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Molecular Pathogenesis of Pneumococcus

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452781 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-278-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Abstract

Streptococcus pneumoniae has been for decades the number one bacterial killer of children in the world. Although vaccination with pneumococcal vaccines [PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13 (children) or PPSV23 (adults)] has helped decrease the burden of pneumococcal disease (PD), mortality remains high. Therefore, pathogenesis studies are still key toward our understanding of PD and its control. The introduction of pneumococcal vaccines has also created a niche for vaccine-escape clones. Moreover, the rise of multi-drug resistant clones around the world has also posed a serious threat in recent years. The proposed special issue of Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology highlights many of the recent advances that have been made in pneumococcal pathogenesis, colonization and antibiotic resistance by groups in Latino America, Europe, and the USA.

Carbohydrates 2018

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ISBN: 9783039283163 9783039283170 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-317-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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This book contains original papers and reviews on carbohydrate research in medicine, authored by participants of the 29th International Carbohydrate Symposium, where this topic had a special emphasis. The focus on biological events involving carbohydrates and glycoconjugates has delivered reliable approaches for disease treatment and diagnosis. Research on carbohydrate-based compounds for therapeutic applications is illustrated in various contributions, namely those covering the development of novel agents against Alzheimer’s disease, e.g. the neuroprotective C-glucosylated flavones and the isonucleoside-based cholinesterase inhibitors. New imino sugar glucosidase inhibitors are also disclosed, a class of compounds with potential for diabetes, Gaucher disease or cancer treatment. Also the development of a useful synthetic method towards multivalent glycoclusters of biomedical interest is here highlighted. The relevance of glycomimetics in drug discovery and the progress on carbohydrates in early diagnosis and cancer treatment are reviewed. Noteworthy is the chitosan-based delivery system for drug oral administration, a new biomaterial-based approach to improve bioavailability. Another study on the conformation of Streptococcus capsular polysaccharide backbones by molecular modelling provides useful information for bacterial immunotherapeutic approaches. All original contributions and reviews clearly demonstrate the potential of glycosciences for innovation in medicinal (glyco)chemistry and pharmaceutical research.

Biotechnological Applications of Phage and Phage-Derived Proteins

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ISBN: 9783039214419 9783039214426 Year: Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-442-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Phages have shown a high biotechnological potential with numerous applications. The advent of high-resolution microscopy techniques aligned with omic and molecular tools have revealed innovative phage features and enabled new processes that can be further exploited for biotechnological applications in a wide variety of fields. The high-quality original articles and reviews presented in this Special Issue demonstrate the incredible potential of phages and their derived proteins in a wide range of biotechnological applications for human benefit. Considering the emergence of amazing new available bioengineering tools and the high abundance of phages and the multitude of phage proteins yet to be discovered and studied, we believe that the upcoming years will present us with many more fascinating and new previously unimagined phage-based biotechnological applications.

Keywords

gene expression regulation --- molecular probe --- macromolecular interactions --- phage-host interaction --- bacteriophage --- endolysin --- Clostridium perfringens --- alpha-sheet --- cancerous tumors --- capsid dynamics --- drug delivery vehicles --- native gel electrophoresis --- neurodegenerative disease --- pathogenic viruses --- phage display --- landscape phage --- major coat protein --- nanomedicine --- diagnostics --- biosensors --- M13 bacteriophage --- biofilm --- porous structure --- filters --- self-assembly --- T7phage library --- sarcoidosis --- tuberculosis --- microarray --- immunoscreening --- R-type pyocin --- bacteriocin --- contractile injection systems --- Pseudomonas aeruginosa --- X-ray crystallography --- receptor-binding protein --- Shigella flexneri --- bacteriophage --- tailspike proteins --- O-antigen --- serotyping --- microtiter plate assay --- fluorescence sensor --- bacteriophages --- encapsulation --- niosomes --- transfersomes --- liposomes --- Staphylococcus aureus --- phage --- Enterococcus faecalis --- Streptococcus agalactiae --- culture enrichment --- bacteriophage --- diagnostics --- Listeria monocytogenes --- endolysin --- magnetic separation --- reporter phage --- endolysin --- Pal --- Cpl-1 --- safety --- toxicity --- immune response --- Streptococcus pneumoniae --- self-assembly --- nanotubular structures --- tail sheath protein --- bacteriophage vB_EcoM_FV3 --- Appelmans --- bacteriophage evolution --- bacteriophage recombination --- phage therapy --- Pseudomonas aeruginosa --- antibiotic resistance --- bacteriophages --- Myoviridae --- bacteriophage-derived lytic enzyme --- enzybiotics --- endolysin --- in vitro activity --- ESKAPE --- n/a

Polyamine Metabolism in Disease and Polyamine-Targeted Therapies

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ISBN: 9783039211524 9783039211531 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-153-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Polyamines are ubiquitous polycations essential for all cellular life. The most common polyamines in eukaryotes, spermine, spermidine, and putrescine, exist in millimolar intracellular concentrations that are tightly regulated through biosynthesis, catabolism, and transport. Polyamines interact with, and regulate, negatively charged macromolecules, including nucleic acids, proteins, and ion channels. Accordingly, alterations in polyamine metabolism affect cellular proliferation and survival through changes in gene expression and transcription, translation, autophagy, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of these multifaceted polyamine functions contribute to multiple disease processes, thus their metabolism and function have been targeted for preventive or therapeutic intervention. The correlation between elevated polyamine levels and cancer is well established, and ornithine decarboxylase, the rate-limiting biosynthetic enzyme in the production of putrescine, is a bona fide transcriptional target of the Myc oncogene. Furthermore, induced polyamine catabolism contributes to carcinogenesis that is associated with certain forms of chronic infection and/or inflammation through the production of reactive oxygen species. These and other characteristics specific to cancer cells have led to the development of polyamine-based agents and inhibitors aimed at exploiting the polyamine metabolic pathway for chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive benefit. In addition to cancer, polyamines are involved in the pathologies of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, parasitic and infectious diseases, wound healing, ischemia/reperfusion injuries, and certain age-related conditions, as polyamines are known to decrease with age. As in cancer, polyamine-based therapies for these conditions are an area of active investigation. With recent advances in immunotherapy, interest has increased regarding polyamine-associated modulation of immune responses, as well as potential immunoregulation of polyamine metabolism, the results of which could have relevance to multiple disease processes. The goal of this Special Issue of Medical Sciences is to present the most recent advances in polyamine research as it relates to health, disease, and/or therapy.

Keywords

polyamine transport inhibitor --- Drosophila imaginal discs --- difluoromethylorthinine --- DFMO --- polyamine --- cancer --- metabolism --- difluoromethylornithine --- polyamine transport inhibitor --- pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma --- curcumin --- diferuloylmethane --- ornithine decarboxylase --- polyamine --- NF-?B --- chemoprevention --- carcinogenesis --- polyphenol --- ornithine decarboxylase --- polyamines --- untranslated region --- polyamines --- ?-difluoromethylornithine --- polyamine transport system --- melanoma --- mutant BRAF --- spermine --- spermidine --- putrescine --- polyamine metabolism --- mast cells --- eosinophils --- neutrophils --- M2 macrophages --- airway smooth muscle cells --- Streptococcus pneumoniae --- polyamines --- pneumococcal pneumonia --- proteomics --- capsule --- complementation --- metabolism --- cadaverine --- polyamines --- ornithine decarboxylase --- difluoromethylornithine --- eflornithine --- DFMO --- African sleeping sickness --- hirsutism --- colorectal cancer --- neuroblastoma --- aging --- atrophy --- autophagy --- oxidative stress --- polyamines --- skeletal muscle --- spermidine --- spermine oxidase --- transgenic mouse --- immunity --- T-lymphocytes --- B-lymphocytes --- tumor immunity --- metabolism --- epigenetics --- autoimmunity --- polyamines --- ornithine decarboxylase --- polyamine analogs --- spermidine/spermine N1-acetyl transferase --- spermine oxidase --- bis(ethyl)polyamine analogs --- breast cancer --- MCF-7 cells --- transgenic mice --- polyamines --- MYC --- protein synthesis in cancer --- neuroblastoma --- protein expression --- antizyme 1 --- ornithine decarboxylase --- CRISPR --- human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) --- cell differentiation --- DFMO --- ornithine decarboxylase --- osteosarcoma --- polyamines --- polyamines --- polyamine metabolism --- antizyme --- antizyme inhibitors --- ornithine decarboxylase --- Snyder-Robinson Syndrome --- spermine synthase --- X-linked intellectual disability --- polyamine transport --- spermidine --- spermine --- transglutaminase

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