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The culture of toleration in diverse societies

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ISBN: 9780719062322 Year: DOI: 10.9760/mupoa/9780719062322 Language: English
Publisher: Manchester University Press
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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The idea of toleration as the appropriate response to difference has been central to liberal thought since Locke. Although the subject has been widely and variously explored, there has been reluctance to acknowledge the new meaning that current debates on toleration have when compared with those at its origins in the early modern period and with subsequent discussions about pluralism and freedom of expression. This collection starts from a clear recognition of the new terms of the debate. It recognises that a new academic consensus is slowly emerging on a view of tolerance that is reasonable in two senses. Firstly of reflecting the capacity of seeing the other's viewpoint, secondly on the relatively limited extent to which toleration can be granted. It reflects the cross-thematic and cross-disciplinary nature of such discussions, dissecting a number of debates such as liberalism and communitarianism, public and private, multiculturalism and the politics of identity, and a number of disciplines: moral, legal and political philosophy, historical and educational studies, anthropology, sociology and psychology. A group of distinguished authors explore the complexities emerging from the new debate. They scrutinise, with analytical sophistication, the philosophical foundation, the normative content and the broadly political implications of a new culture of toleration for diverse societies. Specific issues considered include the toleration of religious discrimination in employment, city life and community, social ethos, publicity, justice and reason and ethics. The book is unique in resolutely looking forward to the theoretical and practical challenges posed by commitment to a conception of toleration demanding empathy and understanding in an ever-diversifying world.

Keywords

tolerance --- racism --- discrimination

Searching for Immune Tolerance Manipulating New Molecules and Exploiting New Concepts on Lymphocyte Biology

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199518 Year: Pages: 143 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-951-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The break on immune tolerance is a common point between autoimmune diseases and the uncontrolled effector immune responses against allo-antigens in transplantation. Among the past years, several approaches to restore a suppressive immune state have included the targeting of co-stimulatory/inhibitory molecules on immune cells, the promotion or blockade of pivotal cytokines, and the extensive study on how to isolate and expand suppressive cells with the purpose to re-infuse them in patients. To date, the availability of new technologies has permitted to learn, in a more detailed way, the immune mechanisms carried out by suppressive lymphocytes, together with the identification of new potential candidates to target in our quest for immune tolerance. For example, the attractive concepts of lymphocyte plasticity and function stability, supported by the finding of new transcription factors, have opened a new window in the understanding of T cell differentiation, effector cell commitment and immune regulatory function. On the other hand, the discovery of new members of the Ig superfamily ligand, VISTA; the intriguing role of modulatory molecules like Retinoic Acid, Neuropilin-1, Fc gamma receptors, or cytokines such as IL-33, among others, are revealing new possibilities in the development of new strategies to conquer our obsession: immune tolerance. Here, we gather the latest information regarding new targets and cellular processes, including an update on current cellular therapies and the exciting coming approaches to cure autoimmunity and permit transplant acceptance.

Laïcité et humanisme

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Book Series: Philosophica ISBN: 9782760321892 9782760322035 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_569510 Language: French
Publisher: Les Presses de l’Université d’Ottawa | University of Ottawa Press
Subject: Religion --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2015-07-23 11:01:11
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Secularism, Humanism, Québec, tolerance

Tolerance : The Beacon of the Enlightenment

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ISBN: 9782821881686 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:39
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Inspired by Voltaire’s advice that a text needs to be concise to have real influence, this anthology contains fiery extracts by forty eighteenth-century authors, from the most famous philosophers of the age to those whose brilliant writings are less well-known. These passages are immensely diverse in style and topic, but all have in common a passionate commitment to equality, freedom, and tolerance. Each text resonates powerfully with the issues our world faces today. Tolerance was first published by the Société française d’étude du dix-huitième siècle (the French Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies) in the wake of the Charlie Hebdo assassinations in January 2015 as an act of solidarity and as a response to the surge of interest in Enlightenment values. With the support of the British Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies, it has now been translated by over 100 students and tutors of French at Oxford University.

Tolerance

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Book Series: Open Book Classics ISBN: 9781783742059 Year: Pages: 144 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0088 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-22 11:01:43
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This anthology, inspired by Voltaire’s advice that a text needed to be concise to have real influence, contains firey extracts from forty different authors, from the philosophers everyone’s heard of to those whose brilliant writings are less well-known. They are immensely diverse in style and topic, but all have in common their passionate commitment to equality, freedom, and tolerance, and every single one resonates powerfully with the issues our world faces today. The book was first published by the Société française d’étude du dix-huitième siècle (the French Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies) in the wake of the Charlie Hebdo assassinations in January 2015 as a mark of solidarity, and as a response to the wide-spread interest in Enlightenment values. With the support of the British Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies, it has now been translated by 102 French students and tutors from Oxford University.

Ethylene: A Key Regulatory Molecule in Plants

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453412 Year: Pages: 310 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-341-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-22 11:28:10
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Ethylene is a simple gaseous phytohormone with multiple roles in regulation of metabolism at cellular, molecular, and whole plant level. It influences performance of plants under optimal and stressful environments by interacting with other signaling molecules. Understanding the ethylene biosynthesis and action through the plant’s life can contribute to improve the knowledge of plant functionality and use of this plant hormone may drive adaptation and defense of plants from the adverse environmental conditions. The action of ethylene depends on its concentration in cell and the sensitivity of plants to the hormone. In recent years, research on ethylene has been focused, due to its dual action, on the regulation of plant processes at physiological and molecular level. The involvement of ethylene in the regulation of transcription needs to be widely explored involving the interaction with other key molecular regulators. The aim of the current research topic was to explore and update our understanding on its regulatory role in plant developmental mechanisms at cellular or whole plant level under optimal and changing environmental conditions. The present edited volume includes original research papers and review articles describing ethylene’s regulatory role in plant development during plant ontogeny and also explains how it interacts with biotic and abiotic stress factors. This comprehensive collection of researches provide evidence that ethylene is essential in different physiological processes and does not always work alone, but in coordinated manner with other plant hormones. This research topic is also a source of tips for further works that should be addressed for the biology and molecular effects on plants.

L’Europe en conflits : Les affrontements religieux et la genèse de l’Europe moderne (vers 1500-vers 1650)

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ISBN: 9782753566392 DOI: 10.4000/books.pur.119202 Language: French
Publisher: Presses universitaires de Rennes
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:46
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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À l’aube des temps modernes, l’Europe est secouée par une série d’affrontements religieux. Par routine ou par paresse, on pense en premier lieu à l’irruption de Martin Luther et des autres protagonistes de la Réforme protestante et à la scission de la chrétienté latine. Mais toute l’Europe n’est pas chrétienne : les temps modernes s’ouvrent avec l’expulsion, les conversions forcées et la persécution des juifs et des musulmans dans la péninsule Ibérique de la Reconquista. Et il y a une Europe ottomane, elle aussi pluri-religieuse. L’expérience européenne des conflits religieux se fait en outre dans un horizon global de la rencontre avec d’autres religions et civilisations où les Européens découvrent leur propre barbarie. Celle-ci s’exprime dans les atrocités des guerres civiles, des guerres de religion en France à l’action des troupes de Cromwell en Irlande. Partant de la pluralité religieuse de l’espace européen, les affrontements de la première modernité se lisent comme un douloureux processus d’apprentissage d’accepter et de gérer cette pluralité irréductible. Ainsi naît une notion et forme historique, politique et culturelle de l’Europe qui intègre dans sa constitution la conflictualité religieuse. Les contributions ici réunies analysent ce processus couvrant tout l’espace européen. Cet ouvrage est né de la collaboration d’un groupe d’historien(ne)s européen(ne)s spécialistes de ces questions et montre la richesse du paysage historiographique européen.

Tolérance & Droit

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9782379280313 DOI: 10.4000/books.putc.714 Language: French
Publisher: Presses de l’Université Toulouse 1 Capitole
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:52
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Que reste-t-il à dire sur la tolérance ? Panacée médiatique aux problèmes de société, elle est sommairement définie comme une “indulgence pour ce qu’on ne peut pas ou ne veut pas empêcher”. De l’acception de la tolérance comme affaiblissement de la norme au comportement pragmatique de l’administration qui renonce à appliquer une sanction, en passant par la tolérance comme composante d’une société démocratique, le concept brille par son hétérogénéité. Concept à la frontière du droit, de la science administrative, de la théorie du droit et parfois même de la philosophie du droit, il possède de très nombreuses applications sans avoir pour l’instant de définition strictement juridique. Ces actes de la journée d’étude, organisée par l’Institut Maurice Hauriou en collaboration avec l’Institut Fédératif de Recherche, ont pour vocation de décliner ce concept en le confrontant à d’autres objets dans toutes les branches du droit public (droit administratif, droit fiscal, libertés publiques...).

Good News - Bad News: The Two Faces of Immune Privilege

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193318 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-331-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Immune privilege was once thought to be the property of a few select sites that include the eye, brain, testis, pregnant uterus and (of all things) the hamster cheek pouch, and was believed to be mainly based on sequestration behind blood-tissue barriers. This view has changed. Immune privilege is now considered to constitute a more general phenomenon through which tissues are able to actively direct and control immune responses taking place in their “territory” to preserve their structural and functional integrity in the face of inflammatory processes. These positive aspects of immune privilege can be hijacked by tumors to their survival advantage and to the detriment of the host. This Research Topic dissects the beneficial and deleterious consequences of immune privilege in terms of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that various tissues and tumors use, each in its own fashion, to regulate immune processes that affect them, at the local and the systemic level.

Metabolism and Immune Tolerance

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457250 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-725-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Historically the study of the immune system and metabolism have been two very separate fields. In recent years, a growing literature has emerged illustrating how the multiple processes of cellular metabolism are intricately linked to several aspects of immune function and development. This Research Topic covers recent progress in the field now known as “Immunometabolism” and the role of metabolism in immune tolerance. Immune tolerance is operationally defined as a state where a host’s immune system is balanced such that although self-reactive lymphocytes are present, they are kept in check by immune regulation. Perturbations to this homeostasis may result in self-reactive lymphocytes gaining the upper hand and mediating auto-immune disease. Maintenance of immune tolerance involves a large cast of different cell types including effector T cells, regulatory T cells, B cells, stromal cells, dendritic cells and macrophages.Intracellular pathways and individual enzymes of metabolism have been shown to be harnessed by cells of both the adaptive and innate immune system to allow particular immune functions to be achieved. Examples include metabolic enzymes serving ‘moonlighting’ functions in mRNA translation, gene splicing, and kinase activation. Other examples include the requirement for de novo fatty acid synthesis for differentiation into Th17 effectors and CD8 memory T cells or products of the TCA cycle promoting pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Likewise, the availability of extracellular metabolic substrates has a large impact on the maintenance of local immune tolerance. For example, there are different requirements for glucose, glutamine and fatty acids for effector versus regulatory T cell development. Also tolerogenic dendritic cells mediate lowering of extracellular essential amino acids by their enhanced catabolism, promoting the induction of regulatory T cells. The purpose of this Research Topic is to provide an update on the current understanding of the multiple roles for metabolism in regulating the immune system.

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