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Innate immunity and neurodegenerative disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193103 Year: Pages: 87 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-310-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychiatry --- Therapeutics --- Neurology --- Medicine (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Inflammation of the brain in the context of neurodegenerative disorders is an area of intense debate and discussion, not least in terms of its pathogenic significance and the extent to which it drives disease processes and pathology. This inflammation can take several forms including innate responses recruiting microglia, humoral responses involving antibody, complement mediated processes and cellular T-cell activation, of which the role and extent of each may differ between diseases. Whilst some diseases have been more intensely linked to inflammation and long-term degeneration (e.g. MS), more traditional chronic neurodegenerative disorders have been thought of in terms of intrinsic neuronal pathology with a secondary innate response. However, it has been described that microglia activation is an early event of many degenerative disorders and evidence is accumulating that it may play a critical role in actually causing pathology and driving disease processes. If true, this would have major therapeutic implications, but what is the evidence that this is the case? The initial observations by Patrick McGeer’s group of post-mortem tissue from patients with Parkinson’s disease revealed the presence of activated brain microglia and has thus lead to the hypothesis that chronic inflammation could participate to neuronal degenerative processes. The significance of these original observations has only been recently revisited, and the development of more powerful tools to study the brain immune response has certainly contributed to this field of research. Chronic inflammation in the brain can take many forms but of particular interest has been the resident microglia and the role they play in this process. In this context, microglia have often been thought to become activated only after the disease has begun and then to contribute minimally to the degenerative process. Emerging new concepts challenge this view by proposing that microglial senescence, for example, may release the disease process and/or accelerate it. In addition, microglia, once activated, can adopt different phenotypes which can be both pro-inflammatory and pro-repair and may impact not only on the healthy adult neuronal population but on those new neurons derived from neurogenic niches of the adult brain. In this Research Topic, we attempt to explore this by first considering the innate immune responses in the brain and the methods by which they can be studied experimentally and in patients with various neurodegenerative disorders. This sets the scene for then discussing a range of different disorders including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These papers seek to discuss the evidence for an innate immune response and whether this is beneficial or detrimental, as well as its therapeutic implications.

9 Reading Galen in Byzantium (Book chapter)

Book title: Greek Medical Literature and its Readers

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ISBN: 9781472487919 9781351205276 Year: Pages: 53 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 11:01:48
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In this chapter, I shall focus on the Galenic corpus, whose dissemination in the Byzantine world was widespread and influential; in particular, I have chosen to examine the various revivals of Galen’s Therapeutics to Glaucon, which was copied widely. A number of authors produced commentaries based on this treatise and some were invariably influenced by it in composing their own works throughout the Byzantine era (AD 330–1453).4 My study is not exhaustive, but rather I shall select specific examples of interest from the various forms of evidence. First, I shall provide some basic introductory details on Galen’s Therapeutics to Glaucon, followed by a section on its circulation and textual transmission in Byzantium. Then, I shall go on to discuss its revival by Byzantine medical authors into two further sections; the first focuses on commentaries and the second deals with medical handbooks.

Christian Converts and Social Protests in Meiji Japan

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Book Series: Michigan Classics in Japanese Studies ISBN: 9780472901937 Year: Pages: 279 DOI: 10.3998/mpub.9340282 Language: English
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-05 00:03:01
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Nowhere has there been a discussion of the confusion necessarily generated by the rapidity of the change or of the agony created in the lives of many whose attitudes, expectations, and even success depended on the continuance of now abolished institutions. Historians have ignored the settled conditions of most samurai and instead concentrated on the study of the minority of activist samurai leaders who, with the backing of only a few Han (feudal domains) sought to overthrow the old order and whose success in doing so has made the study of the modernization of Japan the prime concern of historians. The history of the Meiji period may have been an overall political and industrial success story, but for a fuller understanding of the conditions of that success it is also necessary to understand "what it was really like" for the members of the old elite to be estranged from the proponents of revolution and what many members did to assure their own social and psychological position in a world they had not expected. In this book the author attempts to show that the impact of the Meiji Restoration destroyed the meaningfulness of the Confucian doctrine for these declasse samurai. Through Christianity, the samurai attempted to revive their status in society by finding a doctrine that offered a meaningful path to power. But in doing so, they had to accept a new theory of social relations. Ultimately, as the convert's understanding of society became totally informed by the Christian doctrine, they accepted a transcendent authority that brought them into conflict with society about them. Therefore, to understand the development of a Christian opposition in Meiji society we must begin with the conversion experience itself. [intro]

2015: Which new directions for Alzheimer's disease?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195350 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-535-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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According to the World Health Organization, more than 40 million people in the world are affected with dementia. To date, 60-70% of the cases of dementia are attributed to the Alzheimer's disease (AD). This neurodegenerative disorder gradually takes place over a period of at least 20 years before the onset of symptoms, which are impaired memory, apathy and depression. The characteristics of AD consist in neurofibrillary tangles (intraneuronal aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins) and senile plaques (dense extraneuronal deposits composed of amyloid ß (Aß)). The other features linked to these two core pathological hallmarks of AD are inflammation, oxidative stress, progressive synaptic and neuronal loss. In past years, some of the emerging therapeutic strategies against AD were employed to deal with the pathological hallmarks of the disease. Science teams all over the world try to restore the tau phosphorylation equilibrium. Their purpose is to interfere with the aggregation of tau and decrease its amount of proteins per se as well. Furthermore, they are trying either to stimulate the elimination processes of the aggregated tau proteins or to stop the formation of Aß peptides. This could be reached by the stimulation of the classic techniques of protein degradation such as the autophagic pathway, or by the targeted immunotherapy. In this Research Topic, we wish to summarize and review the etiology of AD and the related therapeutic opportunities for the next decades. To fully understand the precise mechanisms underlying AD, research findings, reviews, new insights and new approaches include AD and related tauopathies, tau phosphorylation balance, pharmacological compounds against AD, neuroprotection strategies and new therapeutic ways but also risk factors for AD and AD genetic information are included in this issue.

Enterotoxins: Microbial Proteins and Host Cell Dysregulation

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ISBN: 9783038421634 9783038421641 Year: Pages: 306 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-164-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-03 11:14:38
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Transport in Transition

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Book Series: Michigan Abstracts Of Chinese And Japanese Works On Chinese History ISBN: 9780472901562 Year: Pages: 113 DOI: 10.3998/mpub.19931 Language: English
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-05 00:02:12
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Water transport is a major feature of the traditional Chinese economy because of its magnitude and comparative efficiency. Yet this feature has all too often been ignored by scholars, with the notable exception of Japanese scholars. We cannot hope to gain any real conception of how the Chinese economy worked in the past, or works now, until we have a clearer picture of the circulation of men and commodities. In this circulation, water transport has been and is of crucial importance. Transport in Transition collects and translates notable Japanese articles to throw some light on the evolution of traditional junk shipping during a key transitional phase, 1900–1940, when it was absorbing the influences of various forms of modernization and on the eve of its major organizational transformation under the direction of the Communisty Party. The articles chosen concentrate on two main themes: the institutional organization of the shipping business, and the forms of ownership and operation. They will be of value to business historians and economic sociologists generally as well as to economic historians interested in transport. Several features of the Chinese economy are sharply illuminated. Most striking is the extent of regional variation. North and central Chinese shipping are shown to have differed both in their methods of operaiton and organization. Also noteworthy is the enduring strength of some traditional features of shipping operation and business practice. An unexpected feature of this endurance was the strength of traditional shipping in the face of steady competition from all forms of modern transport and from reputdely more efficient forms of business management.

Pathophysiology and Imaging Diagnosis of Demyelinating Disorders

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ISBN: 9783038429432 9783038429449 Year: Pages: X, 168 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-27 15:51:32
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Demyelinating disorders are chronic autoimmune disorders characterized by inflammation, demyelination, axonal degeneration, and neuronal loss. They have complex pathophysiology and diverse clinical presentations. The etiology of these disorders lies in the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Due to the complexity in pathophysiology and presentation, diagnosis and treatment can be challenging. Advanced technology, including modern imaging techniques, as well as optical coherence tomography (OCT), enrich our understanding of the disease process, improve diagnostic accuracy, and may guide treatment decisions.

Writing and Renunciation in Medieval Japan

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Book Series: Michigan Monograph Series in Japanese Studies ISBN: 9780472901890 Year: Pages: 213 DOI: 10.3998/mpub.18546 Language: English
Publisher: University of Michigan Press Grant: National Endowment for the Humanities - [grantnumber unknown]
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-05 00:01:57
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This is the first monograph-length study in English of Kamo no Chomei, one of the most important literary figures of medieval Japan. Drawing upon a wide range of writings in a variety of genres from the Heian and Kamakura periods, Pandey focuses on the terms kyogen kigo (wild words and fancy phrases), shoji soku nehan (samsara is nirvana), hoben (expedient means), and suki (single-minded devotion to an art). She shows how these terms deployed by writers in an attempt to reconcile literary and artistic activities with a commitment to Buddhism. By locating Chomei within this broad context, the book offers an original reading of his texts, while at the same time casting a light upon intellectual preoccupations that were central to the times. Writing and Renunciation in Medieval Japan is an important contribution to a growing body of work that challenges the rigid distinction between the religious and literary—a distinction that would have made little sense to medieval writers, many of whom were poets as well as priests—and sheds light on the particular ways in which a religio-aesthetic tradition came to be articulated in medieval Japan. Through an examination of records left by Chomei's contemporaries, the book also traces the life of Chomei, particularly his activities as a court poet and the circumstances that led to his taking the tonsure.

Essays on the Modern Japanese Church

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Book Series: Michigan Monograph Series in Japanese Studies ISBN: 9780472901913 Year: Pages: 207 DOI: 10.3998/mpub.22854 Language: English
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-05 00:02:03
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Essays on the Modern Japanese Church (Gendai Nihon kyokai shiron), published in 1906, was the first Japanese-language history of Christianity in Meiji Japan. Yamaji Aizan’s firsthand account describes the reintroduction of Christianity to Japan—its development, rapid expansion, and decline—and its place in the social, political, and intellectual life of the Meiji period. Yamaji’s overall argument is that Christianity played a crucial role in shaping the growth and development of modern Japan. Yamaji was a strong opponent of the government-sponsored “emperor-system ideology,” and through his historical writing he tried to show how Japan had a tradition of tolerance and openness at a time when government-sponsored intellectuals were arguing for greater conformity and submissiveness to the state on the basis of Japanese “national character.” Essays is important not only in terms of religious history but also because it highlights broad trends in the history of Meiji Japan. Introductory chapters explore the significance of the work in terms of the life and thought of its author and its influence on subsequent interpretations of Meiji Christianity.

The Imperial Style of Inquiry in Twentieth-Century China

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Book Series: Michigan Monographs In Chinese Studies ISBN: 9780472901784 Year: Pages: 159 DOI: 10.3998/mpub.19105 Language: English
Publisher: University of Michigan Press Grant: National Endowment for the Humanities - [grantnumber unknown]
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-05 00:02:06
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How have traditional Chinese ways of thinking affected problem solving in this century? The traditional, imperial style of inquiry is associated with the belief that the universe is a coherent, internally structured unity understandable through the similarly structured human mind. It involves a reliance on antecedent and authoritarian models, coupled with an introspective focus in investigations, at some cost to objective fact gathering. In contrast, emergent forms of inquiry are guided by the values of individual autonomy and new perspectives on objectivity. In the 1930s and 1940s, some liberal educators held the model of Western science in great esteem, and some scientists practicing objective inquiry helped to create an awareness in the urban areas of inquiry not directed by political values. Drawing on philosophical, social science, and popular culture materials, Donald Munro shows that the two strains coexisted in twentieth century China as mixed motives. Many important figures were motivated by a desire to act consistently with the social values associated with the premodern or received view of knowledge and inquiry. At the same time, these people often had other motives, such as utilitarian values, efficiency, and entrepreneurship. Munro argues that while many competing positions can coexist in the same person, the seeds of the positive, instrumental value of individual autonomy in Chinese inquiry are beginning to compete in both scholarly and popular culture with other, older approaches.

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