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Problem Gambling: Summarizing Research Findings and Defining New Horizons

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456130 Year: Pages: 217 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-613-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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In 2003, Rachel A. Volberg wrote: “Why is it that gambling is not even on the radar when we consider the array of risks that adolescents must confront as they move towards adulthood?” Nowadays, after thirteen years, although much more is known about this particular form of risk behavior, there is still a general tendency, at least among laypersons, to not perceive gambling as a potential danger for youth and other population segments (e.g., individuals with migration background, seniors, sports professionals). However, the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5, American Psychological Association, 2013) included Gambling Disorder as the only condition in the Section Non-Substance-Related Disorders. Moreover, it is specified that the disorder can indeed occur in adolescence or young adulthood. Despite this fact, theoretical and applied research on problem gambling with regard to adolescence and other risk groups is still in its infancy.For this reason, it seems to be important to organize a Research Topic on gambling in Frontiers in Psychology in order to i) highlight the necessity of considering gambling as a potential harmful activity; ii) summarize the state-of-art of international research on different aspects of the topic; and iii) offer important novel findings relevant for advancing knowledge in the field of gambling. Different types of research articles will be provided including original articles, systematic/scoping reviews, meta-analyses, case reports, and commentaries. These contributions will be focused on the following most important areas in gambling research: Measurement (Which are the most widely used instruments to assess gambling-related problems as well as proximate constructs and what are their psychometric properties? Are there new instruments to detect adolescent problem gamblers?), Protective and risk factors (What do we know about ecological and individual influences on gambling behavior? Which factors affect problem gambling most and in which way?), Prevention (Which are the most promising prevention programs implemented until now? Which are necessary ingredients for effective prevention?), Treatment (When individuals seek help for their gambling-related problems, which are the clinical treatments that are offered? Do we have evidence for treatment effectiveness for different subgroups?).To try to fulfill this goal in the most comprehensive way, researchers from different countries and with specific competencies and interests will be contacted and encouraged to submit a contribution. Through the integration of international and multidisciplinary contributions, i) new challenges in the field of gambling will be identified (e.g., definition of specific at-risk groups, specification of effective interventions in terms of best practices) and ii) new research routes (e.g., the use of behavioral data) will be outlined in order to build a comprehensive understanding of problem gambling. The overall aim is to summarize the state of art, to propose original novel findings, and to outline new directions in gambling research.

Pediatric Venous Thromboembolism

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456390 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-639-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurs less often in children than adults and therefore remains underrecognized despite increasing in incidence. Due to the risk of mortality, short- and long-term morbidity, and increased healthcare costs associated with pediatric VTE, this entity merits better understanding and consideration. With this Research Topic, we aim to highlight some special considerations of pediatric VTE, namely risk factors and epidemiology, rare types of pediatric thrombosis and considerations unique to specific clinical patient subgroups, approaches to management and treatment, and prevention

Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer: Underlying Mechanisms and Potential Targets

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194681 Year: Pages: 115 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-468-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Pancreatic Cancer has been and still is one of the deadliest types of human malignancies. The annual mortality rates almost equal incidence rates making this disease virtually universally fatal. The 5-year survival of patients with pancreatic cancer is a dismal 5% or less. Therapeutic strategies are extremely limited with gemcitabine extending the survival by a disappointing few weeks. The failure of several randomized clinical trials in the past decade investigating the therapeutic efficacy of different mono- and combination therapies reflects our limited knowledge of pancreatic cancer biology. In addition, biomarkers for early detection are sorely missing. Several pancreatic cancer risk factors have been identified. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanisms linking these risk factors to cancer development are poorly understood. Well known possible and probable risk factors for the development of pancreatic cancer are age, smoking, chronic pancreatitis, obesity, and type-2 diabetes mellitus. Age is certainly of the most important risk factors as most cases of pancreatic cancer occur in the elderly population. Smoking ten cigarettes a day increases the risk by 2.6 times and smoking a pack per day increases it by 5 folds. Chronic pancreatitis increases the risk of pancreatic cancer by up to 13 times. Patients with hereditary forms of chronic pancreatitis have an even higher risk. Obesity, a growing global health problem, increases the risk of pancreatic cancer by about 1.5 fold. Type-2 diabetes mellitus is also associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer by at least two-fold. The more recent the onset of diabetes, the stronger the correlation with pancreatic cancer is. In addition, heavy alcohol drinking, a family history of the disease, male gender and African American ethnicity are other risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer is characterized by several genetic alterations including mutations in the Kras proto-oncogene and mutations in the tumor suppressor genes p53 and p16. While Kras mutations are currently thought as early events present in a certain percentage of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs), known precursor lesions of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, mutations in tumor suppressor genes, e.g. p53, seem to accumulate later during progression. In addition, several intracellular signaling pathways are amplified or enhanced, including the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling modules. Overall, these genetic alterations lead to enhanced and sustained proliferation, resistance to cell death, invasive and metastatic potential, and angiogenesis, all hallmarks of cancers. The scope of this Research Topic is to collect data and knowledge of how risk factors increase the risk of initiation/progression of pancreatic cancer. Of particular interest are potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Understanding the molecular mechanisms and driving signaling pathways will ultimately allow the development of targeted interventions to disrupt the risk factor-induced cancer development. This Research Topic is interested in a broad range of risk factors, including genetic and environmental, and welcomes original papers, mini and full reviews, and hypothesis papers. Manuscripts that address the effect of combination of risk factors on pancreatic cancer development and progression are of great interest as well.

Riskienhallinnan ajankohtaisia teemoja

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9789520307011 Year: Pages: 248 Language: Finnish
Publisher: Tampere University Press
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-10 11:02:32
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This book presents a variety of different themes related to risks and risk management. The book consists of research papers aimed at supplementing and updating the topics discussed previously in risk management literature. The articles cover the key concepts and essence of risk and risk management, basic issues of security construction, risk awareness in corporate decision-making, reputation risk and its impact on business operations, social risks, their significance and the dimensions of social risk management. The last article presents the freely available RiskDemo software, which allows the reader to test and illustrate a wide range of risk features. The book aims to respond to the recent changes in the risk management environment as well as to stimulate academic debate on the subject.

SIDS Sudden infant and early childhood death

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ISBN: 9781925261677 9781925261677 Year: DOI: 10.20851/sids Language: English
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-29 11:01:01
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This volume covers aspects of sudden infant and early childhood death, ranging from issues with parental grief, to the most recent theories of brainstem neurotransmitters. It also deals with the changes that have occurred over time with the definitions of SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome), SUDI (sudden unexpected death in infancy) and SUDIC (sudden unexpected death in childhood). The text will be indispensable for SIDS researchers, SIDS organisations, paediatric pathologists, forensic pathologists, paediatricians and families, in addition to residents in training programs that involve paediatrics. It will also be of use to other physicians, lawyers and law enforcement officials who deal with these cases, and should be a useful addition to all medical examiner/forensic, paediatric and pathology departments, hospital and university libraries on a global scale. Given the marked changes that have occurred in the epidemiology and understanding of SIDS and sudden death in the very young over the past decade, a text such as this is very timely and is also urgently needed.&#xD;

Infection and Inflammation: Potential Triggers of Sudden Infant Deaths

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450497 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-049-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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There is a growing body of evidence that infectious agents or their products contribute to events leading to unexpected infant deaths. This issue summarizes the current information on the interactions between genetic background of the infant, environmental and developmental risk factors, and the microbial flora of the infant that could trigger lethal responses to common infections.

Dietary Fructose and Glucose: The Multifacetted Aspects of Their Metabolism and Implication for Human Health (Vol. 1)

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ISBN: 9783038970538 9783038970545 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: X, 318 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-15 09:00:11
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We welcome the submission of manuscripts, either describing original research, or reviewing scientific literature. Manuscripts should focus on well-defined topics, not previously reported extensively in the literature, such as (without being limited to): functional aspects of fructose and glucose metabolism health effects of chronic fructose and glucose consumption molecular and mechanistic insights of hexoses-induced metabolic adaptations sugars, sweet taste receptors and brain responses intervention studies in humansPapers covering species comparisons of nutrition/metabolism or evolutionary perspectives, or effects of fructose and glucose in specific physiological conditions (physical activity, pregnancy, growth, etc.) or special tissues (testis, placenta) are welcome.

Dietary Fructose and Glucose: The Multifacetted Aspects of Their Metabolism and Implication for Human Health (Vol. 2)

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ISBN: 9783038970835 9783038970842 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: X, 318 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-15 09:25:11
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We welcome the submission of manuscripts, either describing original research, or reviewing scientific literature. Manuscripts should focus on well-defined topics, not previously reported extensively in the literature, such as (without being limited to): functional aspects of fructose and glucose metabolism health effects of chronic fructose and glucose consumption molecular and mechanistic insights of hexoses-induced metabolic adaptations sugars, sweet taste receptors and brain responses intervention studies in humansPapers covering species comparisons of nutrition/metabolism or evolutionary perspectives, or effects of fructose and glucose in specific physiological conditions (physical activity, pregnancy, growth, etc.) or special tissues (testis, placenta) are welcome.

Youth Violence

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781919895871 9781920541651 9781920541286 Year: Language: English
Publisher: UCT Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 101856
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-11 11:21:03
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Youth violence: sources and solutions in South Africa thoroughly and carefully reviews the evidence for risk and protective factors that influence the likelihood of young people acting aggressively. Layers of understanding are built by viewing the problem from a multitude of perspectives, including the current situation in which South African youth are growing up, perspectives from developmental psychology, the influences of race, class and gender, and of the media. The book examines the evidence for effective interventions in the contexts of young people’s lives – their homes, their schools, their leisure activities, with gangs, in the criminal justice system, in cities and neighbourhoods, and with sexual offenders. In doing so, thoughtful suggestions are made for keeping an evidence-based perspective while (necessarily) adapting interventions for developing world contexts, such as South Africa.

Antibiotics and Urinary Tract Infections

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ISBN: 9783906980799 9783906980805 Year: Pages: X, 143 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-906980-80-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 08:27:21
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Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most frequently occurring infections, not only community acquired, but also hospital acquired infections. An increase of resistant uropathogens against commonly used antibiotics can be observed worldwide, a subject of great concern.Several strategies are discussed how to cope with this problem:i) not to use antibiotics, when not indicated, e.g. asymptomatic bacteriuria, or when non-antimicrobial measures are available, e.g. for prophylaxis of recurrent UTI;ii) to prefer even old antibiotics, which still have preserved their antibacterial activity against uropathogens;iii) if broad spectrum antibiotics are needed for empiric therapy of severe infections, to use the right and high enough dosages to reduce selection of resistant pathogens, and to step down to a more tailored antibiotic therapy as soon as possible;iv) to control and try to avoid health care associated UTI by optimal hygienic and interventional strategies; and last but not leastv) to stimulate development of new antibiotics, especially when new bacterial targets can be approached

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