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Dental and Periodontal Tissues Formation and Regeneration: Current Approaches and Future Challenges

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199846 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-984-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Abstract

Sequential and reciprocal interactions between oral epithelial and cranial neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells give rise to the teeth and periodontium. Teeth are vital organs containing a rich number of blood vessels and nerve fibers within the dental pulp and periodontium. Teeth are composed by unique and specific collagenous (dentin, fibrillar cementum) and non-collagenous (enamel) highly mineralized extracellular matrices. Alveolar bone is another collagenous hard tissue that supports tooth stability and function through its close interaction with the periodontal ligament. Dental hard tissues are often damaged after infection or traumatic injuries that lead to the partial or complete destruction of the functional dental and supportive tissues. Well-established protocols are routinely used in dental clinics for the restoration or replacement of the damaged tooth and alveolar bone areas. Recent progress in the fields of cell biology, tissue engineering, and nanotechnology offers promising opportunities to repair damaged or missing dental tissues. Indeed, pulp and periodontal tissue regeneration is progressing rapidly with the application of stem cells, biodegradable scaffolds, and growth factors. Furthermore, methods that enable partial dental hard tissue repair and regeneration are being evaluated with variable degrees of success. However, these cell-based therapies are still incipient and many issues need to be addressed before any clinical application. The understanding of tooth and periodontal tissues formation would be beneficial for improving regenerative attempts in dental clinics. In the present e-book we have covered the various aspects dealing with dental and periodontal tissues physiology and regeneration in 6 chapters:1. General principles on the use of stem cells for regenerating craniofacial and dental tissues2. The roles of nerves, vessels and stem cell niches in tissue regeneration3. Dental pulp regeneration and mechanisms of various odontoblast functions4. Dental root and periodontal physiology, pathology and regeneration5. Physiology and regeneration of the bone using various scaffolds and stem cell populations6. Physiology, pathology and regeneration of enamel using dental epithelial stem cells

Cross Talk between Lymph Node Lymphatic Endothelial Cells and T Cells in Inflammation and Cancer

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453511 Year: Pages: 100 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-351-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Lymphocytes constantly survey the lymph nodes in search for potential infection by a pathogen. They enter the afferent lymphatic vessel that serves as a conduit to transport the motile lymphocytes to the draining lymph node. Lymphatic vessels (LVs) are present in most vascularized tissues. They are traditionally regarded as passive conduits for soluble antigens and leukocytes. Afferent LVs begin as blind ended capillaries, which give rise to collecting vessels that merge and connect with draining lymph nodes (dLNs). Initial lymphatic capillaries are composed of Lymphatic Endothelial Cells (LECs) connected by discontinuous cell junctions, which join to form larger collecting lymphatic vessels, and ultimately feed into the LN subcapsular sinus. Within the LN, LECs are localized to the subcapsular, cortical, and medullary sinuses, where they interact with incoming and exiting leukocytes. LECs, and in general LN stromal cells, have emerged in the recent years as active players in the immune response. In support to this,studies have shown that the immune response generated during inflammation and under pathologic conditions is accompanied by modeling of the LVs and generation of new lymphatics, a process known as lymphangiogenesis. These facts strongly suggest that LECs and stromal LN cells in general, are not inert players but rather are part of the immune response by organizing immune cells movement, exchanging information and supplying survival factors. The purpose of this research topic is to review the role of the LECs during immune homeostasis and cancer. Considering the critical role of lymphangiogenesis in many pathologies like chronic and acute inflammation, autoimmunity, wound healing, graft rejection, and tumor metastasis, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms that govern the cross talks between the LECs and immune cells during homeostasis and inflammation.

Plant Development and Organogenesis: From Basic Principles to Applied Research

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ISBN: 9783039281268 / 9783039281275 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-127-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Plant Sciences --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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The way plants grow and develop organs significantly impacts the overall performance and yield of crop plants. The basic knowledge now available in plant development has the potential to help breeders in generating plants with defined architectural features to improve productivity. Plant translational research effort has steadily increased over the last decade due to the huge increase in the availability of crop genomic resources and Arabidopsis-based sequence annotation systems. However, a consistent gap between fundamental and applied science has yet to be filled. One critical point often brought up is the unreadiness of developmental biologists on one side to foresee agricultural applications for their discoveries, and of the breeders to exploit gene function studies to apply to candidate gene approaches when advantageous on the other. In this book, both developmental biologists and breeders make a special effort to reconcile research on the basic principles of plant development and organogenesis with its applications to crop production and genetic improvement. Fundamental and applied science contributions intertwine and chase each other, giving the reader different but complementary perspectives from only apparently distant corners of the same world.

Keywords

wheat-rye hybrids --- genes of reproductive isolation --- stem apical meristem --- molecular marker --- Rht18 --- reduced height --- wheat --- semi-dwarf --- linkage map --- CLE --- CLV --- WUS --- stem cells --- meristem --- SAM --- signaling --- locule --- Arabidopsis --- auxin --- HD-Zip transcription factors --- light environment --- photoreceptors --- wounding --- root plasticity --- hydrogen peroxide --- protoxylem --- plant development and organogenesis --- proline biosynthesis --- RolD --- rol genes --- Vasculature --- Organogenesis --- Development --- Brassicaceae --- Asteraceae --- flowering time --- photoperiod --- vernalization --- ambient temperature --- gibberellins --- age --- plant breeding --- grass --- ligule --- organogenesis --- boundaries --- shoot meristem --- morphogenesis --- molecular regulation --- cell wall --- cytoskeleton --- Arabidopsis --- root --- stem cells --- root development --- differentiation --- ground tissue --- radial patterning --- proximodistal patterning --- Plant in vitro cultures --- somatic cell selection --- hairy roots --- rol genes --- Agrobacterium rhizogenes --- genetic transformation --- recalcitrant species --- KNOX transcription factors --- plant development --- tree phase change --- transformation --- morphogenic --- embryogenesis --- meristem formation --- organogenesis --- GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 (GH3) IAA-amido synthase group II --- root apical meristem --- auxin --- cytokinin --- lateral root cap --- auxin minimum --- auxin conjugation --- plant development and organogenesis --- translational research --- crop productivity --- genetic improvement --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- regulatory networks --- phytohormones --- rol genes --- plant cell and tissue culture

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