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Dopaminergic Foundations of Personality and Individual Differences

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194322 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-432-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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For several decades, theory and research has drawn links between dopaminergic neurotransmission and various aspects of personality and individual differences, as well as major personality processes. Recent increases in the availability and affordability of neuroscience methods have permitted thorough investigation of such links as part of the thriving field of personality neuroscience. However, the picture emerging from this body of research is somewhat puzzling; Rather than being linked to only a few converging dimensions of individual differences in psychological functioning, dopamine seems to be associated with a wide range of rather disparate traits and psychopathological conditions including (among various others) impulsivity, extraversion, anxiety, reward sensitivity, approach behaviour, achievement motivation, working memory performance, cognitive flexibility, depression, anhedonia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and schizophrenia. Empirical research in this area typically focuses on only one piece of this puzzle based on a specific strand of theory and a narrow section of relevant prior findings. The present research topic will, for the first time, attempt to provide a fairly complete picture of the whole puzzle including all its disparate parts. Contributors will therefore be explicitly encouraged to go beyond their own specific dopamine-personality hypotheses and place their work in a broader context, thereby helping to forge links between largely non-overlapping research traditions.

Attention, predictions and expectations and their violation: attentional control in the human brain

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193677 Year: Pages: 211 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-367-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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In the burdened scenes of everyday life, our brains must select from among many competing inputs for perceptual synthesis - so that only the most relevant receive full attention and irrelevant (distracting) information is suppressed. At the same time, we must remain responsive to salient events outside our current focus of attention - and balancing these two processing modes is a fundamental task our brain constantly needs to solve. Both the physical saliency of a stimulus, as well as top-down predictions about imminent sensations crucially influence attentional selection and consequently the response to unexpected events. Research over recent decades has identified two separate brain networks involved in predictive top-down control and reorientation to unattended events (or oddball stimuli): the dorsal and ventral fronto-parietal attention systems of the human brain. Moreover, specific electrophysiological brain responses are known to characterize attentional orienting as well as the processing of deviant stimuli. However, many key questions are outstanding. What are the exact functional differences between these cortical attention systems? How are they lateralised in the two hemispheres? How do top-down and bottom-up signals interact to enable flexible attentional control? How does structural damage to one system affect the functionality of the other in brain damaged patients? Are there sensory-specific and supra-modal attentional systems in the brain? In addition to these questions, it is now accepted that brain responses are not only affected by the saliency of external stimuli, but also by our expectations about sensory inputs. How these two influences are balanced, and how predictions are formed in cortical networks, or generated on the basis of experience-dependent learning, are intriguing issues. In this Research Topic, we aim to collect innovative contributions that shed further light on the (cortical) mechanisms of attentional control in the human brain. In particular, we would like to encourage submissions that investigate the behavioural correlates, functional anatomy or electrophysiological markers of attentional selection and reorientation. Special emphasis will be given to studies investigating the context-sensitivity of these attentional processes in relation to prior expectations, trial history, contextual cues or physical saliency. We would like to encourage submissions employing different research methods (psychophysical recordings, neuroimaging techniques such as fMRI, MEG, EEG or ECoG, as well as neurostimulation methods such as TMS or tDCS) in healthy volunteers or neurological patients. Computational models and animal studies are also welcome. Finally, we also welcome submission of meta-analyses and reviews articles that provide new insights into, or conclusions about recent work in the field.

Neuronal and Psychological Underpinnings of Pathological Gambling

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193202 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-320-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Like in the case of drugs, gambling hijacks reward circuits in a brain which is not prepared to receive such intense stimulation. Dopamine is normally released in response to reward and uncertainty in order to allow animals to stay alive in their environment – where rewards are relatively unpredictable. In this case, behavior is regulated by environmental feedbacks, leading animals to persevere or to give up. In contrast, drugs provide a direct, intense pharmacological stimulation of the dopamine system that operates independently of environmental feedbacks, and hence causes “motivational runaways”. With respect to gambling, the confined environment experienced by gamblers favors the emergence of excitatory conditioned cues, so that positive feedbacks take over negative feedbacks. Although drugs and gambling may act differently, their abnormal activation of reward circuitry generates an underestimation of negative consequences and promotes the development of addictive/compulsive behavior. In Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease, dopamine-related therapies may disrupt these feedbacks on dopamine signalling, potentially leading to various addictions, including pathological gambling. The goal of this Research Topic is to further our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the development of pathological gambling. This eBook contains a cross-disciplinary collection of research and review articles, ranging in scope from animal behavioral models to human imaging studies.

Brain Reward & Stress Systems in Addiction

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194575 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-457-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychiatry --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Addiction to drugs and alcohol is a dynamic and multi-faceted disease process in humans, with devastating health and financial consequences for the individual and society-at-large. In humans, drug and alcohol use disorders (i.e., abuse and dependence) are defined by clusters of behavioral symptoms that can be modeled to various degrees in animals. Hallmark behavioral symptoms associated with drug and alcohol dependence are compulsive drug use, loss of control during episodes of drug use, the emergence of a negative emotional state in the absence of the drug, and chronic relapse vulnerability during drug abstinence. The transition to drug dependence is defined by neuroadaptations in brain circuits that, in the absence of drugs, mediate a variety of critical behavioral and physiological processes including natural reward, positive and negative emotional states, nociception, and feeding. Chronic drug exposure during the transition to dependence spurs (1) within-systems changes in neural circuits that contribute to the acute rewarding effects of the drug and (2) recruitment of brain stress systems (neuroendocrine and extra-hypothalamic). There are substantial genetic contributions to the propensity to use and abuse drugs, and drug abuse is highly co-morbid with various other psychiatric conditions (e.g., anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder) that may precede or follow the development of drug use problems. Across drugs of abuse, there are overlapping and dissociable aspects of the behavioral and neural changes that define the transition to dependence. Even within a single drug, people abuse drugs for a variety of reasons. The picture is further complicated by the fact that humans often abuse more than one drug concurrently. Even in the face of these challenges, pre-clinical and clinical research is making exponential gains into understanding the neurobiology of drug addiction. With the advent of new technologies and their combination with traditional approaches, the field is able to ask and answer addiction-related research questions in increasingly sophisticated ways. Here, we hope to assemble a collection of articles that provide an up-to-the-moment snapshot of the prevailing empirical, theoretical and technical directions in the addiction research field. We encourage submissions from all investigators working to understand the neurobiology of addiction, especially as it pertains to reward and stress pathways in the brain.

Keywords

relapse --- reward --- stress --- pain --- alcohol --- Nicotine --- Heroin --- Methamphetamine

Beyond Reward: Insights from Love and Addiction

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450701 Year: Pages: 131 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-070-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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It is an interesting topic to discuss addiction and love in the context of reward. In this e-book, we begin with an animal study of comparison between drug and natural reward. Then, some papers aim to understand the reward system underlying behavioral addiction focusing on technology, for example Internet addiction and mobile phone dependence. The third part of this e-book addresses the topic of love. Considered as a whole, this e-book demonstrates that drug and behavioral addictions are frequently related with negative consequences, while romantic love is related with a positive consequence. That's why romantic love may be considered as a natural addiction. We think that the notion of romantic love as a positive addiction may offer a new view for future research in the field.It is an interesting topic to discuss addiction and love in the context of reward. In this e-book, we begin with an animal study of comparison between drug and natural reward. Then, some papers aim to understand the reward system underlying behavioral addiction focusing on technology, for example Internet addiction and mobile phone dependence. The third part of this e-book addresses the topic of love. Considered as a whole, this e-book demonstrates that drug and behavioral addictions are frequently related with negative consequences, while romantic love is related with a positive consequence. That's why romantic love may be considered as a natural addiction. We think that the notion of romantic love as a positive addiction may offer a new view for future research in the field.

Keywords

Addiction --- drug --- romantic love --- reward system --- fMRI --- EEG

Value and Reward Based Learning in Neurobots

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194315 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-431-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Organisms are equipped with value systems that signal the salience of environmental cues to their nervous system, causing a change in the nervous system that results in modification of their behavior. These systems are necessary for an organism to adapt its behavior when an important environmental event occurs. A value system constitutes a basic assumption of what is good and bad for an agent. These value systems have been effectively used in robotic systems to shape behavior. For example, many robots have used models of the dopaminergic system to reinforce behavior that leads to rewards. Other modulatory systems that shape behavior are acetylcholine’s effect on attention, norepinephrine’s effect on vigilance, and serotonin’s effect on impulsiveness, mood, and risk. Moreover, hormonal systems such as oxytocin and its effect on trust constitute as a value system. This book presents current research involving neurobiologically inspired robots whose behavior is: 1) Shaped by value and reward learning, 2) adapted through interaction with the environment, and 3) shaped by extracting value from the environment.

Reward- and aversion-related processing in the brain: translational evidence for separate and shared circuits

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198368 Year: Pages: 181 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-836-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Affective brain circuits underpin our moods and emotions. Appetitive and aversive stimuli from our exteroceptive and interoceptive worlds play a key role in the activity of these circuits, but we still do not know precisely how to characterize these so-called reward-related and aversion-related systems. Moreover, we do we yet understand how they interact anatomically or functionally. The aim of the current project was to gather some translational evidence to help clarify the role of such circuits. A multi-dimensional problem in its own right, the book contains 14 works from authors exploring these questions at many levels, from the cellular to the cognitive-behavioral, and from both experimental and conceptual viewpoints. The editorial which introduces the book provides brief summaries of each perspective (Hayes, Northoff, Greenshaw, 2015). While questions of how to accurately define affect- and emotion-related concepts at the psychological level are far from answered, here we have attempted to provide some insight into the brain-based underpinnings of such processes. The near future will undoubtedly involve making new inroads and will require the joint efforts of behavioral, brain-based, and philosophical perspectives to do so.

At Risk for Neuropsychiatric Disorders: An Affective Neuroscience Approach to Understanding the Spectrum

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450268 Year: Pages: 260 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-026-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety disorders, and other mental disorders constitute about 13% of the global burden of disease surpassing both cardiovascular disease and cancer. The total cost worldwide of these diseases is estimated to exceed 100 million disability-adjusted life years. In order to begin to address this important problem, the present Research Topic brings together a group of leading affective neuroscience researchers to present their state-of-the-art findings using an affective neuroscience approach to investigate the spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders from patients to those at risk. They focus on different aspects of the emotional and social cognitive disturbances which are core features of neuropsychiatric disorders. While progress has been slow over last couple of decades, we are finally beginning to glimpse some of the underlying neural mechanisms of the emotional and social cognitive disturbances in patients and those at risk. With the technological advances in affective neuroscience and neuroimaging presented in this volume, we hope that progress will be much swifter in the coming years such that we can provide better care for patients and those at risk.

Limbic-Brainstem Roles in Perception, Cognition, Emotion and Behavior

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455409 Year: Pages: 221 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-540-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology --- Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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The brainstem-limbic regions, including the superior colliculus, pulvinar and amygdala, receive direct perceptual information as a rapid, coarse, subcortical sensory system bypassing early sensory cortical systems, and play a central role in innate behaviors, including motivated and avoidance behaviors. Recent human neuropsychological studies including those on cortical blindness suggest that these subcortical sensory pathways are functional in the intact human brain and interact with more evolutionary recent cortical systems. This eBook presents up-to-date advancements in this area and to highlight the functions of the brainstem-limbic regions in a variety of perceptual, cognitive, affective and behavioral domains. We hope that this current Research Topic provides a comprehensive review to understand roles of the subcortical brainstem-limbic regions in some forms of sensory-motor coupling, cognitive and affective functions.

The two-way link between eating behavior and brain metabolism

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197057 Year: Pages: 197 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-705-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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This research topic collected and connected information concerning both the underlying metabolic mechanisms and consequences of eating behaviors. These two aspects are tremendously important for a better understanding of eating behavior abnormalities as well as for improving education on eating disorders and behaviors.

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