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Verbrennungskontrollierte Erwärmung des Brennraums zur Emissionsreduktion während des Kaltstarts - Untersuchungen zu Emissionen und zur Flammenausbreitung

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ISBN: 9783731508236 Year: Pages: XII, 121 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000084432 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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This work describes the influence of catalytic converter heating strategies on the emissions during heating operation, as well as during the subsequent load demand at different engine start temperatures. A novel strategy is presented, that provides heating of the combustion chamber, without decreasing the catalyst converter heating significantly. The studies were carried out on a gasoline engine. Emissions were examined in detail. In addition, the flame propagation is evaluated experimentally.

Start mit Hindernissen

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Book Series: Sozialoekonomische Schriften ISBN: 9783631587287 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3726/b13552 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:44
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Die duale Berufsausbildung gilt als Garant für einen reibungslosen Einstieg ins Erwerbsleben. Aber nicht bei allen Absolventen einer dualen Berufsausbildung gelingt dieser Einstieg erfolgreich. Bereits zu Beginn des Berufslebens sind Unterschiede zu erkennen, die den weiteren Erwerbsverlauf beeinflussen. Deshalb ist es notwendig, die Ursachen der Arbeitslosigkeit nach der dualen Berufsausbildung zu identifizieren. Daran setzt diese Arbeit an. Der Fokus der theoretischen und empirischen Untersuchung liegt auf der Bestimmung der Wahrscheinlichkeit des Eintritts in die Arbeitslosigkeit. Grundlage bildet hier die unterschiedliche Ausbildungsbereitschaft der Betriebe. Die Einflussfaktoren auf die Wahrscheinlichkeit und auf die Länge der Arbeitslosigkeit werden ökonometrisch überprüft.

Sustainability of Young Companies–Contemporary Trends and Challenges

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ISBN: 9783039211852 9783039211869 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-186-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Ensuring the sustainability of early stage companies and increasing awareness of the need for balancing targets against different stakeholder groups among young companies are not well developed. Young companies, in the first place, want to achieve financial success very often without regard for aspects such as the environment, positive relationships with employees, suppliers or other stakeholder groups, fulfilling requirements of labor law, etc. Another issue is that of companies whose business models are based on actuarially-preferred concepts, such as sharing economy, sustainable development, e-comers, e-commerce, renewable energy, social media, and others. A key issue is the resignation of companies from an approach to business, based on the foundations of classical economics to the sharing economy. Theory and practice seek new solutions in the sphere of value sharing in these new areas of sharing, and innovative forms of its implementation. Intriguing is the relationship of these business models with sustainability issues, as well as wondering how technology can influence sustainability. A contemporary approach to consumer value fits in with the assumption of a shared economy. It is interesting how it affects the assumptions of sustainability of business. The ongoing changes in the value system of potential consumers create new conditions for the design of sustainability business models and creation of innovation.

Advances in Crowdfunding

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ISBN: 9783030463090 Year: Pages: 531 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-46309-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Economics --- Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-01 00:02:53
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This open access book presents a comprehensive and up-to-date collection of knowledge on the state of crowdfunding research and practice. It considers crowdfunding models and their different manifestations across a variety of geographies and sectors, and explores the perspectives of fundraisers, backers, platforms, and regulators. Gathering insights from a wide range of influential researchers in the field, the book balances concepts, theory, and case studies. Going beyond previous research on crowdfunding, the contributors also investigate issues of community, sustainability, education, and ethics. A vital resource for anyone researching crowdfunding, this book offers readers a deep understanding of the characteristics, business models, user-relations, and behavioural patterns of crowdfunding.

Distributed Energy Resources Management

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ISBN: 9783038977186 Year: Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-719-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 15:50:41
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At present, the impact of distributed energy resources in the operation of power and energy systems is unquestionable at the distribution level, but also at the whole power system management level. Increased flexibility is required to accommodate intermittent distributed generation and electric vehicle charging. Demand response has already been proven to have a great potential to contribute to an increased system efficiency while bringing additional benefits, especially to the consumers. Distributed storage is also promising, e.g., when jointly used with the currently increasing use of photovoltaic panels. This book addresses the management of distributed energy resources. The focus includes methods and techniques to achieve an optimized operation, to aggregate the resources, namely, by virtual power players, and to remunerate them. The integration of distributed resources in electricity markets is also addressed as a main drive for their efficient use.

Keywords

ac/dc hybrid microgrid --- adaptive droop control --- autonomous operation --- distributed generation --- energy management system --- aggregator --- optimal bidding --- electricity markets --- probabilistic programming --- microgrid --- uncertainty --- hierarchical game --- non-cooperative game (NCG) --- energy trading --- pricing strategy --- demand response --- distributed generation --- microgrid --- real-time simulation --- consensus algorithm --- diffusion strategy --- distributed system --- energy management system --- microgrid operation --- optimal operation --- microgrids --- renewable energy --- storage --- scheduling --- co-generation --- decision-making under uncertainty --- domestic energy management system --- energy flexibility --- interval optimization --- stochastic programming --- Unit Commitment (UC) --- Demand Response (DR) --- Demand Response Unit Commitment (DRUC) --- Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO) --- average consensus algorithm (ACA) --- black start --- local controller --- microgrid (MG) --- multi-agent system (MAS) --- power system restoration (PSR) --- demand-side energy management --- multiplier method --- Powell direction acceleration method --- advance and retreat method --- thermal comfort --- transmission line --- fault localization --- time series --- ARIMA --- discrete wavelet transformer --- demand response --- virtual power plant --- energy flexibility potential --- aggregators --- business model --- building energy flexibility --- aggregator --- clustering --- demand response --- distributed generation

Volcanic Plumes.Impacts on the Atmosphere and Insights into Volcanic Processes

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ISBN: 9783038976288 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-629-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Volcanoes release plumes of gas and ash to the atmosphere during episodes of passive and explosive behavior. These ejecta have important implications for the chemistry and composition of the troposphere and stratosphere, with the capacity to alter Earth's radiation budget and climate system over a range of temporal and spatial scales. Volcanogenic sulphur dioxide reacts to form sulphate aerosols, which increase global albedo, e.g., by reducing surface temperatures, in addition to perturbing the formation processes and optical properties of clouds. Released halogen species can also deplete stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. Volcanic degassing, furthermore, played a key role in the formation of Earth’s atmosphere, and volcanic plumes can affect air quality, pose hazards to aviation and human health, as well as damage ecosystems. The chemical compositions and emission rates of volcanic plumes are also monitored via a range of direct-sampling and remote-sensing instrumentation, in order to gain insights into subterranean processes, in the respect of the magmatic bodies these volatiles exsolve from. Given the significant role these gases play in driving volcanic activity, e.g., via pressurisation, the study of volcanic plumes is proving to be an increasingly fruitful means of improving our understanding of volcanic systems, potentially in concert with observations from geophysics and contributions from fluid dynamical modelling of conduit dynamics.

Microwave Indices from Active and Passive Sensors for Remote Sensing Applications

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ISBN: 9783038978206 9783038978213 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-821-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Geography --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Past research has comprehensively assessed the capabilities of satellite sensors operating at microwave frequencies, both active (SAR, scatterometers) and passive (radiometers), for the remote sensing of Earth’s surface. Besides brightness temperature and backscattering coefficient, microwave indices, defined as a combination of data collected at different frequencies and polarizations, revealed a good sensitivity to hydrological cycle parameters such as surface soil moisture, vegetation water content, and snow depth and its water equivalent. The differences between microwave backscattering and emission at more frequencies and polarizations have been well established in relation to these parameters, enabling operational retrieval algorithms based on microwave indices to be developed. This Special Issue aims at providing an overview of microwave signal capabilities in estimating the main land parameters of the hydrological cycle, e.g., soil moisture, vegetation water content, and snow water equivalent, on both local and global scales, with a particular focus on the applications of microwave indices.

Advances in Experimental and Computational Rheology

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ISBN: 9783039213337 9783039213344 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-334-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Rheology, defined as the science of deformation and flow of matter, is a multidisciplinary scientific field, covering both fundamental and applied approaches. The study of rheology includes both experimental and computational methods, which are not mutually exclusive. Its practical importance embraces many processes, from daily life, like preparing mayonnaise or spread an ointment or shampooing, to industrial processes like polymer processing and oil extraction, among several others. Practical applications include also formulations and product development. This Special Issue aims to present the latest advances in the fields of experimental and computational rheology applied to the most diverse classes of materials (foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, polymers and biopolymers, multiphasic systems and composites) and processes. This Special Issue will comprise, not only original research papers, but also review articles.

Trust Management: Key Factor of the Sustainable Organizations Embedded in Network

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ISBN: 9783039212330 9783039212347 Year: Pages: 396 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-234-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Nowadays, trust is an important determinant in the development of modern organizations. Not only is it becoming an increasingly important element of relationships between entities, but, above all, it positively influences the building of an organization's intellectual capital. This capital can be defined in different ways, but its definition always references elements that determine the potential of sustainable organizations, often in human, social, relational, organizational, and innovation dimensions. Trust is increasingly becoming the key determinant of this capital (Ko?uch, Lenart-Gansiniec, 2017). Trust also has a number of different definitions. However, the basis of many of these definitions is the building of relationships focused on developing some kind of individual or inter-organizational link. Organizational trust is a complicated concept, and it is the basis of all organized activities performed by people in the organization, largely because trust is needed to develop relationships with integrity and commitment. Thus, it is interesting to study the relationship between trust and the building of the intellectual capital of sustainable organizations. Indeed, intellectual capital plays a special role here. It is a guide and a platform for achieving not only a competitive advantage for the sustainable organization, but also a source of value creation in the short and long term. Thus, this strategic hybrid, composed of a business model, strategy, and business processes, is favorable to the development of intellectual capital (Jab?o?ski 2017). Trust is an element that ties this capital to relationships in business. Moreover, it has an integrated character (R.C. Mayer, J. H. Davis, F. D. Schoorman 1995). Assuming that, nowadays, the network paradigm is becoming increasingly important, it is worth asking how the mechanism of building trust-based intellectual capital in a sustainable organization functions as its key asset in the network environment.

Keywords

trust --- distrust --- control --- project success --- structural equation modeling (SEM) --- trust --- trust management --- logistics service providers --- supply chain management --- collaboration --- trust --- antibiotic resistance --- antibiotics --- cooperation --- large-scale collective action --- Sweden --- coordinating behavior --- trust management --- reciprocity types --- reciprocity-based trust --- inter-organizational exchange relationships --- sustainable relationships --- consumer trust --- CSR --- advertising --- ethical advertising --- shockvertising --- consumer behavior --- apology --- denial --- penance --- opportunistic behaviors --- trust repair --- subcontracting --- scenario-based experiments --- sustainability --- trust --- distress --- transport services --- road freight transport --- modal shift potential --- paradigm shift --- modeling --- prediction --- General Discriminant Analysis --- trust --- international joint venture --- third-country relocation --- foreign direct investment --- asset specificity --- institutional theory --- public collaborative networks --- multilevel research --- trust --- cooperation --- competition --- paradoxes --- trust --- M&A sustainability --- performance --- start-ups --- retained autonomy --- mixed-method research --- interpersonal trust --- sustainable organizations --- competences --- relations --- cooperation --- trust --- quality culture --- universities --- higher education institutions --- conceptual model --- trust --- collaboration --- virtual teams --- integrity --- ability --- online --- strategic hybrids --- business model --- strategy --- business processes --- strategic projects --- water supply companies --- trust --- trustworthiness --- distrust --- water cooperation --- competition --- complexity --- deep uncertainty --- risk perception --- Nzoia river basin --- water policy gaming --- public management --- public-social partnership --- public value --- co-innovation --- sustainability --- trust --- creative industry --- networking --- stakeholders --- DAG scheduling --- trusted entities --- heterogeneous --- MCTS --- cultural routes --- trust --- cooperation networks --- cultural heritage management

Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines

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ISBN: 9783039213504 9783039213511 Year: Pages: 282 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-351-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Interest in permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) is continuously increasing worldwide, especially with the increased use of renewable energy and the electrification of transports. This book contains the successful submissions of fifteen papers to a Special Issue of Energies on the subject area of “Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines”. The focus is on permanent magnet synchronous machines and the electrical systems they are connected to. The presented work represents a wide range of areas. Studies of control systems, both for permanent magnet synchronous machines and for brushless DC motors, are presented and experimentally verified. Design studies of generators for wind power, wave power and hydro power are presented. Finite element method simulations and analytical design methods are used. The presented studies represent several of the different research fields on permanent magnet machines and electric drives.

Keywords

PMSM (permanent magnet synchronous motor) --- DB-DTFC (deadbeat-direct torque and flux control) --- torque control --- stability --- permanent-magnet machine --- brushless machine --- Vernier machine --- flux switching machine --- multiphase machine --- outer rotor --- electric vehicle --- interior permanent magnet synchronous machines --- magnetic reluctance network --- brushless dc motor --- phase-advanced method --- winding inductance --- sub-fractional slot-concentrated winding --- field weakening --- periodic timer interrupt --- Brushless DC motors --- current ripples --- current spikes --- modeling --- back electromotive force --- R-C filter --- cogging torque --- permanent magnet synchronous generator --- small wind turbines --- finite element method --- renewable energy --- energy conversion --- finite element analysis --- pulse width modulation --- permanent magnet synchronous generator --- wind generator --- MPC --- PMSM --- vector control --- speed tracking --- brushless DC (BLDC) motor --- sensorless motor --- commutation error compensation --- free-wheeling period --- permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) --- sliding mode observer (SMO) --- parameter perturbation --- predictive current control (PCC) --- digital simulation --- motor drives --- interior permanent-magnet machines --- finite-element analysis --- modeling --- automotive applications --- electric vehicle (EV) --- hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) --- mathematical model --- saturation --- coils --- design tools --- energy efficiency --- linear generator --- power control --- stator --- wave power --- permanent magnet synchronous generator --- electrical machine design --- permanent magnet material --- bulk electric system --- condition monitoring --- electrical signature analysis --- fault diagnosis --- predictive maintenance --- synchronous generator --- permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) --- flying start --- sensorless control --- permanent magnet synchronous generator --- permanent magnet synchronous motor --- electric propulsion systems --- renewable energy --- energy conversion

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