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Parochial Altruism: Pitfalls and Prospects

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199457 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-945-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Abstract

A number of recent influential publications have promoted the idea that the high levels of altruism and violent intergroup conflicts observed in humans might be the result of a joint evolution of behavioral traits causing cooperativeness among group members ('in-group love') and spite and aggression between members of different groups ('out-group hate'). This hypothesis, dating back to Darwin himself, has been dubbed 'parochial altruism'. While much empirical evidence has been collected which shows that humans readily condition their social behaviors on their conspecifics' group membership, a number of important questions still remain unanswered. These include: Which selective mechanisms are at work in the suggested co-evolution of in-group love and out-group hate: individual selection, kin selection, sexual selection? When and why does altruism become parochial? When and why can parochialism be altruistic? How does parochial altruism fare in comparison to other explanatory approaches to the question of why humans are altruistic and why they are collectively aggressive? Did human prehistory really offer the conditions required for parochial altruism to evolve? Is parochial altruism universal across situational contexts and cultures? Which factors can explain individual differences in parochial altruism? This Research Topic brings together current interdisciplinary works on the topic. Lab and field experiments using different methods critically investigate the antecedents, forms, and consequences of parochial altruism. As such, the Research Topic contributes to close some important research gaps but also provides an overview of the diverse methods for studying parochial altruism across scientific disciplines.

Metaphysical Conflict. A Study of the Major Novels of Ivan Turgenev

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Book Series: Slavistische Beitraege ISBN: 9783876904771 Year: Pages: 186 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:31:48
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Written between 1855 and 1862, the four novels "Rudin", "A Nest o f the Gentry", "On the Eve" and "Fathers and Sons" are generally recognised as Turgenev's most notable contribution to Russian and world literature. Are they primarily social chronicles, as Turgenev suggested, or are they rather to be seen as celebrations of life, of the beauty of love and youthful idealism? Are they paens to the nobility of the human spirit or ironic comments on human folly? The same questions are addressed in the present study, but the question with which it is principally concerned is that of the novels' essential character.

Public Choice

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ISBN: 9783039212712 / 9783039212729 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-272-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Interest in politics and the political process—topics that economists consider to be the purview of the sub-field of study known as public choice—appears to be as high as ever. This Special Issue aims to provide a collection of high-quality studies covering many of the varied topics traditionally investigated in the growing field of public choice economics. These include expressive and instrumental voting, checks and balances in the enforcement of rules, electoral disproportionality, foreign aid and political freedom, voting cycles, (in)stability of political ideology, federal spending on environmental goods, pork-barrel and general appropriations spending, politics and taxpayer funding for professional sports arenas, and political scandal and “friends-and-neighbors” voting in general elections. In bringing these topics together in one place, this Special Issue offers a mix of conceptual/formal and empirical studies in public choice economics.

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