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This book reviews current research, including applications of matrices, spaces, and other characteristics. It discusses the application of matrices, which has become an area of great importance in many scientific fields. The theory of row/column determinants of a partial solution to the system of twosided quaternion matrix equations is analyzed. It introduces a matrix that has the exponential function as one of its eigenvectors and realizes that this matrix represents finite difference derivation of vectors on a partition. Mixing problems and the corresponding associated matrices have different structures that deserve to be studied in depth. Special compound magic squares will be considered. Finally, a new type of regular matrix generated by Fibonacci numbers is introduced and we shall investigate its various topological properties.
Physical Sciences, Engineering and Technology  Mathematics  Algebra  Linear Algebra
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This book studies the foundations of quantum theory through its relationship to classical physics. This idea goes back to the Copenhagen Interpretation (in the original version due to Bohr and Heisenberg), which the author relates to the mathematical formalism of operator algebras originally created by von Neumann. The book therefore includes comprehensive appendices on functional analysis and C*algebras, as well as a briefer one on logic, category theory, and topos theory. Matters of foundational as well as mathematical interest that are covered in detail include symmetry (and its "spontaneous" breaking), the measurement problem, the KochenSpecker, Free Will, and Bell Theorems, the KadisonSinger conjecture, quantization, indistinguishable particles, the quantum theory of large systems, and quantum logic, the latter in connection with the topos approach to quantum theory.
Quantum physics  Mathematical physics  Matrix theory  Algebra
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Norway is a leading country in the world when it comes to not prioritizing algebra in school mathematics, the mathematical language many students will need for further education and professions. Analysis of data from TIMSS, TIMSS Advanced and other international comparative studies have concluded that this result is consistent across 20 years of research. Norwegian students perform well in domains such as statistics/data, and alarmingly low in algebra. This conclusion is based on data from all levels in school: Primary school, lower secondary school, upper secondary school, and teacher education. The international studies indicate that East Asian, Eastern European and Latin European countries prioritize algebra more strongly than Norway or other Nordic and Englishspeaking countries. Several of the countries performing well in algebra, also seem to have some sort of balance between teaching algebra and teaching statistics, while there is a huge difference between the student scores on these domains in Norway. It almost seems as though “students learn statistics instead of learning algebra”. The importance of taking into account the type of mathematical content which is tested in different studies before drawing conclusions, is also addressed in the book. For instance, PISA mathematics is compared to TIMSS grade 8 mathematics when it comes to mathematical theory involvement. On the other hand, it is emphasized that it is necessary to have information from different studies to make valid conclusions concerning mathematics in schools. The importance of cooperation between countries all over the world in developing school mathematics, with countries learning from each other, is also discussed. The book is a result of cooperation between researchers at the Department of teacher education and school research (ILS) and the Department of mathematics, both at the University of Oslo, and school teachers in an upper secondary school. The results are discussed from a teacher education perspective, a school teacher perspective and from the perspective of the national curriculum for schools in Norway. Some of the chapters in the book are devoted to going through all the test items in TIMSS Advanced 2015 which can be published, and it is described how these items can be used both by teachers in school and in teacher education at universities.
timms  mathematics  algebra  undervisning  skole  matematikk  education
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Polynomials are well known for their ability to improve their properties and for their applicability in the interdisciplinary fields of engineering and science. Many problems arising in engineering and physics are mathematically constructed by differential equations. Most of these problems can only be solved using special polynomials. Special polynomials and orthonormal polynomials provide a new way to analyze solutions of various equations often encountered in engineering and physical problems. In particular, special polynomials play a fundamental and important role in mathematics and applied mathematics. Until now, research on polynomials has been done in mathematics and applied mathematics only. This book is based on recent results in all areas related to polynomials. Divided into sections on theory and application, this book provides an overview of the current research in the field of polynomials. Topics include cyclotomic and Littlewood polynomials; Descartes' rule of signs; obtaining explicit formulas and identities for polynomials defined by generating functions; polynomials with symmetric zeros; numerical investigation on the structure of the zeros of the qtangent polynomials; investigation and synthesis of robust polynomials in uncertainty on the basis of the root locus theory; pricing basket options by polynomial approximations; and orthogonal expansion in time domain method for solving Maxwell's equations using parallelinginorder scheme.
Physical Sciences, Engineering and Technology  Mathematics  Algebra
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Despite the importance of mathematics in our educational systems little is known about how abstract mathematical thinking emerges. Under the uniting thread of mathematical development, we hope to connect researchers from various backgrounds to provide an integrated view of abstract mathematical cognition. Much progress has been made in the last 20 years on how numeracy is acquired. Experimental psychology has brought to light the fact that numerical cognition stems from spatial cognition. The findings from neuroimaging and single cell recording experiments converge to show that numerical representations take place in the intraparietal sulcus. Further research has demonstrated that supplementary neural networks might be recruited to carry out subtasks; for example, the retrieval of arithmetic facts is done by the angular gyrus. Now that the neural networks in charge of basic mathematical cognition are identified, we can move onto the stage where we seek to understand how these basics skills are used to support the acquisition and use of abstract mathematical concepts.
Mathematical Cognition  abstract  algebra  Arithmetic  Expertise  development  Neuroimaging  gifted  numerosity
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Since the end of the 19th century when the prominent Norwegian mathematician Sophus Lie created the theory of Lie algebras and Lie groups and developed the method of their applications for solving differential equations, his theory and method have continuously been the research focus of many wellknown mathematicians and physicists. This book is devoted to recent development in Lie theory and its applications for solving physically and biologically motivated equations and models. The book contains the articles published in two Special Issue of the journal Symmetry, which are devoted to analysis and classification of Lie algebras, which are invariance algebras of realword models; Lie and conditional symmetry classification problems of nonlinear PDEs; the application of symmetrybased methods for finding new exact solutions of nonlinear PDEs (especially reactiondiffusion equations) arising in applications; the application of the Lie method for solving nonlinear initial and boundaryvalue problems (especially those for modelling processes with diffusion, heat transfer, and chemotaxis).
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The YangBaxter equation first appeared in theoretical physics, in a paper by the Nobel laureate C.N. Yang and in the work of R.J. Baxter in the field of Statistical Mechanics. At the 1990 International Mathematics Congress, Vladimir Drinfeld, Vaughan F. R. Jones, and Edward Witten were awarded Fields Medals for their work related to the YangBaxter equation. It turned out that this equation is one of the basic equations in mathematical physics; more precisely, it is used for introducing the theory of quantum groups. It also plays a crucial role in: knot theory, braided categories, the analysis of integrable systems, noncommutative descent theory, quantum computing, noncommutative geometry, etc. Many scientists have used the axioms of various algebraic structures (quasitriangular Hopf algebras, YetterDrinfeld categories, quandles, group actions, Lie (super)algebras, brace structures, (co)algebra structures, Jordan triples, Boolean algebras, relations on sets, etc.) or computer calculations (and Grobner bases) in order to produce solutions for the YangBaxter equation. However, the full classification of its solutions remains an open problem. At present, the study of solutions of the YangBaxter equation attracts the attention of a broad circle of scientists. The current volume highlights various aspects of the YangBaxter equation, related algebraic structures, and applications.
Quantum Group  YangBaxter equation  Hopf algebra  Rmatrix  Lie algebra  braided category  duality  sixvertex model  startriangle relation  quantum integrability  braid group  quasitriangular structure  quantum projective space  bundle
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"It is increasingly clear that the shapes of reality – whether of the natural world, or of the built environment – are in some profound sense mathematical. Therefore it would benefit students and educated adults to understand what makes mathematics itself ‘tick’, and to appreciate why its shapes, patterns and formulae provide us with precisely the language we need to make sense of the world around us. The second part of this challenge may require some specialist experience, but the authors of this book concentrate on the first part, and explore the extent to which elementary mathematics allows us all to understand something of the nature of mathematics from the inside.The Essence of Mathematics consists of a sequence of 270 problems – with commentary and full solutions. The reader is assumed to have a reasonable grasp of school mathematics. More importantly, s/he should want to understand something of mathematics beyond the classroom, and be willing to engage with (and to reflect upon) challenging problems that highlight the essence of the discipline.The book consists of six chapters of increasing sophistication (Mental Skills; Arithmetic; Word Problems; Algebra; Geometry; Infinity), with interleaved commentary. The content will appeal to students considering further study of mathematics at university, teachers of mathematics at age 1418, and anyone who wants to see what this kind of elementary content has to tell us about how mathematics really works."
Mathematics  Elementary Problems  make sense of the world  mathematics beyond the classroom  Mental Skills  Arithmetic  Word Problems  Algebra  Geometry  Infinity
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Following the tremendous reception of our first volume on topological groups called ""Topological Groups: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow"", we now present our second volume. Like the first volume, this collection contains articles by some of the best scholars in the world on topological groups. A feature of the first volume was surveys, and we continue that tradition in this volume with three new surveys. These surveys are of interest not only to the expert but also to those who are less experienced. Particularly exciting to active researchers, especially young researchers, is the inclusion of over three dozen open questions. This volume consists of 11 papers containing many new and interesting results and examples across the spectrum of topological group theory and related topics. Wellknown researchers who contributed to this volume include Taras Banakh, Michael Megrelishvili, Sidney A. Morris, Saharon Shelah, George A. Willis, O'lga V. Sipacheva, and Stephen Wagner.
descriptive set theory  polish group topologies  rightangled Artin groups  topological group  paratopological group  topological semigroup  absolutely closed topological group  topological group of compact exponent  locally compact group  endomorphism  scale  tree  Neretin’s group  Thompson’s group  padic Lie group  large set in a group  vast set  syndetic set  thick set  piecewise syndetic set  Boolean topological group  arrow ultrafilter  Ramsey ultrafilter  coarse structure  coarse space  ballean  varieties of coarse spaces  space of closed subgroups  Chabauty topology  Vietoris topology  Bourbaki uniformity  Gromov’s compactification  group representation  matrix coefficient  semigroup compactification  tame function  dynamical system  continuous inverse algebra  character  maximal ideal  fixed point algebra  extension  pseudocompact  strongly pseudocompact  pcompact  selectively sequentially pseudocompact  pseudo?bounded  nontrivial convergent sequence  separable  free precompact Boolean group  reflexive group  maximal space  ultrafilter space  topological group  Lie group  compact topological semigroup  Hspace  mapping cylinder  fibre bundle  separable topological group  subgroup  product  isomorphic embedding  quotient group  free topological group
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The last few years have been characterized by a tremendous development of quantum information and probability and their applications, including quantum computing, quantum cryptography, and quantum random generators. In spite of the successful development of quantum technology, its foundational basis is still not concrete and contains a few sandy and shaky slices. Quantum random generators are one of the most promising outputs of the recent quantum information revolution. Therefore, it is very important to reconsider the foundational basis of this project, starting with the notion of irreducible quantum randomness. Quantum probabilities present a powerful tool to model uncertainty. Interpretations of quantum probability and foundational meaning of its basic tools, starting with the Born rule, are among the topics which will be covered by this issue. Recently, quantum probability has started to play an important role in a few areas of research outside quantum physics—in particular, quantum probabilistic treatment of problems of theory of decision making under uncertainty. Such studies are also among the topics of this issue.
quantum logic  groups  partially defined algebras  quasigroups  viable cultures  quantum information theory  bit commitment  protocol  entropy  entanglement  orthogonality  quantum computation  Gram–Schmidt process  quantum probability  potentiality  complementarity  uncertainty relations  Copenhagen interpretation  indefiniteness  indeterminism  causation  randomness  quantum information  quantum dynamics  entanglement  algebra  causality  geometry  probability  quantum information theory  realism  reality  entropy  correlations  qubits  probability representation  Bayes’ formula  quantum entanglement  threequbit random states  entanglement classes  entanglement polytope  anisotropic invariants  quantum random number  vacuum state  maximization of quantum conditional minentropy  quantum logics  quantum probability  holistic semantics  epistemic operations  Bell inequalities  algorithmic complexity  Borel normality  Bayesian inference  model selection  random numbers  quantumlike models  operational approach  information interpretation of quantum theory  social laser  social energy  quantum information field  social atom  Bose–Einstein statistics  bandwagon effect  social thermodynamics  resonator of social laser  master equation for socioinformation excitations  quantum contextuality  Kochen–Specker sets  MMP hypergraphs  Greechie diagrams  quantum foundations  probability  irreducible randomness  random number generators  quantum technology  entanglement  quantumlike models for social stochasticity  contextuality
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