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New Approaches for the Discovery of Pharmacologically-Active Natural Compounds

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ISBN: 9783039211043 9783039211050 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-105-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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A major source of active compounds, natural products from different sources supply a large variety of molecules that have been approved for clinical use or used as the starting points of optimization programs. This book features nine papers (eight full articles and one review paper) written by more than 45 scientists from around the world. These papers illustrate the development and application of a broad range of computational and experimental techniques applied to natural product research. On behalf of the contributors to the book, our hope is that the research presented here contributes to advancements in the field, and encourages multidisciplinary teams, young scientists, and students to further advance in the discovery of pharmacologically-active natural compounds

Remote Sensing of Environmental Changes in Cold Regions

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ISBN: 9783039215706 9783039215713 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-571-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This Special Issue gathers papers reporting recent advances in the remote sensing of cold regions. It includes contributions presenting improvements in modeling microwave emissions from snow, assessment of satellite-based sea ice concentration products, satellite monitoring of ice jam and glacier lake outburst floods, satellite mapping of snow depth and soil freeze/thaw states, near-nadir interferometric imaging of surface water bodies, and remote sensing-based assessment of high arctic lake environment and vegetation recovery from wildfire disturbances in Alaska. A comprehensive review is presented to summarize the achievements, challenges, and opportunities of cold land remote sensing.

Rainfall Erosivity in Soil Erosion Processes

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ISBN: 9783039288045 / 9783039288052 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-805-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This book gathers recent international research on the association between aggressive rainfall and soil loss and landscape degradation. Different contributions explore these complex relationships and highlight the importance of the spatial patterns of precipitation intensity on land flow under erosive storms, with the support of observational and modelling data. This is a large and multifaceted area of research of growing importance that outlines the challenge of protecting land from natural hazards. The increase in the number of high temporal resolution rainfall records together with the development of new modelling capabilities has opened up new opportunities for the use of large-scale planning and risk prevention methods. These new perspectives should no longer be considered as an independent research topic, but should, above all, support comprehensive land use planning, which is at the core of environmental decision-making and operations. Textbooks such as this one demonstrate the significance of how hydrological science can enable tangible progress in understanding the complexity of water management and its current and future challenges.

Advances in Quantitative Remote Sensing in China – In Memory of Prof. Xiaowen Li

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038972709 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 404 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-271-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-08 11:42:05
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Quantitative land remote sensing has recently advanced dramatically, particularly in China. It has been largely driven by vast governmental investment, the availability of a huge amount of Chinese satellite data, geospatial information requirements for addressing pressing environmental issues and other societal benefits. Many individuals have also fostered and made great contributions to its development, and Prof. Xiaowen Li was one of these leading figures. This book is published in memory of Prof. Li. The papers collected in this book cover topics from surface reflectance simulation, inversion algorithm and estimation of variables, to applications in optical, thermal, Lidar and microwave remote sensing. The wide range of variables include directional reflectance, chlorophyll fluorescence, aerosol optical depth, incident solar radiation, albedo, surface temperature, upward longwave radiation, leaf area index, fractional vegetation cover, forest biomass, precipitation, evapotranspiration, freeze/thaw snow cover, vegetation productivity, phenology and biodiversity indicators. They clearly reflect the current level of research in this area. This book constitutes an excellent reference suitable for upper-level undergraduate students, graduate students and professionals in remote sensing.

Keywords

evapotranspiration --- Northeast China --- MS–PT algorithm --- spatial-temporal variations --- controlling factors --- potential evapotranspiration --- vegetation remote sensing --- reflectance model --- spectra --- leaf --- copper --- PROSPECT --- leaf area density --- terrestrial LiDAR --- tree canopy --- vertical structure --- voxel --- spatial representativeness --- heterogeneity --- validation --- land-surface temperature products (LSTs) --- observations --- HiWATER --- remote sensing --- spatiotemporal representative --- cost-efficient, sampling design --- heterogeneity --- validation --- FY-3C/MERSI --- GLASS --- Land surface temperature --- Land surface emissivity --- GPP --- SIF --- MuSyQ-GPP algorithm --- BEPS --- vegetation phenology --- Tibetan Plateau --- MODIS --- NDVI --- start of growing season (SOS) --- end of growing season (EOS) --- GLASS LAI time series --- forest disturbance --- disturbance index --- latent heat --- machine learning algorithms --- plant functional type --- high-resolution freeze/thaw --- AMSR2 --- MODIS --- LAI --- ZY-3 MUX --- GF-1 WFV --- HJ-1 CCD --- maize --- PROSPECT-5B+SAILH (PROSAIL) model --- spatial heterogeneity --- variability --- evapotranspiration --- land surface variables --- probability density function --- HiWATER --- spectral --- albedometer --- interference filter --- photoelectric detector --- validation --- land surface albedo --- multi-scale validation --- rugged terrain --- MRT-based model --- MCD43A3 C6 --- precipitation --- statistics methods --- China --- Tibetan Plateau --- South China’s --- drought --- SPI --- TMI data --- crop-growing regions --- downward shortwave radiation --- machine learning --- gradient boosting regression tree --- AVHRR --- CMA --- BRDF --- aerosol --- MODIS --- sunphotometer --- arid/semiarid --- solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence --- fluorescence quantum efficiency in dark-adapted conditions (FQE) --- SCOPE --- Fraunhofer Line Discrimination (FLD) --- gross primary productivity (GPP) --- longwave upwelling radiation (LWUP) --- Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) --- surface radiation budget --- hybrid method --- remote sensing --- leaf age --- leaf spectral properties --- leaf area index --- Cunninghamia --- Chinese fir --- canopy reflectance --- NIR --- EVI2 --- geometric optical radiative transfer (GORT) model --- land surface albedo --- snow-free albedo --- rugged terrain --- topographic effects --- black-sky albedo (BSA) --- GPP --- NPP --- MODIS --- validation --- phenology --- RADARSAT-2 --- rice --- Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) --- decision tree --- forest canopy height --- aboveground biomass --- ICESat GLAS --- Landsat --- random forest model --- anisotropic reflectance --- BRDF --- rugged terrain --- solo slope --- composite slope --- surface solar irradiance --- geostationary satellite --- polar orbiting satellite --- LUT method --- SURFRAD --- downward shortwave radiation --- daily average value --- Antarctica --- sinusoidal method --- cloud fraction --- interpolation --- boreal forest --- GPP --- spatiotemporal distribution and variation --- meteorological factors --- phenological parameters --- multisource data fusion --- aerosol retrieval --- urban scale --- vegetation dust-retention --- multiple ecological factors --- geographical detector model --- snow cover --- passive microwave --- FY-3C/MWRI --- algorithmic assessment --- China --- land surface temperature --- satellite observations --- flux measurements --- latitudinal pattern --- land cover change --- fractional vegetation cover (FVC) --- multi-data set --- northern China --- spatio-temporal --- inter-annual variation --- uncertainty --- standard error of the mean --- downscaling --- GPP --- spatial heterogeneity --- remote sensing --- subpixel information --- LiDAR --- point cloud --- leaf --- gap fraction --- 3D reconstruction --- biodiversity --- remote sensing --- species richness --- metric comparison --- metric integration --- leaf area index --- MODIS products --- Landsat --- high resolution --- homogeneous and pure pixel filter --- pixel unmixing --- vertical vegetation stratification --- gross primary production (GPP) --- light use efficiency --- dense forest --- MODIS --- VPM --- temperature profiles --- humidity profiles --- n/a --- geometric-optical model --- thermal radiation directionality --- quantitative remote sensing inversion --- scale effects --- comprehensive field experiment

Advances in Quantitative Remote Sensing in China – In Memory of Prof. Xiaowen Li

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038972761 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 404 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-277-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-08 11:42:05
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Abstract

Quantitative land remote sensing has recently advanced dramatically, particularly in China. It has been largely driven by vast governmental investment, the availability of a huge amount of Chinese satellite data, geospatial information requirements for addressing pressing environmental issues and other societal benefits. Many individuals have also fostered and made great contributions to its development, and Prof. Xiaowen Li was one of these leading figures. This book is published in memory of Prof. Li. The papers collected in this book cover topics from surface reflectance simulation, inversion algorithm and estimation of variables, to applications in optical, thermal, Lidar and microwave remote sensing. The wide range of variables include directional reflectance, chlorophyll fluorescence, aerosol optical depth, incident solar radiation, albedo, surface temperature, upward longwave radiation, leaf area index, fractional vegetation cover, forest biomass, precipitation, evapotranspiration, freeze/thaw snow cover, vegetation productivity, phenology and biodiversity indicators. They clearly reflect the current level of research in this area. This book constitutes an excellent reference suitable for upper-level undergraduate students, graduate students and professionals in remote sensing.

Keywords

evapotranspiration --- Northeast China --- MS–PT algorithm --- spatial-temporal variations --- controlling factors --- potential evapotranspiration --- vegetation remote sensing --- reflectance model --- spectra --- leaf --- copper --- PROSPECT --- leaf area density --- terrestrial LiDAR --- tree canopy --- vertical structure --- voxel --- spatial representativeness --- heterogeneity --- validation --- land-surface temperature products (LSTs) --- observations --- HiWATER --- remote sensing --- spatiotemporal representative --- cost-efficient, sampling design --- heterogeneity --- validation --- FY-3C/MERSI --- GLASS --- Land surface temperature --- Land surface emissivity --- GPP --- SIF --- MuSyQ-GPP algorithm --- BEPS --- vegetation phenology --- Tibetan Plateau --- MODIS --- NDVI --- start of growing season (SOS) --- end of growing season (EOS) --- GLASS LAI time series --- forest disturbance --- disturbance index --- latent heat --- machine learning algorithms --- plant functional type --- high-resolution freeze/thaw --- AMSR2 --- MODIS --- LAI --- ZY-3 MUX --- GF-1 WFV --- HJ-1 CCD --- maize --- PROSPECT-5B+SAILH (PROSAIL) model --- spatial heterogeneity --- variability --- evapotranspiration --- land surface variables --- probability density function --- HiWATER --- spectral --- albedometer --- interference filter --- photoelectric detector --- validation --- land surface albedo --- multi-scale validation --- rugged terrain --- MRT-based model --- MCD43A3 C6 --- precipitation --- statistics methods --- China --- Tibetan Plateau --- South China’s --- drought --- SPI --- TMI data --- crop-growing regions --- downward shortwave radiation --- machine learning --- gradient boosting regression tree --- AVHRR --- CMA --- BRDF --- aerosol --- MODIS --- sunphotometer --- arid/semiarid --- solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence --- fluorescence quantum efficiency in dark-adapted conditions (FQE) --- SCOPE --- Fraunhofer Line Discrimination (FLD) --- gross primary productivity (GPP) --- longwave upwelling radiation (LWUP) --- Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) --- surface radiation budget --- hybrid method --- remote sensing --- leaf age --- leaf spectral properties --- leaf area index --- Cunninghamia --- Chinese fir --- canopy reflectance --- NIR --- EVI2 --- geometric optical radiative transfer (GORT) model --- land surface albedo --- snow-free albedo --- rugged terrain --- topographic effects --- black-sky albedo (BSA) --- GPP --- NPP --- MODIS --- validation --- phenology --- RADARSAT-2 --- rice --- Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) --- decision tree --- forest canopy height --- aboveground biomass --- ICESat GLAS --- Landsat --- random forest model --- anisotropic reflectance --- BRDF --- rugged terrain --- solo slope --- composite slope --- surface solar irradiance --- geostationary satellite --- polar orbiting satellite --- LUT method --- SURFRAD --- downward shortwave radiation --- daily average value --- Antarctica --- sinusoidal method --- cloud fraction --- interpolation --- boreal forest --- GPP --- spatiotemporal distribution and variation --- meteorological factors --- phenological parameters --- multisource data fusion --- aerosol retrieval --- urban scale --- vegetation dust-retention --- multiple ecological factors --- geographical detector model --- snow cover --- passive microwave --- FY-3C/MWRI --- algorithmic assessment --- China --- land surface temperature --- satellite observations --- flux measurements --- latitudinal pattern --- land cover change --- fractional vegetation cover (FVC) --- multi-data set --- northern China --- spatio-temporal --- inter-annual variation --- uncertainty --- standard error of the mean --- downscaling --- GPP --- spatial heterogeneity --- remote sensing --- subpixel information --- LiDAR --- point cloud --- leaf --- gap fraction --- 3D reconstruction --- biodiversity --- remote sensing --- species richness --- metric comparison --- metric integration --- leaf area index --- MODIS products --- Landsat --- high resolution --- homogeneous and pure pixel filter --- pixel unmixing --- vertical vegetation stratification --- gross primary production (GPP) --- light use efficiency --- dense forest --- MODIS --- VPM --- temperature profiles --- humidity profiles --- n/a --- geometric-optical model --- thermal radiation directionality --- quantitative remote sensing inversion --- scale effects --- comprehensive field experiment

Arid Land Systems: Sciences and Societies

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039213474 9783039213481 Year: Pages: 380 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-348-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Understanding deserts and drylands is essential, as arid landscapes cover >40% of the Earth and are home to two billion people. Today's problematic environment–human interaction needs contemporary knowledge to address dryland complexity. Physical dimensions in arid zones—land systems, climate and hazards, ecology—are linked with social processes that directly impact drylands, such as land management, livelihoods, and development. The challenges require integrated research that identifies systemic drivers across global arid regions. Measurement and monitoring, field investigation, remote sensing, and data analysis are effective tools to investigate natural dynamics. Equally, inquiry into how policy and practice affect landscape sustainability is key to mitigating detrimental activity in deserts. Relations between socio-economic forces and degradation, agro-pastoral rangeland use, drought and disaster and resource extraction reflect land interactions. Contemporary themes of food security, conflict, and conservation are interlinked in arid environments. This book unifies desert science, arid environments, and dryland development. The chapters identify land dynamics, address system risks and delineate human functions through original research in arid zones. Mixed methodologies highlight the vital links between social and environmental science in global deserts. The book engages with today's topical themes and presents novel analyses of arid land systems and societies.

Keywords

Central Asia --- landscape --- One Belt --- One Road --- Kazakhstan --- Kyrgyzstan --- infrastructure --- environment --- New Silk Road --- drylands --- wind erosion modelling --- drag partition --- aerodynamic roughness --- remote sensing --- computational fluid dynamics --- cellular automata --- remote sensing --- modelling --- coverage --- grass height --- Cuchillas de la Zarca --- Chobe --- forest resources --- ecosystem services --- non-linear change --- protected areas --- disturbance --- drought --- sustainable livelihoods --- ecotone --- dryland --- KAZA --- Southern Africa --- nomadic pastoralism --- spatial migration model --- Afar --- livestock --- fodder demand --- fodder supply --- Asian dust --- human health --- Mongolia --- Japan --- subarctic agriculture --- Greenland --- soil quality index --- farming at its limits --- air temperature increase --- increase of growing season --- dry lake beds --- dust storm emission --- remote sensing --- Gobi Desert region --- communal rangelands --- property rights --- environmental impacts --- policy implementation --- drylands --- arid region --- LUCC --- driving forces --- snow index --- SPOT VGT --- Kashgar Region --- degrading --- tamarind age --- regeneration --- invasive vine --- vegetation survey --- erosion --- rotational grazing --- continuous grazing --- grassland degradation --- case study of nomadic and settlement grazing system --- remote sensing --- Mongolian grassland --- arid area --- land use change --- soil carbon storage --- global carbon balance --- the Shiyang River Basin --- riparian ecosystems --- Sonoran desert --- remote sensing --- land cover/land use --- drip irrigation --- groundwater --- common-pool resource --- water rights --- local farming --- desert reclamation --- desertification --- river basin development --- political ecology --- water --- vegetation response to precipitation --- dust storm outbreak --- cross correlation analysis --- the Hovmoller diagram --- environmental regime shift --- Gobi desert of Mongolia --- climate hazard --- Asia --- drylands --- risk --- drought --- desert --- Central Asia --- Kyrgyzstan --- infrastructure --- environment --- mining --- social movements --- protest --- environmental justice --- subversive clientelism --- China --- Tibetan Plateau --- Sanjiangyuan region --- social–ecological systems --- pastoralism --- partnerships --- co-management --- national parks --- Belt and Road Initiative --- mountains of Central Asia --- pastoralism --- Ethiopia --- South Omo --- Nyangatom --- Jordan River Basin --- water productivity --- Jordan --- Israel --- Palestine --- agriculture --- agricultural water intensity --- decoupling --- water security --- institutional change --- ecosystem services --- economic valuation --- drylands --- absence --- afforestation --- charisma --- China --- conservation --- desertification --- Gobi --- Mongolia

Remote Sensing of Precipitation: Volume 1

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ISBN: 9783039212859 9783039212866 Year: Pages: 480 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-286-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Precipitation is a well-recognized pillar in global water and energy balances. An accurate and timely understanding of its characteristics at the global, regional, and local scales is indispensable for a clearer understanding of the mechanisms underlying the Earth’s atmosphere–ocean complex system. Precipitation is one of the elements that is documented to be greatly affected by climate change. In its various forms, precipitation comprises a primary source of freshwater, which is vital for the sustainability of almost all human activities. Its socio-economic significance is fundamental in managing this natural resource effectively, in applications ranging from irrigation to industrial and household usage. Remote sensing of precipitation is pursued through a broad spectrum of continuously enriched and upgraded instrumentation, embracing sensors which can be ground-based (e.g., weather radars), satellite-borne (e.g., passive or active space-borne sensors), underwater (e.g., hydrophones), aerial, or ship-borne.

Keywords

GPM --- IMERG --- satellite precipitation adjustment --- numerical weather prediction --- heavy precipitation --- flood-inducing storm --- complex terrain --- precipitation --- geostationary microwave sensors --- polar systems --- synoptic weather types --- drop size distribution (DSD) --- microstructure of rain --- disdrometer --- radar reflectivity–rain rate relationship --- CHIRPS --- CMORPH --- TMPA --- MSWEP --- statistical evaluation --- VIC model --- hydrological simulation --- precipitation --- satellite --- GPM --- TRMM --- CFSR --- PERSIANN --- MSWEP --- streamflow simulation --- lumped models --- Peninsular Spain --- GPM IMERG v5 --- TRMM 3B42 v7 --- precipitation --- evaluation --- Huaihe River basin --- precipitation --- radar --- radiometer --- T-Matrix --- microwave scattering --- quantitative precipitation estimates --- validation --- PERSIANN-CCS --- meteorological radar --- satellite rainfall estimates --- satellite precipitation retrieval --- neural networks --- GPM --- GMI --- remote sensing --- hurricane Harvey --- GPM satellite --- IMERG --- tropical storm rainfall --- gridded radar precipitation --- precipitation --- satellites --- climate models --- regional climate models --- X-band radar --- dual-polarization --- precipitation --- complex terrain --- runoff simulations --- snowfall detection --- snow water path retrieval --- supercooled droplets detection --- GPM Microwave Imager --- Satellite Precipitation Estimates --- GPM --- TRMM --- IMERG --- GSMaP --- TMPA --- CMORPH --- assessment --- Pakistan --- heavy rainfall prediction --- satellite radiance --- data assimilation --- RMAPS --- harmonie model --- radar data assimilation --- pre-processing --- mesoscale precipitation patterns --- GNSS meteorology --- GPS --- Zenith Tropospheric Delay --- precipitable water vapor --- SEID --- single frequency GNSS --- Precise Point Positioning --- low-cost receivers --- goGPS --- GPM --- IMERG --- TRMM --- precipitation --- Cyprus --- satellite precipitation product --- Tianshan Mountains --- GPM --- TRMM --- CMORPH --- heavy precipitation --- rainfall retrieval techniques --- forecast model --- Red–Thai Binh River Basin --- TMPA 3B42V7 --- TMPA 3B42RT --- rainfall --- bias correction --- linear-scaling approach --- climatology --- topography --- precipitation --- remote sensing --- CloudSat --- CMIP --- high latitude --- mineral dust --- wet deposition --- cloud scavenging --- dust washout process --- Saharan dust transportation --- precipitation rate --- precipitating hydrometeor --- hydrometeor classification --- cloud radar --- Ka-band --- thunderstorm --- thundercloud --- vertical air velocity --- terminal velocity --- Milešovka observatory --- rain gauges --- radar --- quality indexes --- satellite rainfall retrievals --- validation --- surface rain intensity --- kriging with external drift --- PEMW --- MSG --- SEVIRI --- downscaling --- tropical cyclone --- rain rate --- precipitation --- remote sensing --- radiometer --- retrieval algorithm --- GPM --- DPR --- validation network --- volume matching --- reflectivity --- rainfall rate --- TRMM-era TMPA --- GPM-era IMERG --- satellite rainfall estimate --- Mainland China --- satellite precipitation --- Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) --- IMERG --- TRMM-TMPA --- Ensemble Precipitation (EP) algorithm --- topographical and seasonal evaluation --- daily rainfall estimations --- TRMM 3B42 v7 --- rain gauges --- Amazon Basin --- regional rainfall regimes --- regional rainfall sub-regimes --- TRMM 3B42 V7 --- CMORPH_CRT --- PERSIANN_CDR --- GR models --- hydrological simulation --- Red River Basin --- satellite precipitation --- Tibetan Plateau --- GPM --- IMERG --- GSMaP --- precipitation --- weather --- radar --- GPM --- RADOLAN --- QPE --- TRMM --- TMPA --- 3B42 --- validation --- rainfall --- telemetric rain gauge --- Lai Nullah --- Pakistan --- XPOL radar --- GPM/IMERG --- WRF-Hydro --- CHAOS --- hydrometeorology --- flash flood --- Mandra --- typhoon --- IMERG --- GSMaP --- Southern China --- precipitation --- satellite remote sensing --- error analysis --- triple collocation --- precipitation --- TRMM --- GPM --- IMERG --- weather radar --- precipitable water vapor --- precipitation retrieval --- rain rate --- QPE

Remote Sensing of Precipitation: Volume 2

Author:
ISBN: 9783039212873 9783039212880 Year: Pages: 318 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-288-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Abstract

Precipitation is a well-recognized pillar in global water and energy balances. An accurate and timely understanding of its characteristics at the global, regional, and local scales is indispensable for a clearer understanding of the mechanisms underlying the Earth’s atmosphere–ocean complex system. Precipitation is one of the elements that is documented to be greatly affected by climate change. In its various forms, precipitation comprises a primary source of freshwater, which is vital for the sustainability of almost all human activities. Its socio-economic significance is fundamental in managing this natural resource effectively, in applications ranging from irrigation to industrial and household usage. Remote sensing of precipitation is pursued through a broad spectrum of continuously enriched and upgraded instrumentation, embracing sensors which can be ground-based (e.g., weather radars), satellite-borne (e.g., passive or active space-borne sensors), underwater (e.g., hydrophones), aerial, or ship-borne.

Keywords

GPM --- IMERG --- satellite precipitation adjustment --- numerical weather prediction --- heavy precipitation --- flood-inducing storm --- complex terrain --- precipitation --- geostationary microwave sensors --- polar systems --- synoptic weather types --- drop size distribution (DSD) --- microstructure of rain --- disdrometer --- radar reflectivity–rain rate relationship --- CHIRPS --- CMORPH --- TMPA --- MSWEP --- statistical evaluation --- VIC model --- hydrological simulation --- precipitation --- satellite --- GPM --- TRMM --- CFSR --- PERSIANN --- MSWEP --- streamflow simulation --- lumped models --- Peninsular Spain --- GPM IMERG v5 --- TRMM 3B42 v7 --- precipitation --- evaluation --- Huaihe River basin --- precipitation --- radar --- radiometer --- T-Matrix --- microwave scattering --- quantitative precipitation estimates --- validation --- PERSIANN-CCS --- meteorological radar --- satellite rainfall estimates --- satellite precipitation retrieval --- neural networks --- GPM --- GMI --- remote sensing --- hurricane Harvey --- GPM satellite --- IMERG --- tropical storm rainfall --- gridded radar precipitation --- precipitation --- satellites --- climate models --- regional climate models --- X-band radar --- dual-polarization --- precipitation --- complex terrain --- runoff simulations --- snowfall detection --- snow water path retrieval --- supercooled droplets detection --- GPM Microwave Imager --- Satellite Precipitation Estimates --- GPM --- TRMM --- IMERG --- GSMaP --- TMPA --- CMORPH --- assessment --- Pakistan --- heavy rainfall prediction --- satellite radiance --- data assimilation --- RMAPS --- harmonie model --- radar data assimilation --- pre-processing --- mesoscale precipitation patterns --- GNSS meteorology --- GPS --- Zenith Tropospheric Delay --- precipitable water vapor --- SEID --- single frequency GNSS --- Precise Point Positioning --- low-cost receivers --- goGPS --- GPM --- IMERG --- TRMM --- precipitation --- Cyprus --- satellite precipitation product --- Tianshan Mountains --- GPM --- TRMM --- CMORPH --- heavy precipitation --- rainfall retrieval techniques --- forecast model --- Red–Thai Binh River Basin --- TMPA 3B42V7 --- TMPA 3B42RT --- rainfall --- bias correction --- linear-scaling approach --- climatology --- topography --- precipitation --- remote sensing --- CloudSat --- CMIP --- high latitude --- mineral dust --- wet deposition --- cloud scavenging --- dust washout process --- Saharan dust transportation --- precipitation rate --- precipitating hydrometeor --- hydrometeor classification --- cloud radar --- Ka-band --- thunderstorm --- thundercloud --- vertical air velocity --- terminal velocity --- Milešovka observatory --- rain gauges --- radar --- quality indexes --- satellite rainfall retrievals --- validation --- surface rain intensity --- kriging with external drift --- PEMW --- MSG --- SEVIRI --- downscaling --- tropical cyclone --- rain rate --- precipitation --- remote sensing --- radiometer --- retrieval algorithm --- GPM --- DPR --- validation network --- volume matching --- reflectivity --- rainfall rate --- TRMM-era TMPA --- GPM-era IMERG --- satellite rainfall estimate --- Mainland China --- satellite precipitation --- Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) --- IMERG --- TRMM-TMPA --- Ensemble Precipitation (EP) algorithm --- topographical and seasonal evaluation --- daily rainfall estimations --- TRMM 3B42 v7 --- rain gauges --- Amazon Basin --- regional rainfall regimes --- regional rainfall sub-regimes --- TRMM 3B42 V7 --- CMORPH_CRT --- PERSIANN_CDR --- GR models --- hydrological simulation --- Red River Basin --- satellite precipitation --- Tibetan Plateau --- GPM --- IMERG --- GSMaP --- precipitation --- weather --- radar --- GPM --- RADOLAN --- QPE --- TRMM --- TMPA --- 3B42 --- validation --- rainfall --- telemetric rain gauge --- Lai Nullah --- Pakistan --- XPOL radar --- GPM/IMERG --- WRF-Hydro --- CHAOS --- hydrometeorology --- flash flood --- Mandra --- typhoon --- IMERG --- GSMaP --- Southern China --- precipitation --- satellite remote sensing --- error analysis --- triple collocation --- precipitation --- TRMM --- GPM --- IMERG --- weather radar --- precipitable water vapor --- precipitation retrieval --- rain rate --- QPE

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