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Ribosome Inactivating Toxins

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ISBN: 9783038972488 9783038972495 Year: Pages: 329 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-249-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 10:21:23
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Ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) form a vast family of hundreds of toxins from plants, fungi, algae and bacteria. RIP activities have also been detected in animal tissues. They target a single adenine of a ribosomal RNA, thereby blocking protein synthesis and leading intoxicated cells to apoptosis. The role of plant RIPs may be related to plant defense against predators and viruses, plant senescence or bacterial pathogenesis. Most RIPs are no threat to human or animal health. However, several bacterial RIPs are major virulence factors involved in severe epidemic diseases such as dysentery or the hemolytic uremic syndrome that may occur in patients suffering from Shiga toxin-producing entero-hemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection. Several plant RIPs such as ricin toxin, abrin or sarcin have been, or may be involved in accidental or criminal poisonings, political intimidation or bio-suicides. Health crisis, biosafety and biosecurity issues became a major concern and many efforts are made to develop treatments. Finally, RIPs can be engineered into immunotoxins to destroy cancer cells or cells chronically infected by viruses.This book presents the most recent data on all aspects of RIPs including function, diversity and evolution, mechanism, pathophysiology, medical countermeasures and engineering into anticancer drugs.

Novel Aspects of Nucleolar Functions in Plant Growth and Development

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455539 Year: Pages: 96 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-553-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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The nucleolus is a prominent nuclear domain that is common to eukaryotes. Since the nucleolus was first described in the 1830s, its identity had remained a mystery for longer than 100 years. Major advances in understanding of the nucleolus were achieved through electron microscopic and biochemical studies in the 1960s to 1970s followed by molecular biological studies. These studies finally established the view of the nucleolus that it is a large aggregate of RNA-protein complexes associated with the rRNA gene region of chromosome DNA, serving mainly as a site of ribosome biogenesis, where pre-rRNA transcription, pre-rRNA processing, and ribosome assembly occur. This function of the nucleolus appears to indicate that the nucleolus plays a constitutive and essential role in fundamental cellular activities by producing ribosomes. Recent research has shown, however, that the nucleolus is more dynamic and can have more specific and wider functions. In plants, nucleolar functions have been implicated in developmental regulations and environmental responses by accumulating pieces of evidence obtained mostly from genetic studies of nucleolar factor-related mutants. Comprehensive analysis of nucleolar proteins and molecular cytological characterization of sub-nucleolar and peri-nucelolar bodies have also provided new insights into behaviors and functions of the plant nucleolus.

In this Research Topic, we would like to collect physiological and molecular links between the nucleolus to plant growth and development, shed light on novel aspects of nucleolar functions beyond its classical view, and stimulate research activities focusing on the nucleolus across various fields of plant science, including molecular biology, cell biology, genetics, developmental biology, physiology, and evolutionary biology.
In-Cell NMR Spectroscopy: Biomolecular Structure and Function

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ISBN: 9783039282548 / 9783039282555 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-255-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This Special Issue examines state-of-the-art in-cell NMR spectroscopy as it relates to biological systems of increasing complexity. The compendia of research and recent innovations from prominent laboratories in the field of solid state and solution in-cell NMR spectroscopy, metabolomics and technology development are presented. The work establishes in-cell NMR spectroscopy as the premier method for determining the structures and interaction capabilities of biological molecules at high resolution within the delicately intricate interior of living cells, and the means of utilizing cells as living laboratories to directly assess the effects of exogenous and endogenous stimuli on cell physiology.]

Venom and Toxin as Targeted Therapy

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ISBN: 9783039211890 9783039211906 Year: Pages: 180 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-190-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Targeted therapy has developed significantly in the last one and half decades, prescribing specific medications for treatment of particular diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. One of the most exciting recent developments in targeted therapies was the isolation of disease-specific molecules from natural resources, such as animal venoms and plant metabolites/toxins, for use as templates for new drug motif designs. In addition, the study of venom proteins/peptides and toxins naturally targeted mammalian receptors and demonstrated high specificity and selectivity towards defined ion channels of cell membranes. Research has also focsed intensely on receptors. The focus of this Special Issue of Toxins addressed the most recent advances using animal venoms, such as frog secretions, bee/ant venoms and plant/fungi toxins, as medicinal therapy. Recent advances in venom/toxin/immunotoxins for targeted cancer therapy and immunotherapy, along with using novel disease-specific venom-based protein/peptide/toxin and currently available FDA-approved drugs for combinationtreatments will be discussed. Finally, we included an overview of select promising toad/snake venom-based peptides/toxins potentially able to address the forthcoming challenges in this field. Both research and review articles proposing novelties or overviews, respectively, were published in this Special Issue after rigorous evaluation and revision by expert peer reviewers.

Keywords

disintegrin --- blood vessel formation --- VEGF --- antioxidant enzymes --- oxidative stress biomarkers --- bicarinalin --- antimicrobial peptide --- Helicobacter pylori --- gastric cells --- bacterial adhesion --- SEM --- atopic dermatitis (AD) --- house dust mite extract (DFE) --- 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) --- bee venom phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2) --- skin inflammation --- CD206 --- mannose receptor --- immunotoxin --- Moxetumomab pasudotox --- targeted therapy --- CD22 --- B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma --- acute lymphoblastic leukemia --- mantle cell lymphoma --- ribosome-inactivating protein --- BLF1 --- eIF4A --- MYCN --- cancer --- neuroblastoma --- apoptosis --- antimicrobial peptide (AMP) --- dermaseptin --- anuran skin secretion --- drug design --- antimicrobial activity --- anticancer activity --- antiviral activity --- Bougainvillea --- bouganin --- cancer therapy --- immunotherapy --- immunotoxins --- ribosome-inactivating proteins --- rRNA N-glycosylase activity --- VB6-845 --- orellanine --- clearance --- fungal toxin --- half-life --- toad toxins --- Chansu --- Huachansu --- cane toad --- bufadienolides --- indolealkylamines --- inflammation --- cancer --- obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) --- snake venom --- cancer --- target therapy --- snake venom --- Malaysian cobras --- N. kaouthia --- N. sumatrana --- O. hannah --- anticancer --- Apis mellifera syriaca --- bee venom --- melittin --- LC-ESI-MS --- solid phase extraction --- in vitro effects --- frog --- mass spectrometry --- molecular cloning --- bombesin-related peptide --- smooth muscle --- Bee venom --- complement system --- decay accelerating factor --- atopic dermatitis --- complement dependent cytotoxicity --- membrane attack complex --- n/a

The Origin and Early Evolution of Life: Prebiotic Chemistry of Biomolecules

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ISBN: 9783039216062 9783039216079 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-607-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Studying the origin of life is one of man’s greatest achievements over the last sixty years. The fields of interest encompassed by this quest are multiple and interdisciplinary: chemistry, physics, biology, biochemistry, mathematics, geology but also statistics, atmospheric science, meteorology, oceanography, and astrophysics. Recent scientific discoveries, such as water on Mars and the existence of super-Earths with atmospheres similar to primordial Earth, have pushed researchers to simulate prebiotic conditions in explaining the abiotic formation of molecules essential to life. This collection of articles offers an overview of recent discoveries in the field of prebiotic chemistry of biomolecules, their formation and selection, and the evolution of complex chemical systems.

Keywords

origin of life --- systems chemistry --- Chemomimesis --- Molecular Darwinism --- origin of life --- prebiotic chemistry --- thiol-rich peptides --- cysteine --- aminonitriles --- imidazoles --- origin of life --- prebiotic chemistry --- nucleotide and nucleoside synthesis --- protein design --- novel metalloproteins --- binary patterned amino acid sequences --- prebiotic chemistry --- population growth --- replication --- growth order --- Darwinian evolution --- selection --- origin of life --- abiogenesis --- carbon fixation --- hydrothermal vents --- electrochemistry --- reduction --- digit multiplicity --- information --- transmission --- encoding --- translation --- diversity --- function --- origin of life --- layered double hydroxide (LDH) clay --- pentose diphosphate --- pentopyranose nucleic acid --- arabinopyranose nucleic acid --- RNA --- base pairing --- purine precursor --- inosine --- AICAR --- peptide/RNA world --- prebiotic information system --- translation and the genetic code --- bridge peptide and aaRS --- ribozyme and tRNA --- tRNA and mRNA --- coevolution of translation machine and the genetic code --- MVC architecture pattern and biological information --- numerical codons --- AnyLogic software for computer simulation of translation machine --- phosphoryl transfer --- metabolism --- energy currency --- mixed anhydride --- origin of life --- hypercycle --- Monte Carlo --- prebiotic chemistry --- carbamic acid --- carbon dioxide-ammonia ices --- infrared spectra --- anharmonicity --- origin of life --- metabolism --- phosphates --- network expansion simulation --- thermodynamic bottleneck --- molecular clocks --- ab initio molecular dynamics --- catalysis --- prebiotic soup --- origins of life --- aldol reaction --- mechanochemistry --- minerals --- monosaccharides --- prebiotic chemistry --- prebiotic polymerization --- nucleotide oligomerization --- abasic oligomers --- nucleotide stability --- stability as a selection pressure --- dry-wet cycles --- genetic code origin --- tRNA accretion model --- tRNA-synthetase --- metabolism --- thioester --- nucleotidyltransferases --- early peptides --- ribosome --- n/a

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