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Noise and Vibration Control in the Built Environment

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ISBN: 9783038424215 9783038424208 Year: Pages: XII, 176 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-02 09:49:16
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With global urbanization rapidly rising and the increasing need of high-quality built environments, the requirement of achieving improved sound quality, both for outdoor and indoor environments, has received a lot of attention. This Special Issue collection reflects the current state of the art, with 12 papers covering environmental acoustics; the influence of soundscapes on people’s behavior; soundscape pleasantness estimation; tranquility; perceived quality of sonic environments; sound and vibration-related health complaints concerning tramways; and the disturbance of construction machines; as well as in building and room acoustics, including natural ventilation-enabling façade noise control devices; the effect of external shading devices; rating method of airborne sound insulation; water supply and drainage noise, and the effect of diffusive surfaces in auditoria. Some papers cover research on the engineering aspects of sound and vibration, such as sound propagation and noise control techniques, as well as perception aspects of sound, such as indoor acoustic comfort and environmental soundscapes. The book is prefaced by Prof. S Wu, entitled ‘Sustainable Urban Sound Environment’.

Acoustics of the Vowel - Preliminaries

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ISBN: 9783034320313 Year: Pages: 296 DOI: 10.3726/978-3-0343-2391-8 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group Grant: Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) - OAPEN-CH - 163510
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-08 11:01:17
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It seems as if the fundamentals of how we produce vowels and how they are acoustically represented have been clarified: we phonate and articulate. Using our vocal chords, we produce a vocal sound or noise which is then shaped into a specific vowel sound by the resonances of the pharyngeal, oral, and nasal cavities, that is, the vocal tract. Accordingly, the acoustic description of vowels relates to vowel-specific patterns of relative energy maxima in the sound spectra, known as patterns of formants. The intellectual and empirical reasoning presented in this treatise, however, gives rise to scepticism with respect to this understanding of the sound of the vowel. The reflections and materials presented provide reason to argue that, up to now, a comprehensible theory of the acoustics of the voice and of voiced speech sounds is lacking, and consequently, no satisfying understanding of vowels as an achievement and particular formal accomplishment of the voice exists. Thus, the question of the acoustics of the vowel—and with it the question of the acoustics of the voice itself—proves to be an unresolved fundamental problem.

Keywords

acoustics --- phonetics --- phonology --- vowel --- language

Music and Spirituality

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783038421023 9783038420996 Year: Pages: 208 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Music --- Religion
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-05 16:20:03
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Across time and geography people have known the power of music for evoking the gods and acquiring spiritual insight. Whether arising as a textless chant by a single voice or a percussive auditory context for ritual dance, music in its various modes is a virtually ubiquitous companion to religious and spiritual practices. The apparently intangible, insubstantial nature of sound is one of the reasons why music has so effectively symbolized the mysterious and wholly other since the dawn of creation. Not only an accompaniment to one’s spiritual trek, musical compositions from the great oratorios of Handel to the soundtrack to the movie Lord of the Rings also serve as powerful metaphors and inspirations for that journey.

Multisensory Integration in Action Control

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193127 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-312-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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The integration of multisensory information is an essential mechanism in perception and in controlling actions. Research in multisensory integration is concerned with how the information from the different sensory modalities, such as the senses of vision, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and proprioception, are integrated to a coherent representation of objects. Multisensory integration is central for action control. For instance, when you grasp for a rubber duck, you can see its size and hear the sound it produces. Moreover, identical physical properties of an object can be provided by different senses. You can both see and feel the size of the rubber duck. Even when you grasp for the rubber duck with a tool (e.g. with tongs), the information from the hand, from the effect points of the tool and from the eyes are integrated in a manner to act successfully. Over the recent decade a surge of interest in multisensory integration and action control has been witnessed, especially in connection with the idea that multiple sensory sources are integrated in an optimized way. For this perspective to mature, it will be helpful to delve deeper into the information processing mechanisms and their neural correlates, asking about the range and constraints of this mechanisms, about its localization and involved networks.

Acoustical Impact of Ships and Harbours: Airborne and Underwater N&V Pollution

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457106 Year: Pages: 57 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-710-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Noise and vibrations generated by ships affect a wide range of receivers: crew and passengers inside the vessel, inhabitants of the coastal areas and marine fauna outside it. Recent studies suggest that a large percentage of people living in urban areas close to harbors and a number of marine species, at different evolutionary levels (in particular mammals and cephalopods), suffer from ship N&V emissions in air and in water. The present degree of knowledge of the phenomena involved in the noise emissions inside and outside ships is quite different, as a result also of the time elapsed since the negative effects were realized and therefore studied. The development of the normative framework in the various areas reflects these differences, but there are expectations for improvements on all fronts that need to be supported by the scientific community presenting the latest research results in this particular field of acoustics.

Marine Geomorphometry

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038979548 / 9783038979555 Year: Pages: 400 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-955-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:07
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Geomorphometry is the science of quantitative terrain characterization and analysis, and has traditionally focused on the investigation of terrestrial and planetary landscapes. However, applications of marine geomorphometry have now moved beyond the simple adoption of techniques developed for terrestrial studies, driven by the rise in the acquisition of high-resolution seafloor data and by the availability of user-friendly spatial analytical tools. Considering that the seafloor represents 71% of the surface of our planet, this is an important step towards understanding the Earth in its entirety.This volume is the first one dedicated to marine applications of geomorphometry. It showcases studies addressing the five steps of geomorphometry: sampling a surface (e.g., the seafloor), generating a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) from samples, preprocessing the DTM for subsequent analyses (e.g., correcting for errors and artifacts), deriving terrain attributes and/or extracting terrain features from the DTM, and using and explaining those terrain attributes and features in a given context. Throughout these studies, authors address a range of challenges and issues associated with applying geomorphometric techniques to the complex marine environment, including issues related to spatial scale, data quality, and linking seafloor topography with physical, geological, biological, and ecological processes. As marine geomorphometry becomes increasingly recognized as a sub-discipline of geomorphometry, this volume brings together a collection of research articles that reflect the types of studies that are helping to chart the course for the future of marine geomorphometry.

Keywords

bedforms --- forage fish --- Pacific sand lance --- sediment habitats --- bathymetry --- currents --- seabed mapping --- marine geology --- submarine topography --- marine geomorphology --- terrain analysis --- multibeam echosounder --- bathymetry --- DEM --- satellite imagery --- multi beam echosounder --- filter --- geomorphology --- coral reefs --- Acoustic applications --- object segmentation --- seafloor --- underwater acoustics --- Cretaceous --- Cenomanian–Turonian --- paleobathymetry --- paleoclimate --- paleoceanography --- reconstruction --- simulation --- shelf-slope-rise --- geomorphometry --- GIS --- spatial scale --- spatial analysis --- terrain analysis --- seafloor geomorphometry --- domes --- volcanoes --- digital elevation models (DEMs) --- Canary Basin --- Atlantic Ocean --- cold-water coral --- carbonate mound --- habitat mapping --- spatial prediction --- image segmentation --- geographic object-based image analysis --- random forest --- accuracy --- confidence --- global bathymetry --- Seabed 2030 --- Nippon Foundation/GEBCO --- seafloor mapping technologies --- seafloor mapping standards and protocols --- benthic habitats --- shelf morphology --- eastern Brazilian shelf --- geomorphometry --- terrain analysis --- bathymetry --- surface roughness --- benthic habitat mapping --- python --- geomorphology --- submerged glacial bedforms --- deglaciation --- sedimentation --- multibeam --- acoustic-seismic profiling --- swath geometry --- multibeam spatial resolution --- integration artefacts --- Multibeam bathymetry --- benthic habitat mapping --- multiscale --- Random Forests --- pockmarks --- automated-mapping --- ArcGIS --- Glaciated Margin --- North Sea --- Malin Basin --- Barents Sea --- bathymetry --- thalwegs --- canyons --- Alaska --- Bering Sea --- multibeam sonar --- carbonate banks --- semi-automated mapping --- polychaete --- Northwestern Australia --- Oceanic Shoals Australian Marine Park --- Bonaparte Basin --- Timor Sea --- bathymetry --- digital terrain analysis --- geomorphometry --- geomorphology --- habitat mapping --- marine remote sensing

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