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Sub-cellular Proteomics

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193028 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-302-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Whilst significant advances have been made in whole organismal proteomics approaches, many researchers still rely on combinations of tissue selection and subcellular prefractionation methods to reduce the complexity of protein extracts from plants prior to proteomic analysis. Often this will allow identification of many lower abundance proteins of the target proteome and it may involve the selection of specific organs, cell types or the isolation of specific subcellular components. These subcellular proteomes provide insight into functions following various treatments and also contribute to the wider understanding of the entire organismal proteome by cataloguing a series of sub-proteome contents. The aim of this Research Topic is to bring together knowledge of sub cellular components in different plant species to provide a basis for accelerated research. It aims to provide a mini-review for each proposed section that summarizes the current understanding of a particular proteome, with the anticipation that every 5 - 10 years we can update these definitive publications.

Gas Chromatography in Plant Science, Wine Technology, Toxicology and Some Specific Applications

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9789535101277 Year: Pages: 360 DOI: 10.5772/2517 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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The aim of this book is to describe the fundamental aspects and details of certain gas chromatography applications in Plant Science, Wine technology, Toxicology and the other specific disciplines that are currently being researched. The very best gas chromatography experts have been chosen as authors in each area. The individual chapter has been written to be self-contained so that readers may peruse particular topics but can pursue the other chapters in the each section to gain more insight about different gas chromatography applications in the same research field. This book will surely be useful to gas chromatography users who are desirous of perfecting themselves in one of the important branch of analytical chemistry.

Tandem Mass Spectrometry - Applications and Principles

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ISBN: 9789535101413 Year: Pages: 790 DOI: 10.5772/1327 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Tandem Mass Spectrometry - Applications and Principles presents comprehensive coverage of theory, instrumentation and major applications of tandem mass spectrometry. The areas covered range from the analysis of drug metabolites, proteins and complex lipids to clinical diagnosis. This book serves multiple groups of audiences; professional (academic and industry), graduate students and general readers interested in the use of modern mass spectrometry in solving critical questions of chemical and biological sciences.

Developments in Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

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ISBN: 9789535130178 9789535130185 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.5772/62932 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Over the past few decades, exciting developments have taken place in the field of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). This has been enabled by the advent of robust Fourier transform interferometers and diode array solutions, coupled with complex chemometric methods that can easily be executed using modern microprocessors. The present edited volume intends to cover recent developments in NIRS and provide a broad perspective of some of the challenges that characterize the field. The volume comprises six chapters overall and covers several sectors. The target audience for this book includes engineers, practitioners, and researchers involved in NIRS system design and utilization in different applications. We believe that they will greatly benefit from the timely and accurate information provided in this work.

Mass Spectrometry

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ISBN: 9789535132233 9789535132240 Year: Pages: 282 DOI: 10.5772/65165 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique that can be used for the structural characterization and quantification of a wide range of molecules. The technique is extensively used by chemists for the analysis of small and volatile organic compounds. Mass spectrometry has long been an important technique for the identification of materials ranging from pure compounds to complex mixtures. Mass spectrometry can be used to determine molecular weight of compounds or using different ionization conditions, can provide more structural details through the analysis of fragmentation patterns. This level of detail can be attained for pure compounds and some mixtures. Mass spectrometry can also be combined with separation techniques such as gas chromatography or liquid chromatography to allow more complex mixtures to be examined. These hyphenated techniques provide a range of options for the characterization of complex materials.

Mass Spectrometry Application in Biology

ISBN: 9783906980898 9783906980904 Year: Pages: 252 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 06:39:08
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Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a vital tool for scientist in exploring how biological systems function and how therapeutic drug intervention (both small molecules and biologics) impact these systems. The application of mass spectrometry has advanced our knowledge in the biological sciences through the study of proteins and peptides in proteomics and as biomarkers, imaging via MALDI MS, and analysis of SNP’s in the genome to allow personalized medical treatment.The aim of this book is to provide a glimpse of some of the many applications of the advancing field of mass spectrometry and its application to complex biological problems. The topics presented here touch on many of the areas listed above will hopefully serve as a catalyst to generate new ideas for the continued innovative application of mass spectrometry to the fields of medicine, biology and beyond.

Current challenges in photosynthesis: From natural to artificial

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192861 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-286-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:07
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Jules Verne (1828-1905), author of Around the World in Eighty Days (1873) and Journey to the Center of the Earth (1864), wrote in 1875:"I believe that water will one day be used as a fuel, because the hydrogen and oxygen which constitute it, used separately or together, will furnish an inexhaustible source of heat and light. I therefore believe that, when coal (oil) deposits are oxidised, we will heat ourselves by means of water. Water is the fuel of the future". Solar energy is the only renewable energy source that has sufficient capacity for the global energy need; it is the only one that can address the issues of energy crisis and global climate change. A vast amount of solar energy is harvested and stored via photosynthesis in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria since over 3 billion years. Today, it is estimated that photosynthesis produces more than 100 billion tons of dry biomass annually, which would be equivalent to a hundred times the weight of the total human population on our planet at the present time, and equal to a global energy storage rate of about 100 TW. The solar power is the most abundant source of renewable energy, and oxygenic photosynthesis uses this energy to power the planet using the amazing reaction of water splitting. During water splitting, driven ultimately by sunlight, oxygen is released into the atmosphere, and this, along with food production by photosynthesis, supports life on our earth. The other product of water oxidation is “hydrogen” (proton and electron). This ‘hydrogen’ is not normally released into the atmosphere as hydrogen gas but combined with carbon dioxide to make high energy containing organic molecules. When we burn fuels we combine these organic molecules with oxygen. The design of new solar energy systems must adhere to the same principle as that of natural photosynthesis. For us to manipulate it to our benefit, it is imperative that we completely understand the basic processes of natural photosynthesis, and chemical conversion, such as light harvesting, excitation energy transfer, electron transfer, ion transport, and carbon fixation. Equally important, we must exploit application of this knowledge to the development of fully synthetic and/or hybrid devices. Understanding of photosynthetic reactions is not only a satisfying intellectual pursuit, but it is important for improving agricultural yields and for developing new solar technologies. Today, we have considerable knowledge of the working of photosynthesis and its photosystems, including the water oxidation reaction. Recent advances towards the understanding of the structure and the mechanism of the natural photosynthetic systems are being made at the molecular level. To mimic natural photosynthesis, inorganic chemists, organic chemists, electrochemists, material scientists, biochemists, biophysicists, and plant biologists must work together and only then significant progress in harnessing energy via “artificial photosynthesis” will be possible. This Research Topic provides recent advances of our understanding of photosynthesis, gives to our readers recent information on photosynthesis research, and summarizes the characteristics of the natural system from the standpoint of what we could learn from it to produce an efficient artificial system, i.e., from the natural to the artificial. This topic is intended to include exciting breakthroughs, possible limitations, and open questions in the frontiers in photosynthesis research.

International Plant Proteomics Organization (INPPO) World Congress 2014

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450602 Year: Pages: 407 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-060-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The field of proteomics has advanced considerably over the past two decades. The ability to delve deeper into an organism’s proteome, identify an array of post-translational modifications and profile differentially abundant proteins has greatly expanded the utilization of proteomics. Improvements to instrumentation in conjunction with the development of these reproducible workflows have driven the adoption and application of this technology by a wider research community. However, the full potential of proteomics is far from being fully exploited in plant biology and its translational application needs to be further developed. In 2011, a group of plant proteomic researchers established the International Plant Proteomics Organization (INPPO) to advance the utilization of this technology in plants as well as to create a way for plant proteomics researchers to interact, collaborate and exchange ideas. The INPPO conducted its inaugural world congress in mid 2014 at the University of Hamburg (Germany). Plant proteomic researchers from around the world were in attendance and the event marked the maturation of this research community. The Research Topic captures the opinions, ideas and research discussed at the congress and encapsulates the approaches that were being applied in plant proteomics.The field of proteomics has advanced considerably over the past two decades. The ability to delve deeper into an organism’s proteome, identify an array of post-translational modifications and profile differentially abundant proteins has greatly expanded the utilization of proteomics. Improvements to instrumentation in conjunction with the development of these reproducible workflows have driven the adoption and application of this technology by a wider research community. However, the full potential of proteomics is far from being fully exploited in plant biology and its translational application needs to be further developed. In 2011, a group of plant proteomic researchers established the International Plant Proteomics Organization (INPPO) to advance the utilization of this technology in plants as well as to create a way for plant proteomics researchers to interact, collaborate and exchange ideas. The INPPO conducted its inaugural world congress in mid 2014 at the University of Hamburg (Germany). Plant proteomic researchers from around the world were in attendance and the event marked the maturation of this research community. The Research Topic captures the opinions, ideas and research discussed at the congress and encapsulates the approaches that were being applied in plant proteomics.

Linking Optical and Chemical Properties of Dissolved Organic Matter in Natural Waters

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450817 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-081-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Geography --- Oceanography --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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A substantial increase in the number of studies using the optical properties (absorbance and fluorescence) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) as a proxy for its chemical properties in estuaries and the coastal and open ocean has occurred during the last decade. We are making progress on finding the actual chemical compounds or phenomena responsible for DOM’s optical properties. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry, in particular, has made important progress in making the key connections between optics and chemistry. But serious questions remain and the last major special issue on DOM optics and chemistry occurred nearly 10 years ago. Controversies remain from the non-specific optical properties of DOM that are not linked to discrete sources, and sometimes provide conflicting information. The use of optics, which is relatively easier to employ in synoptic and high resolution sampling to determine chemistry, is a critical connection to make and can lead to major advances in our understanding of organic matter cycling in all aquatic ecosystems. The contentions and controversies raised by our poor understanding of the linkages between optics and chemistry of DOM are bottlenecks that need to be addressed and overcome.

Proteomics of Microbial Human Pathogens

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450886 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-088-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in 2012 infectious diseases and related conditions account for more than 70% of premature deaths across 22 African countries and estimated 450 000 people worldwide developed multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. This alarming situation, of great public health concern, calls for the urgent development of novel and efficient responding strategies. The employment of important research platforms, such as genomics and proteomics, has contributed significant insight into the mechanisms underlying microbial infection and microbe-host interaction. In this Frontiers Research Topic, we aim to produce a timely and pertinent discussion regarding the current status of “Proteomics of microbial Human pathogens” and the role of proteomics in combating the challenges posed by microbial infection and indeed acquired anti-microbial resistance. As the field of proteomics progressed from 2-DE gel based approaches to modern LC-MS/MS based workflows, remarkable advances have been reported in terms of data quantity and quality. Given the immediate and enormous advantages that high resolution and accurate mass spectrometers have brought to the field, proteomics has now evolved into a robust platform capable of generating large amounts of comprehensive data comparable to that reported previously in genomics studies. For example, detection of the complete yeast proteome has been reported and other small proteomes, such as those of bacteria, are within reach. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has become an essential tool for biologists and biochemists, and is now considered by many as an essential component of modern structural biology. Additionally, the introduction of high-resolution mass spectrometers has driven the development of various different strategies aimed at accurate quantification of absolute and relative amount of protein(s) of interest. Emerging targeted mass spectrometry methodologies such as; Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM), Parallel Reaction Monitoring (PRM) and SWATH, are perhaps the latest breakthrough within the proteomics community. Indeed, through a label free approach, targeted mass spectrometry offers an unequalled capability to characterize and quantify a specific set of proteins reproducibility, in any biological sample. Usefully, Aebersold and colleagues have recently generated and validated a number of assays to quantify 97% of the 4,012 annotated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteins by SRM. As such, the Mtb Proteome library represents a valuable experimental resource that will undoubtedly bring new insight to the complex life cycle of Mtb. Finally, as reviewed recently in Frontiers Research Topic, mass spectrometry-based proteomics has had a tremendous impact on our current understanding of post translational modification (PTM) in bacteria including the key role of PTMs during interaction of pathogenic bacteria and host interactions. We believe that our understanding of microbial Human pathogens has benefited enormously from both 2-DE gel and modern LC-MS/MS based proteomics. It is our wish to produce an integrated discussion surrounding this topic to highlight the existing synergy between these research fields. We envisage this Research Topic as a window to expert opinions and perspectives on the realistic practicalities of proteomics as an important tool to address healthcare problems caused by microbial pathogens.

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