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The Realities and Futures of Work

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ISBN: 9781760463106 Year: Pages: 422 DOI: 10.22459/RFW.2019 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-29 11:21:13
License: ANU Press

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What do we know about the current realities of work and its likely futures? What choices must we make and how will they affect those futures? Many books about the future of work start by talking about the latest technology, and focus on how technology is going to change the way we work. And there is no doubt that technology will have huge impacts. However, to really understand the direction in which work is going, and the impact that technology and other forces will have, we need to first understand where we are. This book covers topics ranging from the ‘mega-drivers of change’ at work, power, globalisation and financialisation, to management, workers, digitalisation, the gig economy, gender, climate change, regulation and deregulation. In doing this, it refers to some of the great works of science fiction. It demolishes several myths, such as that the employment relationship is doomed, that we are all heading to becoming ‘freelancers’ or ‘gig workers’ one day, that most jobs will be destroyed by technological change, that the growth in jobs will mainly be in STEM fields, that we will no longer value collectivism as we will all be ‘individuals’, or that the death of unionism is inevitable. The Realities and Futures of Work also rejects the idea of technological determinism—that whatever will be, will be, thanks to technological change—and so it refuses to accept that we simply need to prepare to adapt ourselves to the future by judicious training since there is nothing else we can do about it. Instead, this book provides a realistic basis for thinking about both the present and the future. It emphasises the choices we make, and the implications of those choices for the future of work.&#xD;

Keywords

employment --- STEM --- technology

Developing Stem Cell-Based Therapies For Neural Repair

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194025 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-402-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Current pharmacotherapies and surgical intervention provide limited benefit in the treatment of neural injuries or halting disease progression and has resulted in significant hope for the successes of stem cell research. The properties of stem cells render them appropriate for cell replacement therapy, endogenous repair, disease modeling as well as high-throughput drug screening and development. Such applications will aide in increasing our knowledge and developing treatments for neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s diseases as well as neural traumas including ischemic brain damage and traumatic brain injury. This Frontiers Research topic encouraged contributions from the general field of stem cell biology, with a particular emphasis on utilizing these cells to develop new therapies for neural repair. Related articles deal with issues such as: breakthroughs in stem cell proliferation/differentiation methodologies, using pluripotent and neural stem cells for transplantation and endogenous repair, the use of patient derived stem cells for disease modeling, using stem cells for drug discovery as well as the ethical issues related to the use of stem cells.

Alterations of Epigenetics and MicroRNAs in Cancer and Cancer Stem Cell

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193455 Year: Pages: 79 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-345-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biology --- Genetics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Studies have shown that alterations of epigenetics and microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in the initiation and progression of human cancer. Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes in cancer cells is generally mediated by DNA hypermethylation of CpG island promoter and histone modification such as methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) and tri-methylation of H3K27. MiRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate expression of various target genes. Specific miRNAs are aberrantly expressed and play roles as tumor suppressors or oncogenes during carcinogenesis. Important tumor suppressor miRNAs are silenced by epigenetic alterations, resulting in activation of target oncogenes in human malignancies. Stem cells have the ability to perpetuate themselves through self-renewal and to generate mature cells of various tissues through differentiation. Accumulating evidence suggests that a subpopulation of cancer cells with distinct stem-like properties is responsible for tumor initiation, invasive growth, and metastasis formation, which is defined as cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are considered to be resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy, suggesting that these cells are important targets of cancer therapy. DNA methylation, histone modification and miRNAs may be deeply involved in stem-like properties in cancer cells. Restoring the expression of tumor suppressor genes and miRNAs by chromatin modifying drugs may be a promising therapeutic approach for cancer stem cells. In this Research Topic, we discuss about alterations of epigenetics and miRNAs in cancer and cancer stem cell and understand the molecular mechanism underlying the formation of cancer stem cell, which may provide a novel insight for treatment of refractory cancer.

Nano/Micro-Assisted Regenerative Medicine

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ISBN: 9783038972662 9783038972679 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-267-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-17 09:47:51
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Regenerative medicine is an emerging multidisciplinary field that aims to repair and restore the normal functions of tissues and organs damaged by aging, disease, injury, or congenital disorders. The basic concept of "Nano/Micro-Assisted Regenerative Medicine" is to use advanced nano/micro-technologies, either alone or in combination with specific cells, such as stem cells, to replace, enhance, or regenerate damaged or diseased human tissues or organs. This book introduces promising applications of nano/micro-technologies, such as iron oxide nanoparticles, simvastatin-loaded porous microspheres, graphene-RGD nanoisland composites, bioreducible poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(amino ketal) micelles, reduced graphene oxide-coated biphasic calcium phosphate bone graft material, amorphous nano/micro polyphosphate, cilostazol ophthalmic nanodispersions, carbonic anhydrase-IX anchored albumin-paclitaxel nanoparticles, peptide liposome incorporated citron extracts, turmeric extract-loaded nanoemulsions, and inkjet-printed nanofibrous membrane, in different tissue engineering or cancer treatment applications. In addition, it provides strategies for the further development of this field.

Cell Lineage Choice During Haematopoiesis: A Commemorative Issue in Honor of Professor Antonius Rolink

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ISBN: 9783038972747 9783038972754 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-275-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Oncology --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-13 11:29:45
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.This special issue of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences contains a collection of articles by colleagues of Antonius (Ton) Gerardus Rolink (19/04/1953-06/08/2017) and honors Ton’s life and profound knowledge of and huge contribution to science. Ton participated in an FP7 Marie Curie Initial Training Network called DECIDE, and partners have submitted articles for this Special Issue. Scientists outside this network have also submitted articles. The articles examine various aspects of how the hematopoietic stem-cell gives rise to the different types of blood and immune cells. These include decision-making by the hematopoietic stem cell and the importance of controlling events within cells and the niches the cell resides in. New insights into these processes at the basic scientific level have given rise to an emerging new model for the development of blood cells. In turn, changes to our understanding of this process have led to new and exciting propositions regarding what goes wrong during the early stages of the development of leukemia.

Stem Cell Oncology

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ISBN: 9780815392729 9781351190152 Year: Pages: 354 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:45:30
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Stem cell research is one of the fascinating areas of contemporary biology, but, as with many expanding fields of scientific inquiry, research on stem cells raises scientific questions as&#xD;rapidly as it generates discoveries. Research on stem cell treatment continues to advance&#xD;knowledge about how an organism develops from a single cell and how healthy cells replace&#xD;damaged cells in adult organisms. The most important potential application of human stem&#xD;cells is the generation of cells and tissues that could be used for cell-based therapies, especially&#xD;oncology.&#xD;The Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, collaborated with the center of&#xD;excellence and innovation (Pusat Unggulan Inovasi /PUI). The Stem Cell center of the&#xD;Universitas Sumatera Utara (USU) organized an International Conference. The International&#xD;Stem Cell and Oncology Conference (ISCOC) 2017 was an comprehensive academic&#xD;conference in the field of stem cell and oncology research and also tropical medicine and&#xD;related scientific topics.&#xD;We expect this conference will benefit academics and practitioners in the field of health&#xD;sciences in Indonesia. During the two day conference, researchers presented the most recent&#xD;discoveries in stem cell and oncology and also general medical topics, and served as well in&#xD;establishing networking for joint researchers and collaboration among participants.&#xD;The editors and the scientific committee would like to thank the participants and express&#xD;their gratitude to Faculty of Medicine of the Universitas Sumatera Utara for their support&#xD;to ISCOC 2017. Lastly, we are most indebted for the generous support given by Universitas&#xD;Sumatera Utara, Medan, Sumatera Utara, Indonesia.

Keywords

oncology --- stem cell --- research --- biology --- conference

Stem Cell Genetic Fidelity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194902 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-490-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Genetics --- Science (General) --- Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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The vision of this Frontiers in Oncology Research Topic on "Stem Cell Genetic Fidelity" had the goal of steeping a diverse range of research perspectives to a first comprehensive synthesis of thought on the questions of how tissue stem cells manage gene mutation rate and the significance of that management in mammalian evolution and biology, in particular as it relates to tissue cell renewal, carcinogenesis, and aging. The primary focus was determinants of mutation rate in distributed stem cells (DSCs), which encompass all naturally occurring stem cells at all stages of mammalian development. In particular, contributions were sought that considered a broad range of aspects of the immortal DNA strand hypothesis for DSC genetic fidelity. Though proposed in 1975, only in the last decade has this landmark concept in tissue cell biology emerged as a central discussion in DSC research with increasing scrutiny and discussion by an increasing number of laboratories of diverse research perspectives and experimental approaches. With this hypothesis presenting a formidable technical challenge for experimental investigation, as would be expected, both supportive and unsupportive reports have been lining up. In the case of supportive studies, neither the range of applicable tissues nor the responsible molecular mechanisms are known; and the essential genomic process, non-random DNA template strand inheritance by asymmetrically self-renewing DSCs, has been suggested to potentially have other cellular roles besides reducing mutation rate. A major aspiration of this Research Topic was to create the first comprehensive, critical synthesis of current insights and viewpoints on the impact of the immortal DNA strand hypothesis in the history of DSC mutation research. A wide range of article types was considered including historical perspectives, critical reviews, critical commentaries, new hypotheses, new research perspectives, technical advances, and original research reports. Although treatments of the immortal DNA strand hypothesis were the major focus, the desired synthesis required integration of related ideas on mechanisms of DSC mutagenesis and its impact in the evolution of mammals, the emergence of cancers, and stem cell aging. As such, investigators focused on issues in e.g., germ stem cell mutagenesis, effects of environmental mutagens on DSC mutation rate, DSC mutation and tissue aging, determinations of types of mutations in DSCs, and the role of DSC mutation in cancer initiation were invited. Similarly, although the specific goal of the Research Topic was to enlighten DSC genetic fidelity in humans and other mammalians, informing contributions based on studies in other model organisms were also welcomed. To achieve even better representation of current experience, advances, and ideas in this field of investigation, these early contributors were encouraged to extend the opportunity to others who shared their interest in advancing our understanding of the mutability of DSCs and its significance in human biology.

Frontiers in Skeletal Muscle Wasting, Regeneration and Stem Cells

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198320 Year: Pages: 259 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-832-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The search for knowledge on cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in skeletal muscle mass homeostasis and regeneration is an exciting scientific area and extremely important to develop therapeutic strategies for neuromuscular disorders and conditions related to muscle wasting. The mechanisms involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass and regeneration consist of molecular signaling pathways modulating protein synthesis and degradation, bioenergetics alterations and preserved function of muscle stem cells. In the last years, different kinds of stem cells has been reported to be localized into skeletal muscle (satellite cells, mesoangioblasts, progenitor interstitial cells and others) or migrate from non-muscle sites, such as bone marrow, to muscle tissue in response to injury. In addition, myogenic progenitor cells are also activated in skeletal muscle wasting disorders. The goal of this research topic is to highlight the available knowledge regarding skeletal muscle and stem cell biology in the context of both physiological and pathological conditions. Our purpose herein is to facilitate better dissemination of research into skeletal muscle physiology field.

Applications of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) Tools in Microbiology of Infectious Diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451838 Year: Pages: 223 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-183-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Epidemiology is a discipline intended to systematically investigate, and ideally quantify, disease dynamics in populations (Perez, 2015). Epidemiological assessmentsmay be divided into four large areas, namely, (a) identification and characterization of a pathogen, (b) development of systems for detection of cases, (c) descriptive epidemiology and quantification of disease patterns, and (d) advanced analytical methods to design intervention strategies. Briefly, there is an initial need for understanding the pathogeny of a disease and condition, which may also include experimental studies and development of new models of infection and proliferation under different conditions. Subsequently, such knowledgemay be applied to support the identification of cases, which typically includes the design, evaluation, and validation of diagnostic tests. Diseasemay then be quantified in a population, leading to the identification of patterns and application of molecular characterization techniques to understand disease spread, and ultimately to identify factors preventing or promoting disease. Finally, those factors may be incorporated into advanced quantitative methods and epidemiological models, which are used to design and evaluate strategies aimed at preventing, controlling, or eliminating disease in the population.Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in the application of science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) tools and approaches intended to enhance such analytical epidemiology process, with the ultimate goal of supporting disease prevention, control, and eradication. This eBook comprises a series of research articles that, through current state-of-the-art scientific knowledge on the application of STEM tools to the microbiology of infectious diseases, demonstrate their usefulness at the various components of an integral epidemiological approach, divided into the four large components of (a) experimental studies, (b) novel diagnostic techniques, (c) epidemiological characterization, and (d) population modeling and intervention.

Fashion Figures

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ISBN: 9781484222737 9781484222744 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2274-4 Language: English
Publisher: Apress Grant: CA Technologies
Subject: Science (General) --- Education --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-27 15:02:02
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Missy Maker is a middle school girl who loves math and fashion. She sees math in everything she does. She tries to hide this from her friends, because she thinks it’s too geeky. Missy hears that the school math club needs more members, but she’s worried about what her friends will think if she joins, and she’s already committed to joining the fashion club.After an epic internal struggle and with the support of her peers and her quirky, loving family, Missy finds that she can be both a Mathlete and a Fashionista. Missy figures out how to bring the two clubs together to help both groups win. In the process, she discovers that she can openly excel in math and science and still be popular with her peers. She also learns how her math and science skills can help her artistic endeavors.Gain an inside perspective on what it’s like when you love math and science and happen to be a girl. Fashion Figures highlights the societal and internal pressures preteen and early-teen girls often face when they excel in these subjects, and it shows strategies for overcoming barriers to being themselves and doing what they love while still fitting in socially.

Keywords

STEM careers --- girls --- preteen --- YA --- mathlete --- fashionista --- math --- middle school

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