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H2 Established and Emerging Techniques for Characterising the Formation, Structure and Performance of Calcified Structures under Ocean Acidification (Book chapter)

Book title: Oceanography and Marine Biology

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Ocean Engineering & Oceanography ISBN: 9780367134150 9780429026379 Year: Pages: 40 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-09-11 11:21:03
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Ocean acidification (OA) is the decline in seawater pH and saturation levels of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals that has led to concerns for calcifying organisms such as corals, oysters and mussels because of the adverse effects of OA on their biomineralisation, shells and skeletons. A range of cellular biology, geochemistry and materials science approaches have been used to explore biomineralisation. These techniques have revealed that responses to seawater acidification can be highly variable among species, yet the underlying mechanisms remain largely unresolved. To assess the impacts of global OA, researchers will need to apply a range of tools developed across disciplines, many of which are emerging and have not yet been used in this context. This review outlines techniques that could be applied to study OA-induced alterations in the mechanisms of biomineralisation and their ultimate effects on shells and skeletons. We illustrate how to characterise, quantify and monitor the process of biomineralisation in the context of global climate change and OA. We highlight the basic principles, as well as the advantages and disadvantages, of established, emerging and future techniques for OA researchers. A combination of these techniques will enable a holistic approach and better understanding of the potential impact of OA on biomineralisation and its consequences for marine calcifiers and associated ecosystems.

Effects of Climate Change Across Ocean Regions

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455027 Year: Pages: 169 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-502-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) highlighted that conditions within Earth’s ocean are changing more rapidly than any of the time during the past 65 million years, and as a consequence, major changes are occurring in natural and human systems. While this major report as enhanced our understanding of the complexity of ocean issues, we propose this research topic as an opportunity to expand discussion on past, present and future changes across oceans regions.

The Future of Coral Reefs Subject to Rapid Climate Change: Lessons from Natural Extreme Environments

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457175 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-717-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Examination of corals and reef-associated organisms which endure in extreme coral reef environments is challenging our understanding of the conditions that organisms can survive under. By studying individuals naturally adapted to unfavorable conditions, we begin to better understand the important traits required to survive rapid environmental and climate change. This Research Topic, comprising reviews, and original research articles, demonstrates the current state of knowledge regarding the diversity of extreme coral habitats, the species that have been studied, and the knowledge to-date on the mechanisms, traits and trade-offs that have facilitated survival.

Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species

Author:
ISBN: 9783039215584 / 9783039215591 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-559-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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From the beginning of this century, non-Saccharomyces yeasts have taken increased relevance in wine processing. Several biotechnological companies now produce non-Saccharomyces yeasts at an industrial level to improve aroma or flavor, stabilize wine, produce biological acidification, or conversely metabolize malic acid. Species like Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Kloeckera apiculata, Lachancea thermotolerans, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and several others are common due to the technological applications they have in sensory quality but also in wine ageing and stabilization. Moreover, spoilage non-Saccharomyces yeasts like Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, and Zygosacharomyces bailii are becoming important because of the alterations they are able to produce in high-quality wines. New strategies to control these defective yeasts have been developed to control them without affecting sensory quality. The knowledge of the physiology, ecology, biochemistry, and metabolomics of these yeasts can help to better use them in controlling traditional problems such as low fermentative power, excessive volatile acidity, low implantation under enological conditions, and sensibility to antimicrobial compounds like sulfites traditionally used in wine processing. This Special Issue intends to compile current research and revised information on non-Saccharomyces yeasts with enological applications to facilitate the use and the understanding of this biotechnological tool. In 1 year this SI has globally more than 15kdownloads and produced more than 30 citations.

Keywords

Lachancea thermotolerans --- Kluyveromyces thermotolerans --- acidification --- wines --- sequential fermentations --- non-Saccharomyces --- non-Saccharomyces yeasts --- Wickerhamomyces anomalus --- Pichia anomala --- enzymes --- glycosidases --- acetate esters --- biocontrol --- mixed starters --- wine --- wine --- Zygosaccharomyces rouxii --- re-fermentation --- spoilage-control --- non-Saccharomyces --- high-ethanol --- Schizosaccharomyces pombe --- oenological uses --- maloalcoholic fermentation --- stable pigments --- wine safety --- non-Saccharomyces yeast --- Saccharomycodes ludwigii --- S. ludwigii --- spoilage yeasts’ control --- ageing-on-lees --- non-Saccharomyces --- yeast --- sparkling wine --- nitrogen --- aroma --- Candida stellata --- ecology --- taxonomy --- metabolism --- processing foods --- co-fermentation --- non-Saccharomyces --- genome --- aroma compounds --- anthocyanin --- mixed cultures fermentation --- flavor complexity --- Aureobasidium pullulans --- biotechnological applications --- viticulture --- enzymes --- non-Saccharomyces yeasts --- Torulaspora delbrueckii --- winemaking --- yeast inoculation --- yeast dominance --- wine quality --- genetic improvement --- antimicrobial peptides --- biocontrol --- Brettanomyces bruxellensis --- Candida intermedia --- wine --- off-flavors --- wine acidity --- volatile acidity --- malolactic bacteria --- Lactobacillus plantarum --- Lachancea thermotolerans --- Schizosaccharomyces pombe --- Candida stellate --- Torulaspora delbrueckii --- Zygotorulaspora florentina --- Pichia kudriavzevii --- Stermerella bacillaris --- Metschnikowia pulcherrima --- oenological uses --- enzymes --- stable pigments --- pulcherrimin --- n/a --- n/a

Gas Hydrate: Environmental and Climate Impacts

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039218448 / 9783039218455 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-845-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This Special Issue reports research spanning from the analysis of indirect data, modeling, and laboratory and geological data confirming the intrinsic multidisciplinarity of gas hydrate studies. The study areas are (1) Arctic, (2) Brazil, (3) Chile, and (4) the Mediterranean region. The results furnished an important tessera of the knowledge about the relationship of a gas hydrate system with other complex natural phenomena such as climate change, slope stability and earthquakes, and human activities.

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