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Prosodic detail in Neapolitan Italian

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ISBN: 9783944675015 Year: Pages: 187 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_533874 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press
Subject: Linguistics --- Arts in general
Added to DOAB on : 2014-09-24 15:13:46
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Recent findings on phonetic detail have been taken as supporting exemplar-based approaches to prosody. Through four experiments on both produc tion and perception of both melodic and temporal detail in Neapolitan Italian, we show that prosodic detail is not incompatible with abstractionist approaches either. Specifically, we suggest that the exploration of prosodic detail leads to a refined understanding of the relationships between the richly specified and continuously varying phonetic information on one side, and coarse phonologically structured contrasts on the other, thus of fering insights on how pragmatic information is conveyed by prosody.

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: Recent Advances in Infant Speech Perception and Language Acquisition Research

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194155 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-415-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is a novel and increasingly popular optical imaging technique that has revolutionarized brain research in the youngest developmental populations. After nearly a decade of technological development, NIRS has become a reliable, easy-to-use and efficient tool to explore the linguistic and cognitive abilities of neonates and young infants, opening new vistas for the investigation of language acquisition and cognitive development. This Research Topic covers the latest advances in these areas brought about by NIRS imaging. The main focus is to highlight innovative and foundational studies that go beyond methodological issues and advance our theoretical understanding of infant and child development. Contributions from the pioneers of this method are selected, illustrating how NIRS has allowed developmental researchers to ask theoretically relevant questions that more traditional methods couldn't address. These works further our understanding of language and cognitive development and bring us closer to bridging the gap between brain, mind and behavior at the very beginning of life.

Phonological and phonetic competence: between grammar, signal processing, and neural activity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198092 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-809-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The present collection of articles brings together experimental work in the field of segmental and prosodic processing and representation in phonology and phonetics. Contributions focus on the exploration of human cognitive, articulatory, and perceptual abilities dealing with all types of phonetic and phonological entities. Main topics of investigation include: (1) sounds and sound-changing processes—systemic and functional aspects, (2) prosodic units such as syllables and metrical feet—systemic properties, processing, and phonetic consequences, and (3) tones as building blocks of the sentence melody—their relation to the level of linguistic expressions on the one hand, their phonetic realization (e.g., tonal height and contours) and perception on the other hand. In addition, topics (1) and (2) extend to the question how phonological representations are stored in the mental lexicon: specified minimally in terms of categorical phonological information or as variable phonetic imprint of the exemplars in the input. Diagonally to these thematic domains, the present Research Topic shows a strong focus on up-to-date experimental approaches, going far beyond traditional linguistic analysis, and making use of psycho- and neurolinguistic methodologies.

Language beyond Words: The Neuroscience of Accent

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451074 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-107-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Language learning also implies the acquisition of a set of phonetic rules and prosodic contours which define the accent in that language. While often considered as merely accessory, accent is an essential component of psychological identity as it embodies information on origin, culture, and social class. Speaking with a non-standard (foreign) accent is not inconsequential because it may negatively impact communication and social adjustment. Nevertheless, the lack of a formal definition of accent may explain that, as compared with other aspects of language, it has received relatively little attention until recently. During the past decade there has been increasing interest in the analysis of accent from a neuroscientific perspective. This e-book integrates data from different scientific frameworks. The reader will find fruitful research on new models of accent processing, how learning a new accent proceeds, and the role of feedback on accent learning in healthy subjects. In addition, information on accent changes in pathological conditions including developmental and psychogenic foreign accent syndromes as well as the description of a new variant of foreign accent syndrome is also included. It is anticipated that the articles in this e-book will enhance the understanding of accent as a linguistic phenomenon, the neural networks supporting it and potential interventions to accelerate acquisition or relearning of native accents.

Neural Mechanisms of Perceptual Categorization as Precursors to Speech Perception

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451586 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-158-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Perceptual categorization is fundamental to the brain’s remarkable ability to process large amounts of sensory information and efficiently recognize objects including speech. Perceptual categorization is the neural bridge between lower-level sensory and higher-level language processing. A long line of research on the physical properties of the speech signal as determined by the anatomy and physiology of the speech production apparatus has led to descriptions of the acoustic information that is used in speech recognition (e.g., stop consonants place and manner of articulation, voice onset time, aspiration). Recent research has also considered what visual cues are relevant to visual speech recognition (i.e., the visual counter-parts used in lipreading or audiovisual speech perception). Much of the theoretical work on speech perception was done in the twentieth century without the benefit of neuroimaging technologies and models of neural representation. Recent progress in understanding the functional organization of sensory and association cortices based on advances in neuroimaging presents the possibility of achieving a comprehensive and far reaching account of perception in the service of language. At the level of cell assemblies, research in animals and humans suggests that neurons in the temporal cortex are important for encoding biological categories. On the cellular level, different classes of neurons (interneurons and pyramidal neurons) have been suggested to play differential roles in the neural computations underlying auditory and visual categorization. The moment is ripe for a research topic focused on neural mechanisms mediating the emergence of speech representations (including auditory, visual and even somatosensory based forms). Important progress can be achieved by juxtaposing within the same research topic the knowledge that currently exists, the identified lacunae, and the theories that can support future investigations. This research topic provides a snapshot and platform for discussion of current understanding of neural mechanisms underlying the formation of perceptual categories and their relationship to language from a multidisciplinary and multisensory perspective. It includes contributions (reviews, original research, methodological developments) pertaining to the neural substrates, dynamics, and mechanisms underlying perceptual categorization and their interaction with neural processes governing speech perception.

Cognitive Hearing Mechanisms of Language Understanding: Short- and Long-Term Perspectives

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453030 Year: Pages: 461 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-303-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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50 years after the perceptron, 25 years after PDP: Neural computation in language sciences

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192571 Year: Pages: 180 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-257-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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This Research Topic aims to showcase the state of the art in language research while celebrating the 25th anniversary of the tremendously influential work of the PDP group, and the 50th anniversary of the perceptron. Although PDP models are often the gold standard to which new models are compared, the scope of this Research Topic is not constrained to connectionist models. Instead, we aimed to create a landmark forum in which experts in the field define the state of the art and future directions of the psychological processes underlying language learning and use, broadly defined. We thus called for papers involving computational modeling and original research as well as technical, philosophical, or historical discussions pertaining to models of cognition. We especially encouraged submissions aimed at contrasting different computational frameworks, and their relationship to imaging and behavioral data.

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