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Crystal Dislocations: Their Impact on Physical Properties of Crystals

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ISBN: 9783038974659 / 9783038974666 Year: Pages: 316 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-466-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Analytical Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-09 12:11:05
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The proposed existence of the edge and screw dislocation in the 1930s, and the subsequent work showing that dislocation theory could explain the plastic deformation of crystals, represent an important step in developing our understanding of materials into a science. The continued work involved with characterization of dislocations and linking them to a variety of physical properties in both single and poly crystals have made enormous progress over the past 50 years. It is rare to find a technical application involving a material with any crystal structure that is not impacted by dislocations; mechanical properties, massive phase transformations, interphases, crystal growth, electronic properties, the list goes on. In many systems the properties is controlled by the formation of partial dislocations separated by a stacking fault; for example plastic deformation via deformation twinning. And finally, giant strides have been made in characterization and modeling of systems containing dislocations. The Special Issue on “Crystal Dislocations” is intended to provide a unique international forum aimed at covering a broad range of results involving dislocations and their importance on crystal properties and crystal growth. Scientists working in a wide range of disciplines are invited to contribute to this cause.Dr. K. Peter D. Lagerlof, Associate Professor of CeramicsGuest Editor

Culture, Philosophies and Reforms in Public Administration for the Globalising World

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Book Series: Association of Southern African Schools and Departments of Public Administration and Management Book Series ISBN: 9781928396697 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.4102/aosis.2018.BK80 Language: English
Publisher: AOSIS
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 11:21:03
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The aim of this scholarly collected work is to contribute to the scientific discourse on public administration in a globalised environment. The book reflects on governance challenges in South Africa and in Africa, with its point of departure being the ‘master narratives’ (the so-called grand debates) such as New Public Management and, specifically, the role of technology. It also reflects on the so-called middle range discourses concerning organisational-level issues in government (e.g. leadership and work procedures) and explores new solutions to old governance challenges like corruption and service delivery. 

The uniqueness of this collected work lies in its ability to reflect on existing philosophies and practices in an innovative way. Through its multidisciplinary lens, the book opens up a new vision for the future of public administration in the South African context and on the African continent, not neglecting the current local, regional and global environment.

Until recently, globalisation was considered an entrenched world order, but international political events during the course of the past few years have resulted in one of the biggest challenges to its endurance in recent history. This includes developments such as the successful referendum in Britain to exit the European Union, highlighting the growth of a severe nationalist and protectionist agenda that may be a signal of the unravelling of the current globalism world order. These developments inspire deeper interrogation of the challenges to effective public administration globally and the ripple effects in South Africa and Africa as a whole. Pointedly, it is evident that ensuring the voice of citizens in policy decision-making remains a critical governance challenge. On the policy front, there are perennial challenges of land reform, service delivery and poverty, while on the governance front, corruption has metastasised with a growing culture of impunity and lack of accountability in leadership. In the midst of growing corruption, and more than 20 years into democracy, South Africa’s income inequality remains one of the highest in the world. This setting constitutes the context of the research outcome published in this scholarly work.

Process-Structure-Property Relationships in Metals

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ISBN: 9783038424574 9783038424567 Year: Pages: VI, 274 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-21 08:43:06
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In this Special Issue of Metals, an open access forum is provided for publishing original papers that the covers direct and effective correlations between a wide range of thermomechanical processing routes and generated microstructure, hence, the final physical and mechanical properties of the materials. The following aspects of the science and engineering of various metals and alloys are covered in this book:• Original research studies that relate to the understanding of the properties obtained following specific processing/heat treatment route (Experimental, theoretical, and simulation modeling).• Understanding the mechanisms involved in microstructure evolution and phase transformation during processing of materials, specifically as they relate to the understanding of final mechanical properties.• Nano/micro/macro structure characterization and chemistry of metals/alloys used in automotive, power generation, nuclear, aerospace, and medical applications.• Micro/macro texture devolvement during thermo-mechanical processing of metals/alloys.

Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Structural Metals and Alloys

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ISBN: 9783038975052 / 9783038975069 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-506-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The papers collected in this special issue clearly reflect the modern research trends in materials science. These fields of specific attention are high-Mn TWIP steels, high-Cr heat resistant steels, aluminum alloys, ultrafine grained materials including those developed by severe plastic deformation, and high-entropy alloys. The major portion of the collected papers is focused on the mechanisms of microstructure evolution and the mechanical properties of metallic materials subjected to various thermo-mechanical, deformation or heat treatments. Another large portion of the studies is aimed on the elaboration of alloying design of advanced steels and alloys. The changes in phase content, transformation and particle precipitation and their effect on the properties are also broadly presented in this collection, including the microstructure/property changes caused by irradiation.

Keywords

Mg–Sm–Zn–Zr --- dynamic precipitation --- microstructure --- mechanical property --- bimodal ferrite steel --- ultrafine-grained microstructure --- mechanical properties --- corrosion resistance --- abnormal grain growth --- grain boundary engineering --- electron backscattered diffraction --- growth rate --- Al metal matrix composites --- microstructure --- mechanical properties --- strengthening mechanism --- hot compression --- dynamic recovery --- dynamic recrystallization --- texture --- aluminum alloys --- Al-Fe-Si-Zr system --- microstructure --- hardness --- electrical conductivity --- metal–matrix composite --- high-pressure torsion --- microstructure evolution --- microhardness --- shape memory alloy --- columnar grain --- Cu-Al-Mn --- elastocaloric effect --- strain rate --- measuring temperature --- creep --- lead-free solder --- Sb solder --- Sn-8.0Sb-3.0Ag --- solder microstructure --- martensitic steels --- creep --- precipitation --- electron microscopy --- high-Mn TWIP steel --- cold rolling --- annealing --- recovery --- recrystallization --- strengthening --- austenitic 304 stainless steels --- sub-merged arc welding --- post-weld heat treatment --- aluminum alloys --- aging --- precipitation --- electrical resistivity --- mechanical properties --- ferritic steel --- irradiation --- nanoindentation --- hardness --- transmission electron microscopy (TEM) --- microstructure --- high-entropy alloys --- high-pressure torsion --- microstructure evolution --- twinning --- mechanical properties --- welded rotor --- weld metal --- impact toughness --- PWHT --- microstructure evolution --- Cu-Cr-Zr --- precipitation --- orientation relationship --- recrystallization --- annealing twins --- structural steel plate --- nonmetallic inclusions --- rare earth control --- M23C6 --- ion irradiation --- M6C --- amorphization --- RAFM steels --- hot stamping --- press hardening --- martensitic expansion --- force peak --- cycle time --- high-Mn steel --- deformation twinning --- dynamic recrystallization --- grain refinement --- work hardening --- in situ tensile testing --- super duplex stainless steel --- SDSS --- low-temperature --- ?-phase --- SEM --- EBSD --- microstructure analysis --- n/a

Physical Metallurgy of High Manganese Steels

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ISBN: 9783039218561 / 9783039218578 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-857-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Mining and Metallurgy
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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The Special Issue ‘Physical Metallurgy of High Manganese Steels’ addresses the highly fascinating class of manganese-alloyed steels with manganese contents well above 3 mass%. The book gathers manuscripts from internationally recognized researchers with stimulating new ideas and original results. It consists of fifteen original research papers. Seven contributions focus on steels with manganese contents above 12 mass%. These contributions cover fundamental aspects of process-microstrcuture-properties relationships with processes ranging from cold and warm rolling over deep rolling to heat treatment. Novel findings regarding the fatigue and fracture behavior, deformation mechanisms, and computer-aided design are presented. Additionally, the Special Issue also reflects the current trend of reduced Mn content (3-12 mass%) in advanced high strength steels (AHSS). Eight contributions were dedicated to these alloys, which are often referred to as 3rd generation AHSS, medium manganese steels or quenching and partitioning (Q&P/Q+P) steels. The interplay between advanced processing, mainly novel annealing variants, and microstructure evolution has been addressed using computational and experimental approaches. A deeper understanding of strain-rate sensitivity, hydrogen embrittlement, phase transformations, and the consequences for the materials’ properties has been developed. Hence, the topics included are manifold, fundamental-science oriented and, at the same time, relevant to industrial application.

Keywords

medium-manganese steel --- TRIP --- strain-rate sensitivity --- Lüders band --- serrated flow --- in-situ DIC tensile tests --- TWIP steel --- deformation twinning --- serrated flow --- dynamic strain aging --- damage --- fracture --- medium-manganese --- forging --- austenite reversion --- mechanical properties --- microstructure --- D&amp --- P steel --- processing --- microstructure --- phase transformation --- dislocation density --- mechanical properties --- MMn steel X20CrNiMnVN18-5-10 --- V alloying --- corrosion resistance --- precipitations --- ultrafine grains --- high-manganese steels --- high-entropy alloys --- alloy design --- plastic deformation --- annealing --- microstructure --- texture --- mechanical properties --- neutron diffraction --- austenite stability --- medium manganese steel --- double soaking --- localized deformation --- medium-Mn steel --- hot-stamping --- double soaking --- continuous annealing --- quenching and partitioning --- high strength steel --- high manganese steel --- crash box --- lightweight --- multiscale simulation --- high-Mn steels --- twinning induced plasticity --- cold rolling --- recrystallization annealing --- grain refinement --- strengthening --- austenitic high nitrogen steel (HNS) --- cold deformation --- fatigue --- high manganese steel --- warm rolling --- processing --- microstructure --- texture --- mechanical properties --- deformation behavior --- high-manganese steel --- deep rolling --- TWIP --- TRIP --- near surface properties --- residual stresses --- fatigue behavior --- intercritical annealing --- medium manganese steel --- phase field simulation --- medium-Mn steel --- austenite-reversed-transformation --- retained austenite --- hydrogen embrittlement --- ultrafine-grained microstructure --- strain-hardening behavior --- n/a

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