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Recent advances in Pancreatology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193332 Year: Pages: 69 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-333-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Medicine (General) --- Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Abstract

Pancreatic diseases include intractable ones including acute and chronic pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. In recent years, great advances have been made in the field of pancreatology, including the pathogenesis, diagnostic modalities, and development of novel therapeutic interventions. It has been established that pancreatic stellate cells play a pivotal role in the development of pancreatic fibrosis in chronic pancreatitis as well as in pancreatic cancer known as desmoplastic reaction. Although it might be still controversial, accumulating evidence has shown that interaction between pancreatic stellate cells-cancer cells contribute to the progression of pancreatic cancer through the increased proliferation and migration, and production of cytokines and extracellular matrix components. In addition, pancreatic stellate cells lead to the resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Pancreatic stellate cells attract the researchers as a novel therapeutic target of pancreatic cancer. Genetic studies have shown that mutations in the trypsin-related genes such as cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) gene and the serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) gene are associated with pancreatitis. In general, each of these factors appears to limit trypsin activation or enhance inactivation, and is believed to increase intrapancreatic trypsin activity and predispose to pancreatitis when the gene is mutated. These results have supported a concept that pancreatic protease/anti-protease plays pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. In addition, genetic studies focusing on phenotypic variances would provide us with important information how genetic variants would affect the phenotypic variances. Autophagy is an intracellular bulk degradation system in which cytoplasmic components are directed to the lysosome/vacuole by a membrane-mediated process. Recent studies have highlighted a role of autophagy in acute pancreatitis. Using a conditional knockout mouse that lacks the autophagy-related (Atg) gene Atg5 in the pancreatic acinar cells, autophagy exerts a detrimental effect in pancreatic acinar cells by activation of trypsinogen to trypsin. A theory in which autophagy accelerates trypsinogen activation by lysosomal hydrolases under acidic conditions, thus triggering acute pancreatitis in its early stage. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a developmental process that allows a polarized epithelial cell to undergo multiple biochemical changes that enable it to assume a mesenchymal phenotype. The phenotype associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition includes enhanced migratory capacity, invasiveness, elevated resistance to apoptosis, and greatly increased production of extracellular matrix components. In addition to its role in development, tissue regeneration, and fibrosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition is now considered as a critical process in cancer progression. Induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer cells results in the acquisition of invasive and metastatic properties. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition could be an important mechanism in the progression of pancreatic cancer and its poor prognosis. Autoimmune pancreatitis is a unique form of pancreatitis in which autoimmune mechanisms are suspected to be involved in the pathogenesis. There is accumulating study to deal with this new disease concept. In addition to these topics, we have selected several topics in pancreatology, focusing on recent studies increasingly deepening our knowledge in both basic and clinical researches.

Natural Compounds as New Cancer Treatments

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ISBN: 9783039213658 / 9783039213665 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-366-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Cancer remains one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although many pharmacological and clinical advances have been made, there is a constant need for new molecules to improve the overall options for treatment. Natural compounds from animal, microbial, vegetal, or fungal origin represent countless sources of new compounds that can be used as anticancer drugs, provided their activity, bioavailability, and toxicity are adequate. This book aims to compile both original articles and reviews that cover the most recent advances in the use of natural compounds for cancer treatment, and provide new objectives and advice for future research in the field of biological activity of natural compounds.

Mass Spectrometric Proteomics

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ISBN: 9783038978268 9783038978275 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-827-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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As suggested by the title of this Special Issue, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry plays a pivotal role in the field of proteomics. Indeed, the research and review articles  published in the Issue clearly evidence how the data produced by this sophisticated methodology may promote impressive advancements in this area. From among the topics discussed in the Issue, a few point to the development of  new procedures for the  optimization of the experimental conditions that should be applied  for the identification of proteins present in complex mixtures.  Other applications  described in these articles show  the huge potential of  these strategies in the protein profiling of organs and  range from  to the study of post-translational tissue modifications to the investigation of the molecular mechanisms behind human disorders and the identification of potential biomarkers of these diseases.

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