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Dynamics of decision making: from evidence to preference and belief

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192700 Year: Pages: 259 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-270-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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At the core of the many debates throughout cognitive science concerning how decisions are made are the processes governing the time course of preference formation and decision. From perceptual choices, such as whether the signal on a radar screen indicates an enemy missile or a spot on a CT scan indicates a tumor, to cognitive value-based decisions, such as selecting an agreeable flatmate or deciding the guilt of a defendant, significant and everyday decisions are dynamic over time. Phenomena such as decoy effects, preference reversals and order effects are still puzzling researchers. For example, in a legal context, jurors receive discrete pieces of evidence in sequence, and must integrate these pieces together to reach a singular verdict. From a standard Bayesian viewpoint the order in which people receive the evidence should not influence their final decision, and yet order effects seem a robust empirical phenomena in many decision contexts. Current research on how decisions unfold, especially in a dynamic environment, is advancing our theoretical understanding of decision making. This Research Topic aims to review and further explore the time course of a decision - from how prior beliefs are formed to how those beliefs are used and updated over time, towards the formation of preferences and choices and post-decision processes and effects. Research literatures encompassing varied approaches to the time-scale of decisions will be brought into scope: a) Speeded decisions (and post-decision processes) that require the accumulation of noisy and possibly non-stationary perceptual evidence (e.g., randomly moving dots stimuli), within a few seconds, with or without temporal uncertainty. b) Temporally-extended, value-based decisions that integrate feedback values (e.g., gambling machines) and internally-generated decision criteria (e.g., when one switches attention, selectively, between the various aspects of several choice alternatives). c) Temporally extended, belief-based decisions that build on the integration of evidence, which interacts with the decision maker's belief system, towards the updating of the beliefs and the formation of judgments and preferences (as in the legal context). Research that emphasizes theoretical concerns (including optimality analysis) and mechanisms underlying the decision process, both neural and cognitive, is presented, as well as research that combines experimental and computational levels of analysis.

From soil to seed: micronutrient movement into and within the plant

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193516 Year: Pages: 193 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-351-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Medicine (General) --- Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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In all living organisms, essential micronutrients are cofactors of many ubiquitous proteins that participate in crucial metabolic pathways, but can also be toxic when present in excessive concentrations. In order to achieve correct homeostasis, plants need to control uptake of metals from the environment, their distribution to organs and tissues, and their subcellular compartmentalization. They also have to avoid deleterious accumulation of metals and metalloids such as Cd, As and Al. These multiple steps are controlled by their transport across various membrane structures and their storage in different organelles. Thus, integration of these transport systems required for micronutrient trafficking within the plant is necessary for physiological processes to work efficiently. To cope with the variable availability of micronutrients, plants have evolved an intricate collection of physiological and developmental processes, which are under tight control of short- and long-range signaling pathways. Understanding how plants perceive and deal with different micronutrient concentrations, from regulation to active transport, is important to completing the puzzle of plant metal homeostasis. This is an essential area of research, with several implications for plant biology, agriculture and human nutrition. There is a rising interest in developing plants that efficiently mobilize specific metals and prosper in soils with limited micronutrient availability, as well as those that can selectively accumulate beneficial micronutrients in the edible parts while avoiding contaminants such as Cd and As. However, there is still an important gap in our understanding of how nutrients reach the seeds and the relative contribution of each step in the long pathway from the rhizosphere to the seed. Possible rate-limiting steps for micronutrient accumulation in grains should be the primary targets of biotechnological interventions aiming at biofortification. Over the last 10 years, many micronutrient uptake- and transport-related processes have been identified at the molecular and physiological level. The systematic search for mutants and transcriptional responses has allowed analysis of micronutrient-signaling pathways at the cellular level, whereas physiological approaches have been particularly useful in describing micronutrient-signaling processes at the organ and whole-plant level. Large-scale elemental profiling using high-throughput analytical methodologies and their integration with both bioinformatics and genetic tools, along with metal speciation, have been used to decipher the functions of genes that control micronutrients homeostasis. In this research topic, we will follow the pathway of metal movement from the soil to the seed and describe the suggested roles of identified gene products in an effort to understand how plants acquire micronutrients from the soil, how they partition among different tissues and subcellular organelles, and how they regulate their deficiency and overload responses. We also highlight the current work on heavy metals and metalloids uptake and accumulation, the studies on metal selectivity in transporters and the cross-talk between micro and macronutrients. Thus, we believe a continued dialogue and sharing of ideas amongst plant scientists is critical to a better understanding of metal movement into and within the plant.

The Politics of Inclusive Development: Interrogating the Evidence

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9780198788829 9780198722564 Year: Pages: 416 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198722564.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-27 11:01:17
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It is now widely accepted that politics plays a significant role in shaping the possibilities for inclusive development. However, the specific ways in which this happens across different types and forms of development, and in different contexts, remains poorly understood. This collection provides the state of the art review regarding what is currently known about the politics of inclusive development. Leading academics offer systematic reviews of how politics shapes development across multiple dimensions, including through growth, natural resource governance, poverty reduction, service delivery, social protection, justice systems, the empowerment of marginalized groups, and the role of both traditional and non-traditional donors. The book not only provides a comprehensive update but also a groundbreaking range of new directions for thinking and acting around these issues. The book’s originality thus derives not only from the wide scope of its case-study material, but also from the new conceptual approaches it offers for thinking about the politics of inclusive development, and the innovative and practical suggestions for donors, policymakers, and practitioners that flow from this.

Social Capital Online

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Book Series: Critical Digital and Social Media Studies ISBN: 9781911534570 9781911534563 9781911534570 9781911534587 9781911534594 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.16997/book16 Language: English
Publisher: University of Westminster Press
Subject: Economics --- Sociology --- Social Sciences --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:39
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"What is ‘social capital’? The enormous positivity surrounding it conceals the instrumental economic rationality underpinning the notion as corporations silently sell consumer data for profit. Status chasing is just one aspect of a process of transforming qualitative aspects of social interactions into quantifiable metrics for easier processing, prediction, and behavioural shaping. A work of critical media studies, Social Capital Online examines the idea within the new ‘network spectacle’ of digital capitalism via the ideas of Marx, Veblen, Debord, Baudrillard and Deleuze. Explaining how such phenomena as online narcissism and aggression arise, Faucher offers a new theoretical understanding of how the spectacularisation of online activity perfectly aligns with the value system of neoliberalism and its data worship. Even so, at the centre of all, lie familiar ideas – alienation and accumulation – new conceptions of which he argues are vital for understanding today’s digital society."

Plant Silicon Interactions between Organisms and the Implications for Ecosystems

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451029 Year: Pages: 84 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-102-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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In this Frontiers topic, we explore how the functions and fates of plant silicon interact with other organisms and ecosystem processes. By bringing together new data from multiple disciplines and scales, we present a cross-section of novel explorations into how plants use silicon and the implications for agriculture and ecosystems. Key aims in this field are to understand the determinants of plant silicon uptake and cycling, and the benefits that silicon uptake confers on plants, including reducing the impacts of stresses such as herbivory. Current research explores inter-specific interactions, including co-evolutionary relationships between plant silicon and animals, particularly morphological adaptations, behavioural responses and the potential for plant silicon to regulate mammal populations. Another emerging area of research is understanding silicon fluxes in soils and vegetation communities and scaling this up to better understand the global silicon cycle. New methods for measuring plant silicon are contributing to progress in this field. Silicon could help plants mitigate some effects of climate change through alleviation of biotic and abiotic stress and silicon is a component of some carbon sinks. Therefore, understanding the role of plant silicon across ecological, agricultural and biogeochemical disciplines is increasingly important in the context of global environmental change.

Des barbelés dans la Sierra : Origines et transformations d'un système agraire au Mexique

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ISBN: 9782709924634 DOI: 10.4000/books.irdeditions.14700 Language: French
Publisher: IRD Éditions
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-31 11:25:14
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Les transformations de l'agriculture dans l'une des régions de la Sierra Madre del Sur, au sud-ouest de l'État du Michoacán (Mexique), illustrent tout un pan de l'histoire agraire mexicaine. Le peuplement et l'histoire agraire de la région trouvent leur origine dans une longue migration paysanne commencée dès la fin du xixe siècle. Au gré des déplacements d'un « front pionnier » sans cesse instable, les métayers d'un moment deviennent des propriétaires-rancheros : petites gens de la culture du maïs sur brûlis. La chance aidant, ils se transforment en éleveurs-possesseurs de bétail et, du même coup, en dépossesseurs de terres indiennes. Dans un mouvement comparable à un jeu de pousse-pousse, des métayers promus en propriétaires sécrètent de nouveaux métayers n'ayant d'autres fins que de devenir, à leur tour, des propriétaires. Pour tous, quelles que soient les origines sociales, le chemin à parcourir et les moyens pour y parvenir, l'objectif est le même : s'installer comme éleveur sur ses propres terres. L'étude des systèmes de production, de leurs origines et de leurs transformations mesure les conséquences de la spécialisation régionale assignée à la Sierra Madre del Sur : une monoproduction de jeunes bovins destinés à être engraissés dans d'autres régions. Restent, au bout du chemin, les collectivités indiennes de la côte du Pacifique dont on spolie aujourd'hui les terres de la même manière que le faisaient, au xvie siècle, les premiers Européens. Cette ultime « réduction » des communautés indiennes est une conséquence de la nouvelle division du travail qui entraîne un processus de différenciation sociale accélérée.

Dinophysis Toxins: Distribution, Fate in Shellfish and Impacts

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ISBN: 9783039213634 9783039213641 Year: Pages: 376 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-364-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Several species of Dinophysis produce one or two groups of lipophilic toxins: okadaic acid (OA) and its derivatives; or the dinophysistoxins (DTXs) (also known as diarrhetic shellfish poisons or DSP toxins) and pectenotoxins (PTXs). DSP toxins are potent inhibitors of protein phosphatases, causing gastrointestinal intoxication in consumers of contaminated seafood. Forty years after the identification of Dinophysis as the causative agent of DSP in Japan, contamination of filter feeding shellfish exposed to Dinophysis blooms is recognized as a problem worldwide. DSP events affect public health and cause considerable losses to the shellfish industry. Costly monitoring programs are implemented in regions with relevant shellfish production to prevent these socioeconomic impacts. Harvest closures are enforced whenever toxin levels exceed regulatory limits (RLs). Dinophysis species are kleptoplastidic dinoflagellates; they feed on ciliates (Mesodinium genus) that have previously acquired plastids from cryptophycean (genera Teleaulax, Plagioselmis, and Geminigera) nanoflagellates. The interactions of Dinophysis with different prey regulate their growth and toxin production. When Dinophysis cells are ingested by shellfish, their toxins are partially biotransformed and bioaccumulated, rendering the shellfish unsuitable for human consumption. DSP toxins may also affect shellfish metabolism. This book covers diverse aspects of the abovementioned topics—from the laboratory culture of Dinophysis and the kinetics of uptake, transformation, and depuration of DSP toxins in shellfish to Dinophysis population dynamics, the monitoring and regulation of DSP toxins, and their impact on the shellfish industry in some of the aquaculture regions that are traditionally most affected, namely, northeastern Japan, western Europe, southern Chile, and New Zealand.

Keywords

harmful algal bloom --- Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning --- okadaic acid --- toxin accumulation --- toxin vectors --- trophic transfer --- Brazil --- diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DST) --- Mytilus galloprovincialis --- DST accumulation --- DST esterification --- suspended particulate matter (SPM) --- harmful algal blooms --- okadaic acid --- Argopecten irradians --- transcriptomic response --- deep sequencing --- pectenotoxins --- surf clam --- accumulation --- biotransformation --- depuration --- diarrhetic shellfish toxins --- accumulation --- dinophysistoxin --- Japanese scallop --- dinophysis --- LC/MS/MS --- statistical analysis --- Dinophysis --- HAB monitoring --- DSP toxins --- aquaculture --- shellfish toxicity --- human health --- time-series --- seasonality --- Scotland --- DSP toxins --- bivalves --- mussel --- resistance --- RNA-Seq --- qPCR --- metabolism --- defense --- immunity --- DSP toxins --- pectenotoxins --- Dinophysis acuminata --- Mesodinium rubrum --- bacterial community --- high throughput sequencing --- diarrhetic shellfish toxins --- Dinophysis --- wild harvest --- bivalve shellfish --- pipis (Plebidonax deltoides) --- Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) --- okadaic acid --- pectenotoxins --- Dinophysis toxins --- accumulation --- digestion --- biotransformation --- compartmentalization --- depuration --- kinetics --- Dinophysis --- diarrhetic shellfish poisoning --- marine toxins --- pectenotoxin --- okadaic acid --- dinophysistoxin --- okadaic acid --- pectenotoxins --- Dinophysis --- D. acuminata-complex --- D. caudata --- Argopecten purpuratus --- Dinophysis --- Mesodinium --- cryptophytes --- predator-prey preferences --- Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins (DST) --- pectenotoxins (PTXs) --- mixotrophic cultures --- mass culture conditions --- Dinophysis acuminata --- Protoceratium reticulatum --- Reloncaví Fjord --- OMI analysis --- WitOMI analysis --- Mesodinium cf. rubrum --- El Niño Southern Oscillation --- Southern Annual Mode --- Dinophysis acuta --- Dinophysis acuminata --- DSP --- physical–biological interactions --- niche partitioning --- climatic anomaly --- Dinophysis acuminata --- Mesodinium rubrum --- lysate --- organic matter --- diarrhetic shellfish poisoning --- okadaic acid --- dinophysistoxin --- pectenotoxins --- dinophysis --- DSP --- toxins --- OA --- DTX-2 --- PTXs --- Dinophysis acuminata --- dinophysistoxins --- pectenotoxins --- Port Underwood --- New Zealand --- Dinophysis --- Diarrhetic shellfish toxins --- marine biotoxins --- blooms --- n/a

Metal Metabolism in Animals

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ISBN: 9783038428435 9783038428442 Year: Pages: X, 356 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-20 14:25:48
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Through evolution of life, animals have adapted to the ubiquitous presence of metals in the biosphere. They utilize the more frequent ones as essential constituents of their biochemical machinery. In fact, about 40% of all proteins present in animal cells are so-called metalloproteins. On the other hand, animals have invented regulatory and detoxifying mechanisms to protect themselves from critical concentrations of both essential and non-essential metal concentrations. Metallomics is a modern approach applying cellular, biochemical, molecular and analytical methods to investigate the relationships of metals in their cellular context. The present edition contains a number of original articles and reviews dealing with various aspects of metallomics in animals, published as Special Issues of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences in 2016 and 2017. The book addresses subjects such as metal definition in biology, metabolism of metals in invertebrate and vertebrate animals, metal detoxification and regulation strategies, supplementation of essential trace elements, metal behavior in pregnancy and embryonic development, as well as metal toxicology and emerging medical implications.

Molecular Mechanisms and Genetics of Plant Resistance to Abiotic Stress

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ISBN: 9783039281220 9783039281237 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-123-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Plant Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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We are currently experiencing a climate crisis that is associated with extreme weather events worldwide. Some of its most noticeable effects are increases in temperatures, droughts, and desertification. These effects are already making whole regions unsuitable for agriculture. Therefore, we urgently need global measures to mitigate the effects of climate breakdown as well as crop alternatives that are more stress-resilient. These crop alternatives can come from breeding new varieties of well-established crops, such as wheat and barley. They can also come from promoting underutilized crop species that are naturally tolerant to some stresses, such as quinoa. Either way, we need to gather more knowledge on how plants respond to stresses related to climate breakdown, such as heat, water-deficit, flooding high salinity, nitrogen, and heavy metal stress. This Special Issue provides a timely collection of recent advances in the understanding of plant responses to these stresses. This information will definitely be useful to the design of new strategies to prevent the loss of more cultivable land and to reclaim the land that has already been declared unsuitable.

Preservation of Cultural Heritage and Resources Threatened by Climate Change

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ISBN: 9783039211241 9783039211258 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-125-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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With its wide spectrum of data, case studies, monitoring, and experimental and numerical simulation techniques, the multidisciplinary approach of material, environmental, and computer science applied to the conservation of cultural heritage offers several opportunities for the heritage science and conservation community to map and monitor state-of-the-art knowledge on natural and human-induced climate change impacts on cultural heritage—mainly constituted by the built environment—in Europe and Latin America. Geosciences’ Special Issue titled “Preservation of Cultural Heritage and Resources Threatened by Climate Change” was launched to take stock of the existing but still fragmentary knowledge on this challenge, and to enable the community to respond to the implementation of the Paris agreement. These 10 papers exploit a broad range of data derived from preventive conservation monitoring conducted indoors in museums, churches, historical buildings, or outdoors in archeological sites and city centers. Case studies presented in the papers focus on a well-assorted sample of decay phenomena occurring on heritage materials (e.g., surface recession and biomass accumulation on limestone, depositions of pollutant on marble, salt weathering on inorganic building materials, and weathering processes on mortars in many local- to regional-scale study areas in the Scandinavian Peninsula, the United Kingdom, Belgium, France, Italy, Greece, and Panama). Besides monitoring, the methodological approaches showcased include, but are not limited to, original material characterization, decay product characterization, and climate and numerical modelling on material components for assessing environmental impact and climate change effects.

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