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Toll-Like Receptor Activation in Immunity vs. Tolerance

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196364 Year: Pages: 75 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-636-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Abstract

The innate immune system has evolved means to recognize and react suitably to foreign entities such as infectious agents. In many cases infectious microorganisms threaten the integrity and function of the target organs or tissues; therefore, consequent to their recognition the immune system becomes activated to ensure their elimination. Toll-like receptors (TLR) constitute a family of receptors specialized in the recognition of molecular patterns typically associated with infectious agents. Different TLRs exist, each selective for molecular entities and motifs belonging to a specific pathogen group. Consequently, it is thought that the molecular nature of invading microorganisms activates specific TLRs to drive adequate anti-infectious immunity. For instance, nucleic acid-specific, intracellular receptors (TLR3/7/8/9) are used to sense viruses and drive antiviral immunity, while other receptors (such as TLR2 and TLR4) recognize and promote immunity against bacteria, yeast, and fungi. Yet, it is becoming evident that activation of TLR pathways trigger mechanisms that not only stimulate but also regulate the immune system. For instance, TLR stimulation by viruses will drive antiviral interferon but also immunoregulatory cytokine production and regulatory T cell activation. Stimulation of TLRs by bacteria or using molecular agonists can also trigger both immune stimulatory and regulatory responses. TLR stimulation by infectious agents likely serves to activate but also control anti-infectious immunity, for instance prevent potential immunopathological tissue damage which can be caused by acute immune defense mechanisms. Previous work by us and others has shown that the immunoregulatory arm of TLR stimulation can additionally help control autoreactive processes in autoimmune disease. Hence, it is becoming established that gut commensals, which also play a crucial part in the control of autoimmune disease, establish immune regulatory mechanisms through activation of particular TLRs. In sum, it appears that TLRs are key immune players that not only stimulate but also regulate immune processes in health and disease. In this Research Topic, we wish to review the dual role of TLRs as activators and regulators of immune responses. We aim to motivate data-driven opinions as to the importance of context of TLR agonism for determining immune activation vs. regulation. The presentation of ongoing original works, as well as data and opinions around other innate immune receptors pertaining to this topic, are also encouraged.

Pattern recognition receptors and cancer

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196746 Year: Pages: 201 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-674-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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The group of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) includes families of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), NOD-like receptors (NLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), and AIM-2-like receptors (ALRs). Conceptually, receptors constituting these families are united by two general features. Firstly, they directly recognize common antigen determinants of virtually all classes of pathogens (so-called pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or simply PAMPs) and initiate immune response against them via specific intracellular signaling pathways. Secondly, they recognize endogenous ligands (since they are usually released during cell stress, they are called damage-associated molecular patterns, DAMPs), and, hence, PRR-mediated immune response can be activated without an influence of infectious agents. So, pattern recognition receptors play the key role performing the innate and adaptive immune response. In addition, many PRRs have a number of other vital functions apart from participation in immune response realization. The fundamental character and diversity of PRR functions have led to amazingly rapid research in this field. Such investigations are very promising for medicine as immune system plays a key role in vast majority if not all human diseases, and the process of discovering the new aspects of the immune system functioning is rapidly ongoing. The role of Toll-like receptors in cancer was analyzed in certain reviews but the data are still scattered. This collection of reviews systematizes the key information in the field.

Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine

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ISBN: 9783038977827 9783038977834 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-783-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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Abstract

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several fungal species. They can contaminate human food and animal feed, and have been a threat for thousands of years. The gastrointestinal tract is the first target when ingesting mycotoxin-contaminated food or feed. As unlikely as it sounds, the investigations concerning the effects of mycotoxins on the intestine are still in their early stages. This book gathers the most recent advances related to the characterization of the intestinal toxicity of mycotoxins. Substantial data assembled on the damage caused to a number of histological structures and functions of the intestine remove any remaining doubt about this organ being a primary target for the toxicity of mycotoxins. An interesting overview of the detrimental effects of mycotoxins on the gut-hosted microbiota—now regarded as a fully-fledged organ associated with the gut—is also given. Finally, outstanding contributions in this book address questions relating to the suitability of current regulations to protect against alterations of the intestine, and to the efficacy assessment of new detoxification strategies using the intestinal toxicity of mycotoxins as a relevant endpoint.

Keywords

mice --- aflatoxin B1 --- intestinal bacterial flora --- response --- Clostridium sp. WJ06 --- deoxynivalenol --- pig --- intestinal morphology --- microbial diversity --- aflatoxin M1 --- ochratoxin A --- intestinal epithelial cells --- tight junction --- permeability --- ileum --- jejunum --- deoxynivalenol --- piglet --- contaminated feed --- tight junction --- aflatoxin B1 --- small intestine --- histopathological lesions --- ultrastructural changes --- toll-like receptors --- T-2 toxin --- enteric nervous system --- pig --- vasoactive intestinal polypeptide --- mycotoxins --- zearalenone --- deoxynivalenol --- histology --- ultrastructure --- large intestine --- pig --- Claviceps --- liver --- digestive tract --- mycotoxin --- sclerotia --- ergot alkaloids --- toxicity --- deoxynivalenol --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM I-1079 --- intestine --- transcriptome --- inflammation --- oxidative stress --- lipid metabolism --- fumonisin --- microbiota --- pigs --- MiSeq 16S rDNA sequencing --- intestinal microbiota --- hydrogen-rich water --- lactulose --- Fusarium mycotoxins --- piglets --- functional oligosaccharides --- mycotoxins --- swine --- explant technique --- intestinal morphology --- goblet cells --- deoxynivalenol --- zearalenone --- pig --- colon microbiota --- Lactobacillus --- detoxification --- zearalenone --- doses --- caecal water --- genotoxicity --- pre-pubertal gilts --- atlantic salmon --- deoxynivalenol --- feed --- intestine --- PCR --- proliferating cell nuclear antigen --- suppressor of cytokine signaling --- tight junctions --- Zearalenone --- N-acetylcysteine --- SIEC02 cells --- Mitochondrial apoptosis --- n/a

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