic, aspects of early modern existence, from attitudes to life and death, to details of what convalescents ate for supper and wore in bed.&#xD;

Keywords

recovery --- convalescence --- cure --- heal --- patient --- medicine --- disease --- death --- emotions --- joy

24 Working Together in the Aftermath of an Unforeseen Event (Book chapter)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch24 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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"The frame of this chapter is how clinicians and leaders employed in psychiatric&#xD;departments in hospitals experience and cope with patients who commit&#xD;suicide while undergoing treatment. The major focus is the phenomenon which in&#xD;the Bow-tie model is called “stabilization”. To explore this phenomenon in an empirical&#xD;analysis, two concepts of samhandling are introduced, these being coordination&#xD;and cooperation. These two concepts are used in an interpretation of what eight&#xD;leaders and clinicians report on how they handle working together after a patient&#xD;during treatment in a psychiatric hospital has unexpectedly committed suicide.&#xD;The findings are that leaders and clinicians have different views on what stabilization&#xD;is. Stabilization to the leaders seems to be something they can handle by using&#xD;mandatory organizational procedures of coordination. To the clinicians (psychologists&#xD;and psychiatrists) however, stabilization is less straightforward. Professional&#xD;stabilization is, to them, more important than organizational stabilization, and it&#xD;requires another form of interaction – namely, cooperation. Cooperation is, in its&#xD;simplest and purest form, a symmetrical way of working together, based on equality&#xD;in competence and an unforced relation between the parties. For the purpose of&#xD;professional stabilization, this is the form of interaction preferred by the clinicians.&#xD;However, these findings are tentative and more research is needed to elaborate why&#xD;leaders and clinicians respond as they do after a patient suicide."&#xD;

Cloud Standby - Eine Methode zur Vorhaltung eines Notfallsystems in der Cloud

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ISBN: 9783731505570 Year: Pages: IV, 289 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000057616 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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Small and Medium size Companies (SME) are facing threats on a daily basis. Even if 94% of German SMEs are regularly backing up their data, only 50% use a different datacenter provider for protecting critical business processes with a disaster recovery system. The goal of this thesis is it to describe a new method for providing a disaster recovery system within the Cloud.

Pathways to Recovery and Desistance

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ISBN: 9781447349310 Year: Pages: 232 Language: English
Publisher: Policy Press
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-09-11 11:21:03
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Available Open Access under CC-BY-NC licence. Putting forward a new recovery roadmap and new reform models for prisoners reintegration, Best provides an accessible guide for the implementation of community partnerships for people in recovery from substance abuse or rehabilitating from offending. Using case studies and a strengths-based approach the book emphasizes the importance of long-term recovery and the role that communities and peers play in the process. &#xD;&#xD;

The adrenergic system in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193981 Year: Pages: 85 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-398-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Cardiovascular diseases pose an enormous clinical challenge, remaining the most common cause of death in the world. ß-adrenoceptors play an important role on cardiac, vascular and/or endothelial function at a cellular level with relevant applications in several cardiovascular diseases, such as heart failure and hypertension. G protein– coupled receptors (GPCRs), including ß-adrenergic receptors, constitute the most ubiquitous superfamily of plasma membrane receptors and represent the single most important type of therapeutic drug target. Sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity, which characterizes several cardiovascular diseases, such as heart failure and hypertension, as well as physiological ageing, has been proved to exert in the long-term detrimental effects in a wide range of cardiovascular diseases. Acutely, sympathetic hyperactivity represents the response to an insult to the myocardium, aiming to compensate for decreased cardiac output. This process involves the activation of beta-adrenergic receptors by catecholamine with consequent heart rate and cardiac contractility increase. However, long-term exposure of the heart to elevated norepinephrine and epinephrine levels, originating from sympathetic nerve endings and chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland, results in further progressive deterioration in cardiac structure and function. At the molecular level, sustained sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity is responsible for several alterations including altered beta-adrenergic receptor signaling and function (down-regulation/ desensitization). Moreover, the detrimental effects of catecholamine affect also the function of different cell types including, but not limited to, endothelial cells, fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. Thus, the success of beta-blocker therapy is due, at least in part, to the protection of the heart and the vasculature from the noxious effects of augmented catecholamine levels. The research topic aimed to support the progress towards understanding the role of sympathetic nervous system under physiological conditions, and the contribution of its hyperactivity in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular diseases.

The Adrenergic System in Cardiovascular Physiology and Pathophysiology, 2nd Edition

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197316 Year: Pages: 78 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-731-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Cardiovascular diseases pose an enormous clinical challenge, remaining the most common cause of death in the world. ß-adrenoceptors play an important role on cardiac, vascular and/or endothelial function at a cellular level with relevant applications in several cardiovascular diseases, such as heart failure and hypertension. G protein– coupled receptors (GPCRs), including ß-adrenergic receptors, constitute the most ubiquitous superfamily of plasma membrane receptors and represent the single most important type of therapeutic drug target. Sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity, which characterizes several cardiovascular diseases, such as heart failure and hypertension, as well as physiological ageing, has been proved to exert in the long-term detrimental effects in a wide range of cardiovascular diseases. Acutely, sympathetic hyperactivity represents the response to an insult to the myocardium, aiming to compensate for decreased cardiac output. This process involves the activation of beta-adrenergic receptors by catecholamine with consequent heart rate and cardiac contractility increase. However, long-term exposure of the heart to elevated norepinephrine and epinephrine levels, originating from sympathetic nerve endings and chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland, results in further progressive deterioration in cardiac structure and function. At the molecular level, sustained sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity is responsible for several alterations including altered beta-adrenergic receptor signaling and function (down-regulation/ desensitization). Moreover, the detrimental effects of catecholamine affect also the function of different cell types including, but not limited to, endothelial cells, fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. Thus, the success of beta-blocker therapy is due, at least in part, to the protection of the heart and the vasculature from the noxious effects of augmented catecholamine levels. The research topic aimed to support the progress towards understanding the role of sympathetic nervous system under physiological conditions, and the contribution of its hyperactivity in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular diseases.

CNS Recovery after Structural and/or Physiological/Psychological Damage

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450404 Year: Pages: 107 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-040-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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There is an assumption that environmental threats could cause important damages in central nervous system. As a consequence, several forms of brain structural plasticity could be affected. The environmentally mediated risks include generally physical (such as brain and spinal cord injury) and psychological / psychosocial influences (e.g. stress). In general, the response of the organism to these environmental challenges passes via adaptive responses to maintain homeostasis or functional recovery. These processes engage the immune system, the autonomic nervous system (ANS) besides the hypothalamo-hypophyseo-adrenal (HPA) axis via specific hormones, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and other factors which participate, in several cases, in structural remodeling in particular brain areas. To what extent a brain and / or spinal cord recovery after structural and / or physiological / psychological damage could occur and by which mechanisms, this is the goal of this Research Topic. It concerns neurogenesis, growth factors and their receptors, and morphological plasticity. On the other hand, it is well known that stress experienced an obvious impact on many behavioral and physiological aspects. Thus, environmental stress affects neuroendocrine structure and function and hence such aspects may influence brain development. Knowing normal organization of neurotensin receptors’ system during postnatal development in human infant will help understanding the dysfunction of this neuropetidergic system in “sudden infant syndrome” victims. Stress could affect also other non-neuroendocrine regions and systems. GABA is one of the classical neurotransmitter sensitive to stress either when applied acutely or repetitively as well as its receptor GABAA. Furthermore, the modulation of this receptor complex notably by neurosteroids is also affected by acute stress. These steroids seem to play a role in the resilience retained by the stressed brain. Their modulatory role will be studied in the context of chronic stress in rats. Finally, one of the major impacts of stress besides changes in psychological behavior is the alteration of food intake control causing in final eating disorders. This alteration is the result of changes occurring in activity of brain regions involved in stress responses (principally HPA and ANS) and which are also involved in food intake control. The series of studies presented here, will try to explain how different stress paradigms affect this function and the eventual interactions of glucocorticoids with orexigenic (neuropetide Y: NPY/Agouti Related Peptide: AgRP) and anorexigenic peptides (Pre-opiomelanocortin peptide: POMC/Cocaine Amphetamine regulatory Transcript peptide: CART).

Mental Health Challenges in Elite Sport: Balancing Risk with Reward

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453832 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-383-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Elite sport typically provides obvious rewards in terms of recognition, finance and acclaim for athletic performance. Increasingly, we are becoming aware of the risks that elite athletes, their entourage, including families, sport-science support team and coaches are exposed to. Twelve original articles, seven commentaries and a corrigendum, are structured in a five chapter format. Chapter 1, comprising the Editorial is titled “An Overview of Mental Health in Elite Sport: Changing the Play Book” to reflect the advocacy role of this article. Chapter 2 (“Finding the Sweet Spot”) amplifies the voice of key stakeholders across three qualitative studies with three additional commentaries. Quantitative evidence is presented in Chapter 3 which has the sub-title the “State of Play.” Chapter 4, entitled the “Field of Play” includes three original publications which present contrasting conceptual approaches to guide researchers in hypothesis generation, formulation and implementation science. Finally, in Chapter 5, “Seeing the Ball Early” prospective perspectives are provided in three publications reinforced by two commentaries. The future thinking ideas includes the use of virtual reality training, a broadening of the concept of mental health literacy, tackling stigma and focusing on the potential positive effect of the natural environment on well-being and recovery.To date the research topic has generated widespread in the field. For example, several articles have generated an Altmetric score above 40 with one publication meriting an Altmetric score of 102. We envisage that the impact of this e-book will not simply be measured in citations, views, downloads nor social media impact, but in the discourse that emerges from this collection of contributions from a combined total of 53 authors from across three continents. It is our hope that this e-book, providing a snapshot of global challenges for elite athletes mental health and well-being, becomes a touchstone for researchers and practitioners in the field.

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