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The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT)

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Book Series: Routledge Global Institutions Series ISBN: 9780415631648 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.4324/9781315849324 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Computer Science --- Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-02 11:01:17
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This book traces the history and development of a mutual organization in the financial sector called SWIFT, the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial&#xD;Telecommunication. Over the last 40 years, SWIFT has served the financial services&#xD;sector as proprietary communications platform, provider of products and services,&#xD;standards developer, and conference organizer (Sibos). Founded to create efficiencies&#xD;by replacing telegram and telex (or “wires”) for international payments, SWIFT now&#xD;forms a core part of the financial services infrastructure. It is widely regarded as the&#xD;most secure trusted third-party network in the world serving 212 countries and over&#xD;10,000 banking organizations, securities institutions, and corporate customers.&#xD;Through every phase of its development, SWIFT has maintained the status of industry&#xD;cooperative, thus presenting an opportunity to study broader themes of globalization&#xD;and governance in the financial services sector.&#xD;In this book the authors focus on how the design and current state of SWIFT were&#xD;influenced by its historical origins, presenting a comprehensive account in a succinct&#xD;form which provides an informative guide to the history, structure, activities, and&#xD;future challenges of this key international organization.&#xD;This work will be of great interest to students and scholars in a wide range of&#xD;fields including IPE, comparative political economy, international economics, business&#xD;studies, and business history.

Sexuelle Identität und gesellschaftliche Norm

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Göttinger Schriften zum Medizinrecht ISBN: 9783941875722 Year: Pages: 125 DOI: 10.17875/gup2010-39 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Law --- Psychology --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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Die „sexuelle Identität“ des Menschen ist keineswegs nur biologisch, sondern in erheblichem Maße auch neurologisch, psychologisch sowie durch Umweltbedingungen determiniert und infolgedessen gradualisiert. Die Gesellschaft und ihr Recht ignorieren diese Variabilitäten jenseits der natürlichen Geschlechtlichkeit jedoch mit Blick auf Orientierungsbedürfnisse weitgehend: Familien- und personenstandsrechtliche Zuschreibungen müssen eindeutig sein, Veränderungen des biologischen Geschlechts kommen nur in seltenen Ausnahmefällen in Betracht, die gesellschaftlichen Vorstellungen über den Freiraum an „sexueller Selbstbestimmung“ werden an den Grenzen strafrechtlich abgesichert und jene, die sich nicht daran halten, gelten in der Rechtspraxis entweder als schuldfähig oder haben mit u.U. langjährigem Freiheitsentzug im Rahmen der Sicherungsverwahrung zu rechnen. Dieses Spannungsfeld zwischen individueller Disposition und gesellschaftlicher Erwartung war Gegenstand eines Workshops, der am 20. November 2009 gemeinsam vom Institut für Humangenetik der Universitätsmedizin Göttingen und dem Zentrum für Medizinrecht der Juristischen Fakultät veranstaltet wurde. Der vorliegende Band enthält die Resultate eines interdisziplinären Dialogs von Experten/Innen aus der Humangenetik, der Sexualforschung, der Soziologie, des Medizinrechts und der forensischen Psychiatrie.

The multiple roles of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in nature

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195251 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-525-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance have most commonly been viewed in the context of human use and effects. However, both have co-existed in nature for millennia. Recently the roles of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes have started to be discussed in terms of functions other than bacterial inhibition and protection. This special topic will focus on both the traditional role of antibiotics as warfare mechanisms and their alternative roles and uses within nature such as antibiotics as signals or communication mechanisms, antibiotic selection at low concentrations, the non-specific role of resistance mechanisms in nature: e.g. efflux pumps, evolution of antibiotic resistance and the role of persisters in natural antibiotic resistance.

Keywords

Microbiology --- mobile elements --- Plasmids --- Soil --- Water --- human --- environment --- Standards --- risk

Private food law: Governing food chains through contract law, self-regulation, private standards, audits and certification schemes

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Book Series: EIFL: European Institute of Food Law series ISBN: 9789086867301 Year: Pages: 436 DOI: 10.3920/978-90-8686-730-1 Language: English
Publisher: Wageningen Academic Publishers Grant: Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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Since the turn of the Millennium, world-wide initiatives from the private sector have turned the regulatory environment for food businesses upside down. For the first time in legal literature this book analyses private law initiatives relating to the food chain, often referred to as private (voluntary) standards or schemes. Private standards are used to remedy flaws in legislation in order to reach higher levels of consumer protection than the ones chosen by the EU legislature and to manage risks and liability beyond the traditional limits of food businesses. We see that litigation is no longer solely framed by legislative requirements, but ever more by private standards such as GlobalGAP, BRC, IFS, SQF and ISO. These private standards incorporate public law requirements thus embedding them in contractual relations and exporting them beyond the jurisdiction of public legislators. This book also addresses how private standards play a role in defining specific markets of growing importance. It is noted that organic standards have found an interesting symbioses with public law.&#xD;Another development on this topic is that food businesses are inspected more often by private auditors than by public inspectors. Effects in terms of receiving or being denied certification far outweigh public law sanctions. In short private law has changed an entire legal infrastructure for the food sector. It emerges as competing with the public law regulatory infrastructure.&#xD;This book is of interest to all who concern themselves with food law legislation and litigation and the evolving role of private standards on changing the landscape of food chains and innovation.

Greening China

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9780472117680 9780472901197 9780472901197 Year: DOI: 10.3998/mpub.2099075 Language: English
Publisher: University of Michigan Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 102030
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-06 08:17:53
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China has earned a reputation for lax environmental standards that allegedly attract corporations more interested in profit than in moral responsibility and, consequently, further negate incentives to raise environmental standards. Surprisingly, Ka Zeng and Joshua Eastin find that international economic integration with nation-states that have stringent environmental regulations facilitates the diffusion of corporate environmental norms and standards to Chinese provinces. At the same time, concerns about “green” tariffs imposed by importing countries encourage Chinese export-oriented firms to ratchet up their own environmental standards. The authors present systematic quantitative and qualitative analyses and data that not only demonstrate the ways in which external market pressure influences domestic environmental policy but also lend credence to arguments for the ameliorative effect of trade and foreign direct investment on the global environment.

Ethics Dumping: Case Studies from North-South Research Collaborations

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: SpringerBriefs in Research and Innovation Governance ISSN: 2452-0519 ISBN: 9783319647302 9783319647319 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-64731-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: University of Central Lancashire
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-26 16:01:58
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This book provides original, up-to-date case studies of “ethics dumping” that were largely facilitated by loopholes in the ethics governance of low and middle-income countries. It is instructive even to experienced researchers since it provides a voice to vulnerable populations from the forementioned countries. Ensuring the ethical conduct of North-South collaborations in research is a process fraught with difficulties. The background conditions under which such collaborations take place include extreme differentials in available income and power, as well as a past history of colonialism, while differences in culture can add a new layer of complications. In this context, up-to-date case studies of unethical conduct are essential for research ethics training.

Sustainability Transition Towards a Bio-Based Economy: New Technologies, New Products, New Policies

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ISBN: 9783038973805 9783038973812 Year: Pages: 256 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-381-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Ecology --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-29 10:05:43
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This book proposes an array of 11 key papers aimed at investigating the complex and multifaceted nature of the bio-based economy, focusing both on a conceptual understanding of the transition and on the measurement issues associated with it. More specifically, the papers included in this book can be broadly divided in two groups: (1) those aiming at adding to our understanding of the transition process towards a sustainable bio-based economy; and (2) those aiming at adding to the definition and measurement of the emerging sustainable bio-based economy. The book offers a comprehensive view of the phenomenon, providing a logical framework for understanding the ongoing transition towards a bio-based economy, as well as an overview of existing tools to assess and measure it. Policy-makers will largely benefit from the book, which contributes to taking a further step towards the much-needed transition to sustainability.

S’adapter au changement climatique. Analyse critique des nouvelles politiques de gestion de l’environnement. Cas spécifiques de l’agriculture en Inde et du tourisme hivernal en Suisse

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ISBN: 9782889300617 Year: Pages: 392 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_594272 Language: French
Publisher: Editions Alphil Presses universitaires suisses Grant: Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) - OAPEN-CH - 163643
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-27 11:01:25
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Climate change has become a real problem in our time. This book examines the issue of how public policies can adapt to climate change. The study of two very specific cases, situated at opposing points of the world – India and Switzerland – illustrate this question.

Grenzobjekte und Medienforschung

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Book Series: Locating Media/Situierte Medien ISBN: 9783839431269 9783837631265 9783732831265 Year: Pages: 536 DOI: 10.14361/9783839431269 Language: German
Publisher: transcript Verlag Grant: Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung
Subject: Media and communication
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-09 11:01:53
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Susan Leigh Star's (1954-2010) research encompasses aspects of infrastructural and social theory, knowledge ecologies, feminism and theories of marginality. For the first time, this volume introduces the American science and technology sociologist's most important writings in German. Her texts on border objects, marginality, infrastructures and standards are commented upon by academics and scientists in these fields, and analyzed for their relevance to media studies. With commentaries by Geoffrey C. Bowker, Cora Bender, Ulrike Bergermann, Monika Dommann, Christine Hanke, Bernhard Nett, Jörg Potthast, Gabriele Schabacher, Cornelius Schubert, Erhard Schüttpelz and Jörg Strübing.

Konzernbesteuerung nach IFRS

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Book Series: Bochumer Beitraege zur Unternehmensfuehrung ISBN: 9783631556269 Year: Pages: 470 DOI: 10.3726/b14020 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:19
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Die Schaffung einer konsolidierten Körperschaftsteuerbemessungsgrundlage für die grenzüberschreitende Unternehmenstätigkeit innerhalb der EU steht seit dem Jahr 2001 auf der Agenda der EU-Kommission. Dieses ehrgeizige Ziel ist in unterschiedlichen Ausgestaltungsvarianten denkbar und geht mit vielen ungelösten Fragen einher. Eine davon steht im Vordergrund dieser Arbeit: Können die IFRS-Konsolidierungsvorschriften für die Ermittlung dieser Bemessungsgrundlage herangezogen werden? Diese Frage ist von erheblicher Relevanz, weil die Kommission in den eigentlich für völlig andere Zwecke konzipierten IFRS «den einzigen verfügbaren neutralen Ausgangspunkt» für eine konsolidierte steuerliche Gewinnermittlung erkennt. Zudem zählt sie die Ausgestaltung von Konsolidierungsregeln «zu den schwierigsten Aspekten». Aufbauend auf einem theoretischen Beurteilungsrahmen und unter Berücksichtigung der deutschen und europäischen Rechtssituation wird vor diesem Hintergrund die steuerliche Eignung der IFRS-Konsolidierungsregeln analysiert, um letztlich Ausgestaltungsempfehlungen für den Regulierer zu entwickeln und einen Beitrag zur Steuerrechtsgestaltungslehre zu leisten.

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