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Marine Viruses 2016

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ISBN: 9783038426202 9783038426219 Year: Pages: 320 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-10 13:29:28
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The research effort, publication rate and scientific community within the field of marine viruses have been growing rapidly over the past decade and viruses are now known to play key roles in microbial population dynamics, diversity and evolution as well as biogeochemical cycling.The compilation of papers included in the current Special Issue highlights the exploration of eukaryotic and prokaryotic viruses, from discovery to complex interplays between virus and host and virus–host interactions with ecologically relevant environmental variables. The discovery of novel viruses and new mechanisms underlying virus distribution and diversity exemplify the fascinating world of marine viruses. The oceans greatly shape Earth’s climate, hold 1.37 billion km3 of seawater, produce half of the oxygen in the atmosphere, and are integral to all known life. In a time where life in the oceans is under increasing threat (global warming, pollution, economic use) it is pressing to understand how viruses affect host population dynamics, biodiversity, biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem efficiency.

Viral Interactions with the Nucleus

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452477 Year: Pages: 124 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-247-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Viruses cause numerous medically important diseases, affecting developing, developed, rich and poor alike. The diseases vary in severity, including chickenpox, smallpox, influenza, shingles, herpes, rabies, polio, Ebola, hanta fever, AIDS and the common cold, amongst others. Regardless of the type of tissue or organ affected, all viruses follow the same basic steps to infect host cells. Once in contact with host cells viruses release their genetic material into the cell followed by genome replication, production of viral proteins, assembly of the virus particle and egress from the infected cell. Viruses disrupt normal host cell processes in order to facilitate their own replication/assembly by re-directing cellular machinery for viral transcription, translation, assembly, release and by inhibiting antiviral responses. Regulated nuclear transport of macromolecules through the nuclear pore complex, the only means of transport across the nuclear membrane, is essential for normal cell function and an effective antiviral response. Many viruses disrupt or exploit the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking pathways in host cells. Cytoplasmic viruses exploit the host cell nucleocytoplasmic trafficking machinery to access nuclear functions and/or disrupt nuclear transport, while several DNA viruses use the trafficking pathways to enable export of their components into the cytoplasm; yet others complete their assembly within the nucleus and use nuclear export pathways to access the cytoplasm. Indeed, the many and varied interactions of viruses and viral proteins with nucleocytoplasmic trafficking components have been invaluable in pathway discovery. Importantly, mounting evidence suggests that these interactions play essential roles in virus replication/assembly and hence may be key to understanding pathophysiology of viral diseases. This Frontiers Research Topic is dedicated to the importance of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to viral pathogenesis.

Microbial and Environmental Factors in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451555 Year: Pages: 193 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-155-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General) --- Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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In recent years there has been a substantial increase in the number of diseases with the inflammatory component such as such as allergy, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowl disease (IBD, which includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease), chronic sinusitis, and many other conditions. The majority of these diseases are multifactorial, with the contribution of genetic and environmental factors. Among the latter, the role of certain microorganisms and viruses in triggering or sustaining the inflammatory process is most controversial. In rheumatoid arthritis, for example, the following bacteria and viruses have been implicated in triggering the disease: Mycoplasma spp., Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp., Bordetella spp., Acinetobacter spp., the parvoviruses, Epstein-Barr virus, and retroviruses. The list of putative microbial triggers of rheumatoid arthritis is still growing, and it becomes essentially impossible to make a causation link between certain infectious agents and the disease. In the light of these disappointing results there are calls for even larger studies with the use of more advanced and large-scale technologies. The primary function of the immune system is the maintenance of body homeostasis and protection against any threats to it via several lines of elaborate and complex immune defense. Given even higher complexity that involves the microbiota and the corresponding host-microbe interaction, the conditions for this equilibrium become even more challenging. In the absence of a defined pathogen, for example, the spectrum of microorganisms involved in triggering inappropriate immune responses may include polymicrobial communities or the cumulative effect of several microbial/viral factors. Under the normal circumstances there is a fine-tuned balance between commensal microbiota and the host’s immune responses. However, when this balance is compromised, for example in IBD, a massive immune response is launched against commensal microbiota resulting in chronic inflammation. Besides the microbial/viral factors, the balance of the immune system can be compromised by other causes. Given, for example, the close and inclusive interaction of the immune, nervous and endocrine systems, the list of these provoking factors can expand even more. For instance, it has been demonstrated that even mild sleep deprivation may increase the production of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. Understanding the complex role of microbial and environmental factors in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, therefore, is the main subject of this topic.

Viral Interactions with Host RNA Decay Pathways

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ISBN: 9783038425021 9783038425038 Year: Pages: VIII, 98 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-25 13:10:10
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Eukaryotes have evolved a wide variety of RNA decay pathways to maintain cellular homeostasis, carry out programs of gene expression, and respond to changing environmental conditions. Individual RNA turnover mechanisms can operate constitutively or under only particular cellular conditions; similarly, some target many RNAs, while others act with great specificity. It has become increasingly clear that there are extensive interactions between viruses and the host RNA decay machinery. Often, the cellular RNA decay machinery poses a threat to viral gene expression, but viruses can also manipulate RNA decay pathways to promote viral replication. This special issue focuses on how cellular RNA decay factors recognize and degrade viral RNAs and viral strategies to subvert or evade these pathways.

Highly Mutable Animal RNA Viruses: Adaptation and Evolution

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453481 Year: Pages: 419 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-348-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Viruses are widely present in nature, and numerous viral species with a variety of unique characteristics have been identified so far. Even now, new emerging or re-emerging viruses are being found or re-found as novel viral classes or as quasi-species. Indeed, viruses are everywhere. Of note, viruses are pivotal as targets and tools of basic and applied sciences. On one hand, portions of the viruses are infectious for animals including humans, and cause various diseases in infected hosts by distinct mechanisms and at a different level of severity. While many of viruses are known to co-exist quietly with their hosts, pathogenic viruses certainly affect and threaten our society as well as individuals to provoke serious medical or economic attention. We should act against certain dreadful and highly infectious viruses as a global problem. Animal RNA viruses can readily mutate to adapt themselves in their hostile environments for their survival. Resultant viruses may sometimes show essentially altered phenotypes from the original parental strains. This fundamental and general property of animal RNA viruses represents major extensive issues of scientific, medical, and/or economic importance. In this Research Topic, we have focused on the high mutability of animal RNA viruses, and selected relevant articles on animal viruses of broad-ranges such as primate lentiviruses, influenza viruses, paramyxoviruses, flaviviruses, rabies virus, norovirus, picornaviruses, and picobirnavirus. Each article has taken up intriguing aspects of the subject viruses. We are sure that readers acquire important information on virus mutation, adaptation, diversification, and evolution, and hope that researchers in the field related to virology gain some solid hints from the reported articles for further virological and /or medical studies. Finally, we thank all the contributing researchers in this Research Topic, entitled “Highly Mutable Animal RNA Viruses: Adaptation and Evolution”, for their elegant and interesting works.

Replication-Competent Reporter-Expressing Viruses

ISBN: 9783038422587 9783038422594 Year: Pages: XVI, 322 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-10-31 16:58:45
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Recombinant viruses expressing reporter fluorescent or bioluminescent proteins are an excellent option to evaluate the dynamics of viral infection progression in both cultured cells and/or validated animal models of viral infection. Reporter proteins are valid surrogates for direct detection of infected cells in vitro and in vivo, without the use of secondary methodologies to identify infected cells. By eliminating the need of secondary labeling, tractable replicating-competent, reporter-expressing viruses provide an ideal approach to monitor viral infections in real time, representing a significant advance in the study of the biology of viruses, to evaluate vaccination approaches, and to identify new therapeutics against viral infections using high-throughput screening settings. In this Special Issue “Replication-Competent Reporter-Expressing Viruses” we review replication-competent, reporter-expressing viruses belonging to different families, methods of characterization, and applications to facilitate the study of in vitro and in vivo viral infections. We also seek to discuss disadvantages and limitations associated with these reporter-expressing viruses. Finally, we provide rational future perspectives and additional avenues for the development, characterization, and applications of recombinant, reporter-expressing, competent viruses.

Roles and mechanisms of parasitism in aquatic microbial communities

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195886 Year: Pages: 153 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-588-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Next Generation Sequencing technologies are increasingly revealing that microbial taxa likely to be parasites or symbionts are probably much more prevalent and diverse than previously thought. Every well studied free-living species has parasites; parasites themselves can be parasitized. As a rule of thumb, there is an estimated 4 parasitic species for any given host, and the better a host is studied the more parasites are known to infect it. Therefore, parasites and other symbionts should represent a very large number of species and may far outnumber those with 'free-living' lifestyles. Paradoxically, free-living hosts, which form the bulk of our knowledge of biology, may be a minority! Microbial parasites typically are characterized by their small size, short generation time, and high rates of reproduction, with simple life cycle occurring generally within a single host. They are diverse and ubiquitous in the environment, comprising viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This Frontiers Research Topic sought to provide a broad overview but concise, comprehensive, well referenced and up-to-date state of the art for everyone involved with microbial parasites in aquatic microbial ecology.

Tumour Viruses

ISBN: 9783038421511 9783038421528 Year: Pages: 470 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-20 14:59:05
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Current worldwide estimates suggest that approxiamtely 11% of all cancers are caused by viral infections. At present, there are eight viruses that have a strong association with cancer development namely, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus, human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type I, Merkel cell polyomavirus, hepatitis B and C viruses and human immunodeficiency virus. Some of these viruses and associated cancers, such as human papillomavirus and cervical cancer, are well studied and the causal link between infection and cancer development is established. However, the involvement of these known oncogenic viruses in cancer development at other body sites is not well understood and further study of these viruses continues to highlight novel mechanisms of cellular transformation. Other cancer-associated viruses are only recently discovered, such as Merkel cell polyomavirus, and further work is required to formally prove their role in cancer development. In this Special Issue, we seek to explore novel mechanisms of cellular transformation by oncogenic viruses, the role of viral infection in cancer development in understudied body sites and the potential role of novel viral pathogens in cancer development.

Porcine Viruses

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ISBN: 9783038424727 9783038424734 Year: Pages: X, 320
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-31 10:53:55
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Pig production is the fastest growing segment of the global livestock sector. Intensification of pig production has resulted in significant changes to traditional pig husbandry practices. Combined with urbanization and ease of travel and transport, these changes have led to an environment conducive to increased emergence and spread of viral diseases. The past decade alone has seen the global emergence and re-emergence of porcine viruses with devastating consequences: For example, in 2006, highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSV) spread rapidly across Southeast Asia killing millions of animals; since its introduction into the Caucasus in 2007, the African swine fever virus has steadily spread to Eastern Europe; and in 2013-14, over 8 million pigs died when virulent porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) swept North America. In this special issue we will explore our understanding of porcine viruses and how this may be exploited to improve the control of these pathogens of economic and agricultural significance.

Oncolytic Viruses - Genetically Engineering the Future of Cancer Therapy

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453580 Year: Pages: 193 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-358-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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The ability to genetically engineer oncolytic viruses in order to minimize side effects and improve the selective targeting of tumor cells has opened up novel opportunities for treating cancer. Understanding the mechanisms involved and the complex interaction between the viruses and the immune system will undoubtedly help guide the development of new strategies. Theranostic biomarkers to monitor these therapies in clinical trials serve an important need in this innovative field and demand further research.

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