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Regulatory RNAs in the Nervous System

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194834 Year: Pages: 344 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-483-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Until about a decade ago, the non-coding part of the genome was considered without function. RNA sequencing studies have shown, however, that a considerable part of the non-coding genome is transcribed and that these non-coding RNAs (nc-RNAs) can regulate gene expression. Almost on weekly basis, new findings reveal the regulatory role of nc-RNAs exert in many biological processes. Overall, these studies are making increasingly clear that, both in model organisms and in humans, complexity is not a function of the number of protein-coding genes, but results from the possibility of using combinations of genetic programs and controlling their spatial and temporal regulation during development, senescence and in disease by regulatory RNAs. This has generated a novel picture of gene regulatory networks where regulatory nc-RNAs represent novel layers of regulation. Particularly well-characterized is the role of microRNAs (miRNAs), small nc-RNAs, that bind to mRNAs and regulate gene expression after transcritpion. This message is particularly clear in the nervous system, where miRNAs have been involved in regulating cellular pathways controlling fundamental functions during development, synaptic plasticity and in neurodegenerative disease. It has also been shown that neuronal miRNAs are tightly regulated by electrical activity at the level of transcription, biogenesis, stability and specifically targeted to dendrites and synapsis. Deregulation of expression of miRNAs is proposed not only as potential disease biomarker, but it has been implicated directly in the pathogenesis of complex neurodegenerative disease. This so-called RNA revolution also lead to the exploitation of RNA interference and the development of related tools as potential treatment of a vast array of CNS disease that could benefit from regulation of disease-associated genes. In spite of these advancements, the relatively young age of this field together with the inherent high molecular complexity of RNA regulation of biological processes have somewhat hindered its communication to the whole of the neuroscience community. This Research Topic aims at improving this aspect by putting around the same virtual table scientists covering aspects ranging from basic molecular mechanisms of regulatory RNAs in the nervous system to the analysis of the role of specific regulatory RNAs in neurobiological processes of development, plasticity and aging. Furthermore, we will welcome papers analyzing the role of regulatory RNAs in disease models from neuromuscular to higher cognitive functions, and we will also encourage submission of more technically oriented papers dealing with new methodologies to study regulatory RNA biology and its translational potential.

Regulatory RNAs in the Nervous System, 2nd Edition

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456574 Year: Pages: 346 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-657-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Until about a decade ago, the non-coding part of the genome was considered without function. RNA sequencing studies have shown, however, that a considerable part of the non-coding genome is transcribed and that these non-coding RNAs (nc-RNAs) can regulate gene expression. Almost on weekly basis, new findings reveal the regulatory role of nc-RNAs exert in many biological processes. Overall, these studies are making increasingly clear that, both in model organisms and in humans, complexity is not a function of the number of protein-coding genes, but results from the possibility of using combinations of genetic programs and controlling their spatial and temporal regulation during development, senescence and in disease by regulatory RNAs. This has generated a novel picture of gene regulatory networks where regulatory nc-RNAs represent novel layers of regulation. Particularly well-characterized is the role of microRNAs (miRNAs), small nc-RNAs, that bind to mRNAs and regulate gene expression after transcritpion. This message is particularly clear in the nervous system, where miRNAs have been involved in regulating cellular pathways controlling fundamental functions during development, synaptic plasticity and in neurodegenerative disease. It has also been shown that neuronal miRNAs are tightly regulated by electrical activity at the level of transcription, biogenesis, stability and specifically targeted to dendrites and synapses. Deregulation of expression of miRNAs is proposed not only as potential disease biomarker, but it has been implicated directly in the pathogenesis of complex neurodegenerative disease. This so-called RNA revolution also lead to the exploitation of RNA interference and the development of related tools as potential treatment of a vast array of CNS disease that could benefit from regulation of disease-associated genes. In spite of these advancements, the relatively young age of this field together with the inherent high molecular complexity of RNA regulation of biological processes have somewhat hindered its communication to the whole of the neuroscience community. This Research Topic aims at improving this aspect by putting around the same virtual table scientists covering aspects ranging from basic molecular mechanisms of regulatory RNAs in the nervous system to the analysis of the role of specific regulatory RNAs in neurobiological processes of development, plasticity and aging. Furthermore, we included papers analyzing the role of regulatory RNAs in disease models from neuromuscular to higher cognitive functions, and more technically oriented papers dealing with new methodologies to study regulatory RNA biology and its translational potential.

Therapeutic Strategies to Spinal Cord Injury

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ISBN: 9783038974062 9783038974079 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-407-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-12 10:33:09
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.This Special Issue gathers eight research articles covering a broad range of strategies on how to combat spinal cord injuries, from searching for therapeutic target molecules, tackling inflammatory reactions, utilizing cell therapy or cell-based products, combined strategies for axonal plasticity assessment, and prevention of post-surgical epidural adhesions. Moreover, four reviews cover recent findings about the role of stress-activated protein kinases in SCI; progress in stem cell therapies; the mechanisms and benefits of activity-based physical rehabilitation therapies with adjuvant testosterone; and, finally, translational regenerative therapies for chronic spinal cord injury.

Biofuels and Biochemicals Production

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ISBN: 9783038425540 9783038425557 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-555-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-10 12:39:10
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The high demand and depletion of petroleum reserves and the associated impact on the environment, together with volatility in the energy market price over the past three decades, have led to tremendous efforts in bio-based research activities, especially in biofuels and biochemicals. Most people associate petroleum with gasoline, however, approximately 6000 petroleum-derived products are available on the market today. Ironically, these petroleum-derived products have not elicited a high level of interest among the populace and media due, in part, to little awareness of the origins of these important products. Given the finite nature of petroleum, it is critical to devote substantial amounts of energy and resources on the development of renewable chemicals, as is currently done for fuels. Theoretically, the bioproduction of gasoline-like fuels and the 6000 petroleum-derived products are within the realm of possibility since our aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems contain abundant and diverse microorganisms capable of catalyzing unlimited numbers of reactions. Moreover, the fields of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering have evolved to the point that a wide range of microorganisms can be enticed or manipulated to catalyze foreign, or improve indigenous, biosynthetic reactions. To increase the concentration of products of interest and to ensure consistent productivity and yield, compatible fermentation processes must be used. Greater agricultural and chemical production during the past three decades, due in part to population increase and industrialization, has generated increasing levels of waste, which must be treated prior to discharge into waterways or wastewater treatment plants. Thus, in addition to the need to understand the physiology and metabolism of microbial catalysts of biotechnological significance, development of cost-effective fermentation strategies to produce biofuels and chemicals of interests while generating minimal waste, or better yet, converting waste into value-added products, is crucial. In this Special Issue, we invite authors to submit original research and review articles that increase our understanding of fermentation technology vis-à-vis production of liquid biofuels and biochemicals, and fermentation strategies that alleviate product toxicity to the fermenting microorganism while enhancing productivity. Further, original research articles and reviews focused on anaerobic digestion, production of gaseous biofuels, fermentation optimization using modelling and simulations, metabolic engineering, or development of tailor-made fermentation processes are welcome.

mTOR in Human Diseases

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ISBN: 9783039210602 / 9783039210619 Year: Pages: 480 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-061-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a major signaling intermediary that coordinates favorable environmental conditions with cell growth. Indeed, as part of two functionally distinct protein complexes, named mTORC1 and mTORC2, mTOR regulates a variety of cellular processes, including protein, lipid, and nucleotide synthesis, as well as autophagy. Over the last two decades, major molecular advances have been made in mTOR signaling and have revealed the complexity of the events implicated in mTOR function and regulation. In parallel, the role of mTOR in diverse pathological conditions has also been identified, including in cancer, hamartoma, neurological, and metabolic diseases. Through a series of articles, this book focuses on the role played by mTOR in cellular processes, metabolism in particular, and highlights a panel of human diseases for which mTOR inhibition provides or might provide benefits. It also addresses future studies needed to further characterize the role of mTOR in selected disorders, which will help design novel therapeutic approaches. It is therefore intended for everyone who has an interest in mTOR biology and its application in human pathologies.

Keywords

acute myeloid leukemia --- metabolism --- mTOR --- PI3K --- phosphorylation --- epithelial to mesenchymal transition --- mTOR inhibitor --- pulmonary fibrosis --- transcriptomics --- miRNome --- everolimus --- mTOR --- thyroid cancer --- sodium iodide symporter (NIS)/SLC5A5 --- dopamine receptor --- autophagy --- AKT --- mTOR --- AMPK --- mTOR --- Medulloblastoma --- MBSCs --- mTOR --- T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia --- targeted therapy --- combination therapy --- mTOR --- metabolic diseases --- glucose and lipid metabolism --- anesthesia --- neurotoxicity --- synapse --- mTOR --- neurodevelopment --- mTOR --- rapamycin --- autophagy --- protein aggregation --- methamphetamine --- schizophrenia --- tumour cachexia --- mTOR --- signalling --- metabolism --- proteolysis --- lipolysis --- mTOR --- mTORC1 --- mTORC2 --- rapamycin --- rapalogues --- rapalogs --- mTOR inhibitors --- senescence --- ageing --- aging --- cancer --- neurodegeneration --- immunosenescence --- senolytics --- biomarkers --- leukemia --- cell signaling --- metabolism --- apoptosis --- miRNA --- mTOR inhibitors --- mTOR --- tumor microenvironment --- angiogenesis --- immunotherapy --- fluid shear stress --- melatonin --- chloral hydrate --- nocodazole --- MC3T3-E1 cells --- primary cilia --- mTOR complex --- metabolic reprogramming --- cancer --- microenvironment --- nutrient sensor --- oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) --- NVP-BEZ235 --- mTOR --- p70S6K --- mTOR --- advanced biliary tract cancers --- mTOR --- NGS --- illumina --- IonTorrent --- eIFs --- mTOR --- autophagy --- Parkinson’s disease --- mTOR --- PI3K --- cancer --- inhibitor --- therapy --- mTOR --- laminopathies --- lamin A/C --- Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) --- Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) --- autophagy --- cellular signaling --- metabolism --- bone remodeling --- ageing --- mTOR --- fructose --- glucose --- liver --- lipid metabolism --- gluconeogenesis --- Alzheimer’s disease --- autophagy --- mTOR signal pathway --- physical activity --- microRNA --- mTOR --- spermatogenesis --- male fertility --- Sertoli cells --- n/a

Transcriptional Regulation: Molecules, Involved Mechanisms and Misregulation

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ISBN: 9783039212651 / 9783039212668 Year: Pages: 356 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-266-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Transcriptional regulation is a critical biological process involved in the response of a cell, a tissue or an organism to a variety of intra- and extra-cellular signals. Besides, it controls the establishment and maintenance of cell identity throughout developmental and differentiation programs. This highly complex and dynamic process is orchestrated by a huge number of molecules and protein networks and occurs through multiple temporal and functional steps. Of note, many human disorders are characterized by misregulation of global transcription since most of the signaling pathways ultimately target components of transcription machinery. This book includes a selection of papers that illustrate recent advances in our understanding of transcriptional regulation and focuses on many important topics, from cis-regulatory elements to transcription factors, chromatin regulators and non-coding RNAs, other than several transcriptome studies and computational analyses.

Keywords

major depressive disorder --- glioblastoma --- differentially expressed genes --- transcriptomics --- common pathway --- mouse --- miR-25-3p --- Akt1 --- AP-2? --- promoter --- cell metabolism --- p57Kip2 --- CDKN1C --- epigenetics --- disease --- cell differentiation --- placenta --- long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) --- human --- pregnancy --- high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) --- transcriptome --- Rsh regulon --- Novosphingobium pentaromativorans US6-1 --- sphingomonads --- RNA-seq --- N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone --- ppGpp --- selenium --- selenocysteine --- selenoproteins --- selenocysteine insertion sequence --- nonsense-mediated decay --- G-quadruplex --- transcriptional regulation --- promoter --- CRISPR/Cas9 --- PRDM gene family --- TCGA data analysis --- somatic mutations --- transcriptome profiling --- human malignancies --- tristetraprolin (TTP) --- tumorigenesis --- posttranscriptional regulation --- adenosine and uridine-rich elements (AREs) --- circRNA-disease associations --- pathway --- heterogeneous network --- Patau Syndrome --- cytogenetics --- FOXO1 --- transcription factor --- molecular pathways --- bioinformatics --- molecular docking --- and drug design --- transcription regulation --- gene expression --- causal inference --- enhancer activity --- insect --- transcription factors --- structures and functions --- research methods --- progress and prospects --- Pax3 --- Pteria penguin (Röding, 1798) --- tyrosinase --- melanin --- RNA interference --- liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) --- epigenetics --- gene expression --- nutrition --- transcription --- disorders --- mechanisms --- Crassostrea gigas --- Pacific oyster --- pediveliger larvae --- bioadhesive --- transcriptome --- gene expression --- interactome --- microscopy --- fertilization --- self-incompatibility --- transcriptome --- tea --- long non-coding RNAs --- cancer --- acute leukemia --- therapeutic targets --- Adiponectin --- cancer --- Adiponectin receptors --- obesity --- inflammatory response --- inflammation --- nutritional status --- n/a

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