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Rethinking Community Policing in International Police Reform

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Book Series: SSR Papers ISBN: 9781911529453 9781911529446 9781911529460 9781911529477 Year: Pages: 68 DOI: 10.5334/bcb Language: English
Publisher: Ubiquity Press
Subject: Law --- Sociology --- Political Science --- Social and Public Welfare --- History --- Migration
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:10
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Abstract

Community policing has often been promoted, particularly in liberal democratic societies, as the best approach to align police services with the principles of good security sector governance (SSG). The stated goal of the community policing approach is to reduce fear of crime within communities, and to overcome mutual distrust between the police and the communities they serve by promoting police citizen partnerships. This SSR Paper traces the historical origins of the concept of community policing in Victorian Great Britain and analyses the processes of transfer, implementation, and adaptation of approaches to community policing in Imperial and post-war Japan, Singapore, and Timor-Leste. The study identifies the factors that were conducive or constraining to the establishment of community policing in each case. It concludes that basic elements of police professionalism and local ownership are necessary preconditions for successfully implementing community policing according to the principles of good SSG. Moreover, external initiatives for community policing must be more closely aligned to the realities of the local context.

Keywords

Singapore --- Timor-Leste --- Governance --- Police --- reform --- Community --- policing --- Security --- sector --- reform

Global Burden and Challenges of Melioidosis

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977421 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-743-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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This book is the definitive reference regarding the global status of melioidosis in 2018. Melioidosis is one of the most neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), so much so that it is not even included in the WHO list of NTDs. Yet modeling suggests that it kills more people worldwide every year than diseases that are much better known, such as leptospirosis and dengue. The reasons for this under-recognition are numerous, including the fact that it mainly affects the disadvantaged rural poor in areas that are poorly supplied with the diagnostic capability to make the diagnosis. In 22 separate articles, expert authors from around the world have summarized what is known about the burden of the disease in humans and animals and the presence of the causative bacterium in the environment in their countries or regions. They have also identified the main obstacles and challenges to establishing the true burden, and to ensure that patients receive accurate diagnosis and optimal care for this all too frequently fatal disease. Rather than focusing on the theoretical risk of the use of Burkholderia pseudomallei as a biological weapon, this book highlights its importance as a clear and present danger to global public health.

Keywords

melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- epidemiology --- diagnosis --- treatment --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- Laos --- Lao PDR --- melioidosis --- Sri Lanka --- epidemiology --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- melioidosis --- Cambodia --- epidemiology --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- melioidosis --- Mexico --- Central America --- Caribbean --- epidemiology --- awareness --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- Malaysia --- epidemiology --- bacteriology --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- transmission modes --- melioidosis --- Australia --- tropical medicine --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- Myanmar --- Melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- western Indian Ocean --- diagnosis --- MLST --- Madagascar --- Mauritius --- Réunion --- Seychelles --- melioidosis --- B. pseudomallei --- Singapore --- clinical --- veterinary --- environmental --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- melioidosis --- Indonesia --- Papua New Guinea --- Oceania --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- melioidosis --- Thailand --- mortality --- diagnosis --- surveillance --- awareness --- treatment --- prevention --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- Vietnam --- public awareness --- animal --- environment --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia --- Bangladesh --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- India --- melioidosis --- South Asia --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- South America --- melioidosis --- Africa --- Middle East --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- genomics --- public awareness --- environment --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- Hong Kong --- melioidosis --- Philippines --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- epidemiology --- China

Human Mobility, Spatiotemporal Context, and Environmental Health: Recent Advances in Approaches and Methods

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ISBN: 9783039211838 / 9783039211845 Year: Pages: 382 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-184-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Environmental health researchers have long used concepts like the neighborhood effect to assessing people’s exposure to environmental influences and the associated health impact. However, these are static notions that ignore people’s daily mobility at various spatial and temporal scales (e.g., daily travel, migratory movements, and movements over the life course) and the influence of neighborhood contexts outside their residential neighborhoods. Recent studies have started to incorporate human mobility, non-residential neighborhoods, and the temporality of exposures through collecting and using data from GPS, accelerometers, mobile phones, various types of sensors, and social media. Innovative approaches and methods have been developed. This Special Issue aims to showcase studies that use new approaches, methods, and data to examine the role of human mobility and non-residential contexts on human health behaviors and outcomes. It includes 21 articles that cover a wide range of topics, including individual exposure to air pollution, exposure and access to green spaces, spatial access to healthcare services, environmental influences on physical activity, food environmental and diet behavior, exposure to noise and its impact on mental health, and broader methodological issues such as the uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP) and the neighborhood effect averaging problem (NEAP). This collection will be a valuable reference for scholars and students interested in recent advances in the concepts and methods in environmental health and health geography.

Keywords

obesity --- built environment --- activity space --- regression analysis --- UGCoP --- foodscape exposure --- activity space --- commuting route --- space-time kernel density estimation --- time-weighted exposure --- Beijing --- cycling for transportation --- bike paths --- train stations --- subway stations --- adults --- Brazil --- fuel consumption --- emissions estimation --- GPS trace --- big data --- air pollution exposure --- human mobility --- mobile phone data --- dynamic assessment --- GIS --- GPS --- activity space --- environmental exposure --- the uncertain geographic context problem --- noise pollution --- mental disorders --- built environment --- multilevel model --- China --- PM concentrations --- crop residue burning --- correlation analysis --- interannual and seasonal variations --- China --- the neighborhood effect averaging problem (NEAP) --- human mobility --- environmental exposure --- the uncertain geographic context problem --- UGCoP --- car ownership --- car use --- built environment --- spatial autocorrelation --- multilevel Bayesian model --- geographical accessibility --- Healthcare services --- GIS --- E2SFCA --- CHAS --- Singapore --- environmental health --- food environment --- environmental context cube --- environmental context exposure index --- the uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP) --- GPS --- GIS --- healthcare accessibility --- catchment areas --- access probability --- taxi GPS trajectories --- E2SFCA --- greenspace exposure --- health --- human mobility --- physical activity --- structural equation modeling --- Guangzhou --- healthcare accessibility --- population demand --- geographic impedance --- the elderly --- urban planning --- 3SFCA --- real-time traffic --- crowdedness --- well-being experience --- long-distance walking --- collective leisure activity --- walking event --- urban leisure --- missing data --- spatial data --- imputation --- geographic imputation --- activity space --- ecological momentary assessment --- EMA --- walking --- active travel --- ageing --- physical environment --- personal projects --- activity space --- Public Participatory GIS (PPGIS) --- spatial accessibility --- multimodal network --- primary healthcare --- China --- 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic --- transport modes --- rail travel --- spatial spread --- quantile regression --- green space --- road traffic accidents --- cognitive aging --- activity space --- life-course perspectives --- environmental exposures

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