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Oxidative Stress and Oxygen Radicals/Oxidative Stress in Health and Disease

ISBN: 9783038421733 9783038421740 Year: Pages: XXVI, 514 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-09-13 08:33:26
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Abstract

Oxidative stress is now a well-researched area with thousands of new articlesappearing every year. We want to give the reader here an overview of the topics in biomedicaland basic oxidative stress research which are covered by the authors of this thematic issue.We also want to give the newcomer a short introduction into some of the basic concepts,definitions and analytical procedures used in this field.

Keywords

Oxidative Stress

Stress Intensity Factors - T-Stresses - Weight Functions

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Keramik im Maschinenbau - IKM ISSN: 14363488 ISBN: 9783866442351 Year: Volume: 50 Pages: XVI, 362 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000007996 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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Failure of cracked components is governed by the stresses in the vicinity of the crack tip. The singular stress contribution is characterised by the stress intensity factor K, the first regular stress term is represented by the so-called T-stress. Sufficient information about the stress state is available, if these two parameters are known Results for K and T are compiled in form of figures, tables, and approximate relations.

Plant Responses to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses: Lessons from Cell Signaling

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453566 Year: Pages: 298 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-356-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Facing stressful conditions imposed by their environment and affecting their growth and their development throughout their life cycle, plants must be able to perceive, to process and to translate different stimuli into adaptive responses. Understanding the organism-coordinated responses involves a fine description of the mechanisms occurring at the cellular and molecular level. A major challenge is also to understand how the large diversity of molecules identified as signals, sensors or effectors could drive a cell to the appropriate plant response and to finally cope with various environmental cues. In this Research Topic we aim to provide an overview of various signaling mechanisms or to present new molecular signals involved in stress response and to demonstrate how basic/fundamental research on cell signaling will help to understand stress responses at the whole plant level.

Avaliação Familiar: Vulnerabilidade, Stress e Adaptação vol. II

Authors: ---
Book Series: Investigação ISBN: 9789892612676 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: https://doi.org/10.14195/978-989-26-1268-3 Language: Portuguese
Publisher: Coimbra University Press
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-23 16:21:06
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No seguimento do Volume I, e com o mesmo objetivo em mente, isto é, dar um contributo para ultrapassar a escassez de instrumentos de avaliação psicológica em Portugal direcionados para a Família, são apresentados oito instrumentos que permitem avaliar a resiliência e processos adaptativos familiares, face a condições de stress emergentes quer em situações de crise normativas quer inesperadas. Algumas medidas das respostas particulares do sistema familiar em situações específicas de doença, tanto pediátrica como do adulto, completam os conteúdos deste livro. Tal como no Volume I, todos os capítulos seguem uma estrutura comum, definida na ótica do utilizador, e estruturada de forma a, por um lado, seguir uma lógica conceptual associada aos movimentos relacionais da família, considerando o todo (foco grupal) e a parte (foco individual); por outro lado, a estrutura (constante) por capítulo foi ponderada no sentido de permitir uma visão completa e fundamentada de cada instrumento, de modo a que possam ser utilizados rigorosamente por investigadores da família provenientes de diversas áreas disciplinares que assim os poderão cruzar com os seus instrumentos específicos. Renovamos a expectativa desta obra se revelar útil para o leitor e para o desenvolvimento rigoroso do conhecimento na área dos estudos sobre a Família.

The role of viable but non-infectious developmental forms in chlamydial biology

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193219 Year: Pages: 119 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-321-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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The chlamydiae are Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria with a complex developmental cycle comprising a metabolically less-active, infectious stage, the elementary body (EB), and a metabolically more active stage, the reticulate body (RB). They are responsible for many acute and chronic diseases in humans and animals. In order to play a causative role in chronic diseases, chlamydiae would need to persist and to re-activate within infected cells/tissues for extended periods of time. Persistence in vitro is defined as viable but non-cultivable chlamydiae involving morphologically enlarged, aberrant, and nondividing RBs, termed aberrant bodies (AB). In vitro, alterations of the normal developmental cycle of chlamydiae can be induced by the addition of Interferon-? (IFN-?), tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) and penicillin G exposure as well as amino acid or iron deprivation, monocyte infection and co-infection with viruses. In vivo, key questions include whether or not ABs occur in infected patients and animals and whether such ABs can contribute to prolonged, chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and scarring through continuing stimulation of the host immune system known from diseases such as trachoma, pelvic inflammatory disease, reactive arthritis and atherosclerosis. To date, the direct causal role in the pathogenesis of chlamydial infection and persistence in vivo has been questioned since there was no tractable animal model of chlamydial persistence so far. A very recent study was able to establish an experimental animal model of in vivo persistence, when C. muridarum vaginally-infected mice were gavaged with amoxicillin. Amoxicillin treatment induced C. muridarum to enter the persistent state in vivo. Recent in vivo data from patients indicate that viable but non-infectious developmental stages are present in the genital tract of chronically-infected women and that the gastrointestinal tract might be a reservoir for persistent chlamydial infections at other sites.

Energy metabolism and behavior in the corticotropin-releasing factor family of peptides

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195374 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-537-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General) --- Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Since Hans Selye's seminal work in the 1930s, there have been numerous advances with respect to our understanding of how the nervous and endocrine systems interact to help animals cope with stressors and how chronic stress may adversely impact health. Our modern understanding of stress essentially began in 1954 with the race to discover the hypothalamic releasing factor controlling ACTH secretion and mediating the endocrine response to stressors. Since the isolation of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in 1981, interest in CRF has focused not only on its hypophysiotropic function, but also its much broader role in coordinating many of the endocrine, behavioral and autonomic nervous system changes that occur during stress. The goal of this Research Topic is to solicit reviews and general research articles highlighting new research into stress and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the following areas: HPA axis interaction with energy regulating mechanisms during stress; and new studies on the role of CRF and urocortin and urocortins 2 and 3 in behavioral adaptation to stressors.

Epigenetic pathways in PTSD: How traumatic experiences leave their signature on the genome

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194582 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-458-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychiatry --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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This research topic focuses on epigenetic components of PTSD. Epigenetic mechanisms are a class of molecular mechanisms by which environmental influences, including stress, can interact with the genome to have long-term consequences for brain plasticity and behavior. Articles herein include empirical reports and reviews that link stress and trauma with epigenetic alterations in humans and animal models of early- or later-life stress. Themes present throughout the collection include: DNA methylation is a useful biomarker of stress and treatment outcome in humans; epigenetic programming of stress-sensitive physiological systems early in development confers an enhanced risk on disease development upon re-exposure to trauma or stress; and, long-lived fear memories are associated with epigenetic alterations in fear memory and extinction brain circuitry.

Keywords

DNA Methylation --- Histones --- miRNA --- stress --- Fear --- PTSD

Avoidance: From Basic Science to Psychopathology

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198283 Year: Pages: 227 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-828-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Coping has a myriad of facets: knowledge concerning the circumstances of threats to emotional and physical well being, the ability to meet immediate needs to mitigate, the potential for recurrence, the ability to apply efforts and resources to manage recurrence, and the complex assessment of competing motivations and changing circumstances. Successful coping is measured in the efficiency of efforts in balance with the degree of threat and likelihood of future occurrence. As one means of coping, avoidance encompass thoughts and efforts toward prevention of future aversive experiences and events. Anxiety disorders exemplify an extreme bias toward avoidance. A diathesis learning model focuses research efforts on individual vulnerabilities to acquire and express avoidance, the neurobiology of avoidance learning and its attendant circuitry. A fundamental understanding of avoidance through a diathesis learning model offers will facilitate the development of effective treatment protocols in alleviating anxiety disorders.

Abiotic Stress Signaling in Plants: Functional Genomic Intervention

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198917 Year: Pages: 636 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-891-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Abiotic stresses such as high temperature, low-temperature, drought and salinity limit crop productivity worldwide. Understanding plant responses to these stresses is essential for rational engineering of crop plants. In Arabidopsis, the signal transduction pathways for abiotic stresses, light, several phytohormones and pathogenesis have been elucidated. A significant portion of plant genomes (Arabidopsis and rice were mostly studied) encodes for proteins involves in signaling such as receptor, sensors, kinases, phosphatases, transcription factors and transporters/channels. Despite decades of physiological and molecular effort, knowledge pertaining to how plants sense and transduce low and high temperature, low-water availability (drought), water-submergence, microgravity and salinity signals is still a major question for plant biologist. One major constraint hampering our understanding of these signal transduction processes in plants has been the lack or slow pace of application of molecular genomic and genetics knowledge in the form of gene function. In the post-genomic era, one of the major challenges is investigation and understanding of multiple genes and gene families regulating a particular physiological and developmental aspect of plant life cycle. One of the important physiological processes is regulation of stress response, which leads to adaptation or adjustment in response to adverse stimuli. With the holistic understanding of the signaling pathways involving not only one gene family but multiple genes or gene families, plant biologist can lay a foundation for designing and generating future crops, which can withstand the higher degree of environmental stresses (especially abiotic stresses, which are the major cause of crop loss throughout the world) without losing crop yield and productivity. Therefore, in this e-Book, we intend to incorporate the contribution from leading plant biologists to elucidate several aspects of stress signaling by functional genomics approaches.

ROS Regulation during Plant Abiotic Stress Responses

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450541 Year: Pages: 306 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-054-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Plants are continuously exposed to a wide range of environmental conditions, including cold, drought, salt, heat, which have major impact on plant growth and development. To survive, plants have evolved complex physiological and biochemical adaptations to cope with a variety of adverse environmental stresses. Among them, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key regulators and play pivotal roles during plant stress responses, which are thought to function as early signals during plant abiotic stress responses. ROS were long regarded as unwanted and toxic by-products of physiological metabolism. However, ROS are now recognized as central players in the complex signaling network of cells. Therefore, a fine-tuning control between ROS production and scavenging pathways is essential to maintain non-toxic levels in planta under stressful conditions through enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. We focus on the roles of ROS during plant abiotic stress responses in this Research Topic. Plant responses to multiple abiotic stresses and effects of hormones and chemicals on plant stress responses have been carefully studies. Although functions of several stress responsive genes have been characterized and possible interactions between hormones and ROS are discussed, future researches are needed to functionally characterize ROS regulatory and signaling transduction pathways.Plants are continuously exposed to a wide range of environmental conditions, including cold, drought, salt, heat, which have major impact on plant growth and development. To survive, plants have evolved complex physiological and biochemical adaptations to cope with a variety of adverse environmental stresses. Among them, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key regulators and play pivotal roles during plant stress responses, which are thought to function as early signals during plant abiotic stress responses. ROS were long regarded as unwanted and toxic by-products of physiological metabolism. However, ROS are now recognized as central players in the complex signaling network of cells. Therefore, a fine-tuning control between ROS production and scavenging pathways is essential to maintain non-toxic levels in planta under stressful conditions through enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. We focus on the roles of ROS during plant abiotic stress responses in this Research Topic. Plant responses to multiple abiotic stresses and effects of hormones and chemicals on plant stress responses have been carefully studies. Although functions of several stress responsive genes have been characterized and possible interactions between hormones and ROS are discussed, future researches are needed to functionally characterize ROS regulatory and signaling transduction pathways.

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