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At the doors of lexical access: The importance of the first 250 milliseconds in reading

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192601 Year: Pages: 112 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-260-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Correct word identification and processing is a prerequisite for accurate reading, and decades of psycholinguistic and neuroscientific research have shown that the magical moments of visual word recognition are short-lived and markedly fast. The time window in which a given letter string passes from being a mere sequence of printed curves and strokes to acquiring the word status takes around one third of a second. In a few hundred milliseconds, a skilled reader recognizes an isolated word and carries out a number of underlying processes, such as the encoding of letter position and letter identity, and lexico-semantic information retrieval. However, the precise manner (and order) in which these processes occur (or co-occur) is a matter of contention subject to empirical research. There's no agreement regarding the precise timing of some of the essential processes that guide visual word processing, such as precise letter identification, letter position assignment or sub-word unit processing (bigrams, trigrams, syllables, morphemes), among others. Which is the sequence of processes that lead to lexical access? How do these and other processes interact with each other during the early moments of word processing? Do these processes occur in a serial fashion or do they take place in parallel? Are these processes subject to mutual interaction principles? Is feedback allowed for within the earliest stages of word identification? And ultimately, when does the reader's brain effectively identify a given word? A vast number of questions remain open, and this Research Topic will cover some of them, giving the readership the opportunity to understand how the scientific community faces the problem of modeling the early stages of word identification according to the latest neuroscientific findings.

Speech Acts: Richard Grayson and Matt Mullican

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ISBN: 9780994503947 Year: Pages: 40 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5130/978-0-9945039-4-7 Language: English
Publisher: UTS ePRESS
Subject: Arts in general --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-09 06:36:14
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Speech Acts: Richard Grayson and Matt Mullican illuminates the video-based practices of these two internationally acclaimed artists, who use the format of the monologue to construct and narrate hypothetical worlds.British artist Richard Grayson imbues vernacular culture with a sense of classicism, extracting layers of meaning from an array of subject matter, including scientific explanations, flash-mob videos, dinner party conversations and purposefully bad jokes.By contrast, American artist Matt Mullican​ examines the circularities of language, conducting performances under hypnosis to vacillate between primal and public speech. Who is it we are watching as Mullican performs in an hypnotic state? How do we interrogate and categorise what is being created?The book includes video excerpts of Mullican’s first ever performance under hypnosis in Australia (staged in collaboration with Sydney’s National Art School at the iconic Cell Block Theatre, a former nineteenth-century women’s prison) and a selection of Grayson’s scripted compositions, which combine political acuity with dry wit.Author Wes Hill, having curated Grayson and Mullican in a 2015 exhibition at UTS Gallery, unpacks them further in a fascinating essay on both artists, examining their obsessions with language, performance and the nature of interpretation, which arise in their works to engage and sometimes unsettle viewers.

A grammar of Rapa Nui

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Book Series: Studies in Diversity Linguistics ISBN: 9783946234753 9783946234760 9781542544795 Year: Pages: 665 DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.235525 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-16 11:01:54
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This book is a comprehensive description of the grammar of Rapa Nui, the Polynesian language spoken on Easter Island. After an introductory chapter, the grammar deals with phonology, word classes, the noun phrase, possession, the verb phrase, verbal and nonverbal clauses, mood and negation, and clause combinations. The phonology of Rapa Nui reveals certain issues of typological interest, such as the existence of strict conditions on the phonological shape of words, word-final devoicing, and reduplication patterns motivated by metrical constraints. For Polynesian languages, the distinction between nouns and verbs in the lexicon has often been denied; in this grammar it is argued that this distinction is needed for Rapa Nui. Rapa Nui has sometimes been characterised as an ergative language; this grammar shows that it is unambiguously accusative. Subject and object marking depend on an interplay of syntactic, semantic and pragmatic factors. Other distinctive features of the language include the existence of a ‘neutral’ aspect marker, a serial verb construction, the emergence of copula verbs, a possessive-relative construction, and a tendency to maximise the use of the nominal domain. Rapa Nui’s relationship to the other Polynesian languages is a recurring theme in this grammar; the relationship to Tahitian (which has profoundly influenced Rapa Nui) especially deserves attention. The grammar is supplemented with a number of interlinear texts, two maps and a subject index.

Changes in the Russian Terminology of Economic Law since Perestroika

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Book Series: Slavistische Beitraege ISBN: 9783876907574 Year: Pages: 208 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Law --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:31:36
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The present thesis deliberately restricts its area of research in various ways. First, it will only investigate changes in vocabulary that represent semantic change or that can be related to changes in the speakers' attitudes or societal values; any other change (related to stress, orthography, etc.) will not be considered. Second, and more importantly, it will focus on a group of words that is closely defined in two ways - (i) thematically, in that these words must form part of economic terminology, and (ii) in relation to the type of text in which these words are used, namely legal texts, in particular laws. The study will also investigate whether the meanings of pre-Revolutionary terms that have been revived since perestroika differ from their original senses.

Words are Physicians for an Ailing mind

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Book Series: Sagners Slavistische Sammlung ISBN: 9783876904993 Year: Pages: 524 Language: Russian|German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:31:47
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The contributions included in the present volume cover a large number of various linguistic disciplines: the topics range from philosophy of language, pragmatics, semantics and syntax to morphology and phonology, and even language history, translation theory and quantitative linguistics figure among them. This astonishing abundance of different research objects and methods sheds some light on the universality of interests which characterize the scholar to whom this volume is dedicated.

Fritz Saxl - Eine Biografie

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ISBN: 9783205788638 Pages: 346 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_459331 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4321
Added to DOAB on : 2013-11-15 20:22:07
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Aby Warburg (1866-1929), the celebrated Hamburg art historian, who broke new ground with his research into Renaissance art history, found in Fritz Saxl (1890-1948), art historian, head librarian and finally his successor as director of Warburg's library and later the Warburg Institute, a scholar who contributed to the shaping of a pluridisciplinary understanding of research. Through Saxl's research of problems of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages he gave important impulses to the scholarly understanding of intellectual history.Saxl, who extended the library system of the "good neighbourliness" of books, demonstrated his organizational thinking and strategies, which anticipated the use of hyperlinks - albeit without today's electronic technology. It was Saxl who turned Warburg's library from a private library into the centre of an international network for scholars.He spoke of himself as the wanderer through the museums and libraries of Europe, an agricultural worker who worked the piece of ground between history of art, literature, science and religion. Saxl's own research agenda was multifarious, the history of astrology, of mythology, in particular the research into illuminated astrological and mythological manuscripts of the Middle Ages, gleaned from archives all over Europe and published in three comprehensive Verzeichnisse. He further worked on religions of classical antiquity, the transition from pagan to Christian traditions, Mithras as well as art historical topics, Bellini, Titian. His life-long great admiration for Rembrandt found expession in a number of publications. 17th century art history, English medieval sculpture and his last great interest, seals, completed his scholarly output. But next to these research topics his achievements in the fields of organization were the area in which Saxl truly excelled. Warburg, although he spoke of him as the "junior partner", admired his scholarly honesty and thoroughness, but ultimately underestimated his achievements in administration and organization; these alone made it possible that the private library of Warburg could be consolidated into a internationally approved institute of teaching and research in Germany, and then in Great Britain.As Warburg's successor Saxl both kept as close as possible to Warburg's method as well as break fresh ground. Saxl was a truly original thinker, a congenial teacher, very demanding to his students and colleagues, but also fiercely supportive, for instance, to Roger Hinks, when he lost his post at the British Museum in the course of the affair of the cleaning of the Elgin Marbles. He employed Anthony Blunt as editor of the Warburg Institute publications, he brought Ernst H. Gombrich from Vienna to London in 1936. He was a great example to the young art historian John Pope-Hennessy, later Director of the Victoria and Albert Museum and the British Museum. Today, the Warburg Institute is a post-graduate research institute specializing in researching cultural and intellectual history, a forum for scholars and students. The fact that teaching and research could be kept up in Hamburg until 1933 and resumed in London from 1934 onward, speaks for the personal commitment of the employees and above all for Saxl;s intellectual courage and sense for practical solutions. His unstinting effort and dedication were certainly reasons for Saxl's early death at 58 years of age.

Die Lehnwörter im Wortschatz der spätbyzantinischen historiographischen Literatur

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783110585384 Year: Pages: 290 Seiten Language: German
Publisher: De Gruyter Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 517
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-28 11:21:05

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This collective publication deals with the loanwords, which are found in 18 late Byzantine historians and chronicles.

Letters of Blood and Other Works in English

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ISBN: 9781906924577 Year: Pages: 253 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0017 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2012-04-06 03:32:42
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This collection brings together for the first time select works in English by the major Swedish modernist poet and critic Göran Printz-Påhlson. It was Printz-Påhlson who introduced poetic modernism to Scandinavia, and his essays and poems delve deeply into English, American, and continental modernist traditions.As well as Letters of Blood, the collection includes the full text of The Words of the Tribe, a major statement on modern poetics, in which Printz-Påhlson explores the significance of primitivism in Romanticism and Modernism, and the nature of metaphor and literary materialism. The collection also includes essays on style, irony, realism, and the relationship between historical drama and historical fiction, as well as studies of American poetry. Printz-Påhlson’s poetry in English continues to explore these themes by different, often surprisingly innovative, means.

Letters of Blood and Other Works in English

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9781906924584 Year: Pages: 253 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0017 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-04 11:01:51
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This collection brings together for the first time select works in English by the major Swedish modernist poet and critic Göran Printz-Påhlson. It was Printz-Påhlson who introduced poetic modernism to Scandinavia, and his essays and poems delve deeply into English, American, and continental modernist traditions. As well as Letters of Blood, the collection includes the full text of "The Words of the Tribe", a major statement on modern poetics, in which Printz-Påhlson explores the significance of primitivism in Romanticism and Modernism, and the nature of metaphor and literary materialism. The collection also includes essays on style, irony, realism, and the relationship between historical drama and historical fiction, as well as studies of American poetry. Printz-Påhlson’s poetry in English continues to explore these themes by different, often surprisingly innovative, means.

Die tschechischen Kontaktwoerter in der slovakischen Sprachpraxis und in der zeitgenoessischen Slovakistik

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Book Series: Slavistische Beitraege ISBN: 9783876909035 Year: Pages: 339 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:31:32
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The present work deals with the words in Slovak, which are considered "Czechisms" or "Czech contact words". She is thus addressing one of the most explosive topics in Slovak studies. She examines today's normative status of these words and their changes after the socio-political upheaval of the late 1980s and early 1990s. She then goes into the question of how the current normativistic appraisal or devaluation of these words is followed in the language practice. The empirical study focuses on the press language. The results of the sociolinguistic survey and exemplary excerpts from Internet forums illustrate the attitude of the Slovak speakers towards the words examined. The work also contains a historical overview of Slovak-Czech language contact and an index of approximately 1,800 lexical units.

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