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Dynamics of decision making: from evidence to preference and belief

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192700 Year: Pages: 259 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-270-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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At the core of the many debates throughout cognitive science concerning how decisions are made are the processes governing the time course of preference formation and decision. From perceptual choices, such as whether the signal on a radar screen indicates an enemy missile or a spot on a CT scan indicates a tumor, to cognitive value-based decisions, such as selecting an agreeable flatmate or deciding the guilt of a defendant, significant and everyday decisions are dynamic over time. Phenomena such as decoy effects, preference reversals and order effects are still puzzling researchers. For example, in a legal context, jurors receive discrete pieces of evidence in sequence, and must integrate these pieces together to reach a singular verdict. From a standard Bayesian viewpoint the order in which people receive the evidence should not influence their final decision, and yet order effects seem a robust empirical phenomena in many decision contexts. Current research on how decisions unfold, especially in a dynamic environment, is advancing our theoretical understanding of decision making. This Research Topic aims to review and further explore the time course of a decision - from how prior beliefs are formed to how those beliefs are used and updated over time, towards the formation of preferences and choices and post-decision processes and effects. Research literatures encompassing varied approaches to the time-scale of decisions will be brought into scope: a) Speeded decisions (and post-decision processes) that require the accumulation of noisy and possibly non-stationary perceptual evidence (e.g., randomly moving dots stimuli), within a few seconds, with or without temporal uncertainty. b) Temporally-extended, value-based decisions that integrate feedback values (e.g., gambling machines) and internally-generated decision criteria (e.g., when one switches attention, selectively, between the various aspects of several choice alternatives). c) Temporally extended, belief-based decisions that build on the integration of evidence, which interacts with the decision maker's belief system, towards the updating of the beliefs and the formation of judgments and preferences (as in the legal context). Research that emphasizes theoretical concerns (including optimality analysis) and mechanisms underlying the decision process, both neural and cognitive, is presented, as well as research that combines experimental and computational levels of analysis.

From soil to seed: micronutrient movement into and within the plant

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193516 Year: Pages: 193 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-351-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Medicine (General) --- Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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In all living organisms, essential micronutrients are cofactors of many ubiquitous proteins that participate in crucial metabolic pathways, but can also be toxic when present in excessive concentrations. In order to achieve correct homeostasis, plants need to control uptake of metals from the environment, their distribution to organs and tissues, and their subcellular compartmentalization. They also have to avoid deleterious accumulation of metals and metalloids such as Cd, As and Al. These multiple steps are controlled by their transport across various membrane structures and their storage in different organelles. Thus, integration of these transport systems required for micronutrient trafficking within the plant is necessary for physiological processes to work efficiently. To cope with the variable availability of micronutrients, plants have evolved an intricate collection of physiological and developmental processes, which are under tight control of short- and long-range signaling pathways. Understanding how plants perceive and deal with different micronutrient concentrations, from regulation to active transport, is important to completing the puzzle of plant metal homeostasis. This is an essential area of research, with several implications for plant biology, agriculture and human nutrition. There is a rising interest in developing plants that efficiently mobilize specific metals and prosper in soils with limited micronutrient availability, as well as those that can selectively accumulate beneficial micronutrients in the edible parts while avoiding contaminants such as Cd and As. However, there is still an important gap in our understanding of how nutrients reach the seeds and the relative contribution of each step in the long pathway from the rhizosphere to the seed. Possible rate-limiting steps for micronutrient accumulation in grains should be the primary targets of biotechnological interventions aiming at biofortification. Over the last 10 years, many micronutrient uptake- and transport-related processes have been identified at the molecular and physiological level. The systematic search for mutants and transcriptional responses has allowed analysis of micronutrient-signaling pathways at the cellular level, whereas physiological approaches have been particularly useful in describing micronutrient-signaling processes at the organ and whole-plant level. Large-scale elemental profiling using high-throughput analytical methodologies and their integration with both bioinformatics and genetic tools, along with metal speciation, have been used to decipher the functions of genes that control micronutrients homeostasis. In this research topic, we will follow the pathway of metal movement from the soil to the seed and describe the suggested roles of identified gene products in an effort to understand how plants acquire micronutrients from the soil, how they partition among different tissues and subcellular organelles, and how they regulate their deficiency and overload responses. We also highlight the current work on heavy metals and metalloids uptake and accumulation, the studies on metal selectivity in transporters and the cross-talk between micro and macronutrients. Thus, we believe a continued dialogue and sharing of ideas amongst plant scientists is critical to a better understanding of metal movement into and within the plant.

The Politics of Inclusive Development: Interrogating the Evidence

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9780198788829 9780198722564 Year: Pages: 416 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198722564.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: Manchester University
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-27 11:01:17
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It is now widely accepted that politics plays a significant role in shaping the possibilities for inclusive development. However, the specific ways in which this happens across different types and forms of development, and in different contexts, remains poorly understood. This collection provides the state of the art review regarding what is currently known about the politics of inclusive development. Leading academics offer systematic reviews of how politics shapes development across multiple dimensions, including through growth, natural resource governance, poverty reduction, service delivery, social protection, justice systems, the empowerment of marginalized groups, and the role of both traditional and non-traditional donors. The book not only provides a comprehensive update but also a groundbreaking range of new directions for thinking and acting around these issues. The book’s originality thus derives not only from the wide scope of its case-study material, but also from the new conceptual approaches it offers for thinking about the politics of inclusive development, and the innovative and practical suggestions for donors, policymakers, and practitioners that flow from this.

Social Capital Online

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Book Series: Critical Digital and Social Media Studies ISBN: 9781911534570 9781911534563 9781911534570 9781911534587 9781911534594 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.16997/book16 Language: English
Publisher: University of Westminster Press
Subject: Economics --- Sociology --- Social Sciences --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:39
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"What is ‘social capital’? The enormous positivity surrounding it conceals the instrumental economic rationality underpinning the notion as corporations silently sell consumer data for profit. Status chasing is just one aspect of a process of transforming qualitative aspects of social interactions into quantifiable metrics for easier processing, prediction, and behavioural shaping.

A work of critical media studies, Social Capital Online examines the idea within the new ‘network spectacle’ of digital capitalism via the ideas of Marx, Veblen, Debord, Baudrillard and Deleuze. Explaining how such phenomena as online narcissism and aggression arise, Faucher offers a new theoretical understanding of how the spectacularisation of online activity perfectly aligns with the value system of neoliberalism and its data worship. Even so, at the centre of all, lie familiar ideas – alienation and accumulation – new conceptions of which he argues are vital for understanding today’s digital society."

Plant Silicon Interactions between Organisms and the Implications for Ecosystems

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451029 Year: Pages: 84 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-102-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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In this Frontiers topic, we explore how the functions and fates of plant silicon interact with other organisms and ecosystem processes. By bringing together new data from multiple disciplines and scales, we present a cross-section of novel explorations into how plants use silicon and the implications for agriculture and ecosystems. Key aims in this field are to understand the determinants of plant silicon uptake and cycling, and the benefits that silicon uptake confers on plants, including reducing the impacts of stresses such as herbivory. Current research explores inter-specific interactions, including co-evolutionary relationships between plant silicon and animals, particularly morphological adaptations, behavioural responses and the potential for plant silicon to regulate mammal populations. Another emerging area of research is understanding silicon fluxes in soils and vegetation communities and scaling this up to better understand the global silicon cycle. New methods for measuring plant silicon are contributing to progress in this field. Silicon could help plants mitigate some effects of climate change through alleviation of biotic and abiotic stress and silicon is a component of some carbon sinks. Therefore, understanding the role of plant silicon across ecological, agricultural and biogeochemical disciplines is increasingly important in the context of global environmental change.

Des barbelés dans la Sierra : Origines et transformations d'un système agraire au Mexique

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ISBN: 9782709924634 DOI: 10.4000/books.irdeditions.14700 Language: French
Publisher: IRD Éditions
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-31 11:25:14
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Les transformations de l'agriculture dans l'une des régions de la Sierra Madre del Sur, au sud-ouest de l'État du Michoacán (Mexique), illustrent tout un pan de l'histoire agraire mexicaine. Le peuplement et l'histoire agraire de la région trouvent leur origine dans une longue migration paysanne commencée dès la fin du xixe siècle. Au gré des déplacements d'un « front pionnier » sans cesse instable, les métayers d'un moment deviennent des propriétaires-rancheros : petites gens de la culture du maïs sur brûlis. La chance aidant, ils se transforment en éleveurs-possesseurs de bétail et, du même coup, en dépossesseurs de terres indiennes. Dans un mouvement comparable à un jeu de pousse-pousse, des métayers promus en propriétaires sécrètent de nouveaux métayers n'ayant d'autres fins que de devenir, à leur tour, des propriétaires. Pour tous, quelles que soient les origines sociales, le chemin à parcourir et les moyens pour y parvenir, l'objectif est le même : s'installer comme éleveur sur ses propres terres. L'étude des systèmes de production, de leurs origines et de leurs transformations mesure les conséquences de la spécialisation régionale assignée à la Sierra Madre del Sur : une monoproduction de jeunes bovins destinés à être engraissés dans d'autres régions. Restent, au bout du chemin, les collectivités indiennes de la côte du Pacifique dont on spolie aujourd'hui les terres de la même manière que le faisaient, au xvie siècle, les premiers Européens. Cette ultime « réduction » des communautés indiennes est une conséquence de la nouvelle division du travail qui entraîne un processus de différenciation sociale accélérée.

Metal Metabolism in Animals

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ISBN: 9783038428435 9783038428442 Year: Pages: X, 356 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-20 14:25:48
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Through evolution of life, animals have adapted to the ubiquitous presence of metals in the biosphere. They utilize the more frequent ones as essential constituents of their biochemical machinery. In fact, about 40% of all proteins present in animal cells are so-called metalloproteins. On the other hand, animals have invented regulatory and detoxifying mechanisms to protect themselves from critical concentrations of both essential and non-essential metal concentrations. Metallomics is a modern approach applying cellular, biochemical, molecular and analytical methods to investigate the relationships of metals in their cellular context. The present edition contains a number of original articles and reviews dealing with various aspects of metallomics in animals, published as Special Issues of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences in 2016 and 2017. The book addresses subjects such as metal definition in biology, metabolism of metals in invertebrate and vertebrate animals, metal detoxification and regulation strategies, supplementation of essential trace elements, metal behavior in pregnancy and embryonic development, as well as metal toxicology and emerging medical implications.

Salinity Tolerance in Plants

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ISBN: 9783039210268 / 9783039210275 Year: Pages: 422 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-027-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 10:09:00
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Salt stress is one of the most damaging abiotic stresses because most crop plants are susceptible to salinity to different degrees. According to the FAO, about 800 million Has of land are affected by salinity worldwide. Unfortunately, this situation will worsen in the context of climate change, where there will be an overall increase in temperature and a decrease in average annual rainfall worldwide. This Special Issue presents different research works and reviews on the response of plants to salinity, focused from different points of view: physiological, biochemical, and molecular levels. Although an important part of the studies on the response to salinity have been carried out with Arabidopsis plants, the use of other species with agronomic interest is also notable, including woody plants. Most of the conducted studies in this Special Issue were focused on the identification and characterization of candidate genes for salt tolerance in higher plants. This identification would provide valuable information about the molecular and genetic mechanisms involved in the salt tolerance response, and it also supplies important resources to breeding programs for salt tolerance in plants.

Keywords

Arabidopsis --- Brassica napus --- ion homeostasis --- melatonin --- NaCl stress --- nitric oxide --- redox homeostasis --- Chlamydomonas reinhardtii --- bZIP transcription factors --- salt stress --- transcriptional regulation --- photosynthesis --- lipid accumulation --- Apocyni Veneti Folium --- salt stress --- multiple bioactive constituents --- physiological changes --- multivariate statistical analysis --- banana (Musa acuminata L.) --- ROP --- genome-wide identification --- abiotic stress --- salt stress --- MaROP5g --- rice --- genome-wide association study --- salt stress --- germination --- natural variation --- Chlamydomonas reinhardtii --- salt stress --- transcriptome analysis --- impairment of photosynthesis --- underpinnings of salt stress responses --- chlorophyll fluorescence --- J8-1 plum line --- mandelonitrile --- Prunus domestica --- redox signalling --- salicylic acid --- salt-stress --- soluble nutrients --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- VOZ --- transcription factor --- salt stress --- transcriptional activator --- chlorophyll fluorescence --- lipid peroxidation --- Na+ --- photosynthesis --- photosystem --- RNA binding protein --- nucleolin --- salt stress --- photosynthesis --- light saturation point --- booting stage --- transcriptome --- grapevine --- salt stress --- ROS detoxification --- phytohormone --- transcription factors --- Arabidopsis --- CDPK --- ion homeostasis --- NMT --- ROS --- salt stress --- antioxidant enzymes --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- ascorbate cycle --- hydrogen peroxide --- reactive oxygen species --- salinity --- SnRK2 --- RNA-seq --- DEUs --- flax --- NaCl stress --- EST-SSR --- Salt stress --- Oryza sativa --- proteomics --- iTRAQ quantification --- cell membrane injury --- root activity --- antioxidant systems --- ion homeostasis --- melatonin --- salt stress --- signal pathway --- SsMAX2 --- Sapium sebiferum --- drought, osmotic stress --- salt stress --- redox homeostasis --- strigolactones --- ABA --- TGase --- photosynthesis --- salt stress --- polyamines --- cucumber --- abiotic stresses --- high salinity --- HKT1 --- halophytes --- glycophytes --- poplars (Populus) --- salt tolerance --- molecular mechanisms --- SOS --- ROS --- Capsicum annuum L. --- CaDHN5 --- salt stress --- osmotic stress --- dehydrin --- Gossypium arboretum --- salt tolerance --- single nucleotide polymorphisms --- association mapping. --- n/a

Application of the China Meteorological Assimilation Driving Datasets for the SWAT Model (CMADS) in East Asia

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ISBN: 9783039212354 / 9783039212361 Year: Pages: 384 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-236-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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To promote scientific understanding of surface processes in East Asia, we have published details of the CMADS dataset in the journal, Water, and expect that users around the world will learn about CMADS datasets while promoting the development of hydrometeorological disciplines in East Asia. We hope and firmly believe that scientific development in East Asia and our understanding of this typical region will be further advanced.

Keywords

East Asia --- CMADS --- meteorological input uncertainty --- hydrological modelling --- SWAT --- non-point source pollution models --- CMADS --- Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (TP) --- SWAT --- CFSR --- TRMM --- PERSIANN --- PERSIANN-CDR --- CMADS --- satellite-derived rainfall --- streamflow simulation --- SWAT --- Han River --- GLUE --- hydrological model --- ParaSol --- SUFI2 --- uncertainty analysis --- SWAT model --- CMADS --- Lijiang River --- runoff --- uncertainty analysis --- hydrological elements --- statistical analysis --- SWAT --- CMADS --- climate variability --- land use change --- streamflow --- potential evapotranspiration --- Penman-Monteith --- CMADS --- China --- CMADS dataset --- parameter sensitivity --- SUFI-2 --- Yellow River --- reanalysis products --- satellite-based products --- hydrological model --- bayesian model averaging --- Xiang River basin --- total nitrogen --- accumulation --- SWAT model --- CMADS --- Biliuhe reservoir --- CMADS --- SWAT --- East Asia --- meteorological --- hydrological --- precipitation --- TMPA-3B42V7 --- CMADS --- hydrologic model --- uncertainty --- reservoirs --- operation rule --- Noah LSM-HMS --- capacity distribution --- aggregated reservoir --- CMADS --- CMADS --- IMERG --- statistical analysis --- SWAT hydrological simulation --- Jinsha River Basin --- blue and green water flows --- climate variability --- sensitivity analysis --- Erhai Lake Basin --- CMADS --- SWAT --- JBR --- soil moisture --- hydrological processes --- spatio-temporal --- sloping black soil farmland --- soil moisture content --- freeze–thaw period --- soil temperature --- CMADS-ST --- reservoir parameters --- runoff --- CMADS --- SWAT --- Yalong River --- CMADS --- impact --- hydrological modeling --- SWAT --- runoff --- sediment yield --- land-use change --- SWAT --- CMADS

Plant Genetics and Molecular Breeding

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ISBN: 9783039211753 / 9783039211760 Year: Pages: 628 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-176-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The development of new plant varieties is a long and tedious process involving the generation of large seedling populations for the selection of the best individuals. While the ability of breeders to generate large populations is almost unlimited, the selection of these seedlings is the main factor limiting the generation of new cultivars. Molecular studies for the development of marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategies are particularly useful when the evaluation of the character is expensive, time-consuming, or with long juvenile periods. The papers published in the Special Issue “Plant Genetics and Molecular Breeding” report highly novel results and testable new models for the integrative analysis of genetic (phenotyping and transmission of agronomic characters), physiology (flowering, ripening, organ development), genomic (DNA regions responsible for the different agronomic characters), transcriptomic (gene expression analysis of the characters), proteomic (proteins and enzymes involved in the expression of the characters), metabolomic (secondary metabolites), and epigenetic (DNA methylation and histone modifications) approaches for the development of new MAS strategies. These molecular approaches together with an increasingly accurate phenotyping will facilitate the breeding of new climate-resilient varieties resistant to abiotic and biotic stress, with suitable productivity and quality, to extend the adaptation and viability of the current varieties.

Keywords

sugarcane --- cry2A gene --- particle bombardment --- stem borer --- resistance --- NPK fertilizers --- agronomic traits --- molecular markers --- quantitative trait loci --- common wild rice --- Promoter --- Green tissue-specific expression --- light-induced --- transgenic chrysanthemum --- WRKY transcription factor --- salt stress --- gene expression --- DgWRKY2 --- Cucumis sativus L. --- RNA-Seq --- DEGs --- sucrose --- ABA --- drought stress --- Aechmea fasciata --- squamosa promoter binding protein-like --- flowering time --- plant architecture --- bromeliad --- Oryza sativa --- endosperm development --- rice quality --- WB1 --- the modified MutMap method --- abiotic stress --- Cicer arietinum --- candidate genes --- genetics --- heat-stress --- molecular breeding --- metallothionein --- Brassica --- Brassica napus --- As3+ stress --- broccoli --- cytoplasmic male sterile --- bud abortion --- gene expression --- transcriptome --- RNA-Seq --- sesame --- genome-wide association study --- yield --- QTL --- candidate gene --- cabbage --- yellow-green-leaf mutant --- recombination-suppressed region --- bulk segregant RNA-seq --- differentially expressed genes --- marker–trait association --- haplotype block --- genes --- root traits --- D-genome --- genotyping-by-sequencing --- single nucleotide polymorphism --- durum wheat --- bread wheat --- complex traits --- Brassica oleracea --- Ogura-CMS --- iTRAQ --- transcriptome --- pollen development --- rice --- OsCDPK1 --- seed development, starch biosynthesis --- endosperm appearance --- Chimonanthus praecox --- nectary --- floral scent --- gene expression --- Prunus --- flowering --- bisulfite sequencing --- genomics --- epigenetics --- breeding --- AP2/ERF genes --- Bryum argenteum --- transcriptome --- gene expression --- stress tolerance --- SmJMT --- transgenic --- Salvia miltiorrhiza --- overexpression --- transcriptome --- phenolic acids --- Idesia polycarpa var --- glycine --- FAD2 --- linoleic acid --- oleic acid --- anther wall --- tapetum --- pollen accumulation --- OsGPAT3 --- rice --- cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) --- phytohormones --- differentially expressed genes --- pollen development --- Brassica napus --- Rosa rugosa --- RrGT2 gene --- Clone --- VIGS --- Overexpression --- Tobacco --- Flower color --- Anthocyanin --- sugarcane --- WRKY --- subcellular localization --- gene expression pattern --- protein-protein interaction --- transient overexpression --- soybean --- branching --- genome-wide association study (GWAS) --- near-isogenic line (NIL) --- BRANCHED1 (BRC1) --- TCP transcription factor --- Zea mays L. --- MADS transcription factor --- ZmES22 --- starch --- flowering time --- gene-by-gene interaction --- Hd1 --- Ghd7 --- rice --- yield trait --- Oryza sativa L. --- leaf shape --- yield trait --- molecular breeding --- hybrid rice --- nutrient use efficiency --- quantitative trait loci (QTLs), molecular markers --- agronomic efficiency --- partial factor productivity --- P. suffruticosa --- R2R3-MYB --- overexpression --- anthocyanin --- transcriptional regulation --- ethylene-responsive factor --- Actinidia deliciosa --- AdRAP2.3 --- gene expression --- waterlogging stress --- regulation --- Chrysanthemum morifolium --- WUS --- CYC2 --- gynomonoecy --- reproductive organ --- flower symmetry --- Hs1pro-1 --- cZR3 --- gene pyramiding --- Heterodera schachtii --- resistance --- tomato --- Elongated Internode (EI) --- QTL --- GA2ox7 --- n/a

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