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Laserbasierte Verfahren zur Herstellung hochdichter Peptidarrays

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Book Series: Schriften des Instituts für Mikrostrukturtechnik am Karlsruher Institut für Technologie / Hrsg.: Institut für Mikrostrukturtechnik ISSN: 18695183 ISBN: 9783731502227 Year: Volume: 24 Pages: IX, 144 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000041118 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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In this thesis, different laser based methods to produce high density peptide arrays were developed. They use laser radiation to structure special micro particles with amino acids. The particles are heated and fused to a substrate (Combinatorial Laser Fusing) or they are transferred trough a shock wave to another substrate (Combinatorial Laser Transfer). This way, microarrays with up to 1 million spots per cm² are produced whereas the number of chemical coupling cycles is minimized.

The Origin and Evolution of the Genetic Code: 100th Anniversary Year of the Birth of Francis Crick

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ISBN: 9783038427698 9783038427704 Year: Pages: X, 192 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-770-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-06 13:38:32
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The genetic code is one of the greatest discoveries of the 20th century as it is central to life itself. It is the algorithm that connects 64 RNA triplets to 20 amino acids, thus functioning as the Rosetta Stone of molecular biology. Following the discovery of the structure of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953, George Gamow organized the 20-member “RNA Tie Club” to discuss the transmission of information by DNA. Crick, Sydney Brenner, Leslie Barnett, and Richard Watts-Tobin first demonstrated the three bases of DNA code for one amino acid. The decoding of the genetic code was begun by Marshall Nirenberg and Heinrich Matthaei and was completed by Har Gobind Khorana. Then, finally, Brenner, Barnett, Eugene Katz, and Crick placed the last piece of the jigsaw puzzle of life by proving that UGA was a third stop codon. In the mid-1960s, Carl Woese proposed the “stereochemical hypothesis”, which speculated that the genetic code derives from a type of codon–amino acid-pairing interaction. The origin and evolution of the genetic code remains a mystery despite numerous theories and attempts to understand these. In this Special Issue, experts in the field present their thoughts and views on this topic. Because 2016 commemorated the 100th anniversary of the birth of Francis Crick, the Guest Editor of this Special Issue also dedicates all articles included herein to the memory of Francis Crick.

Amino Acids of the Glutamate Family: Functions beyond Primary Metabolism

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199365 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-936-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The life of proteins starts and ends as amino acids. In addition to the primary function as protein building blocks, amino acids serve multiple other purposes to make a plant's life worth living. This is true especially for the amino acids of the glutamate family, namely glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln), proline (Pro) and arginine (Arg), as well as the product of Glu decarboxylation, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Synthesis, accumulation, interconversion and degradation of these five compounds contribute in many ways to the regulation of plant development and to responses to environmental challenges. Glu and Gln hold key positions as entry points and master regulators of nitrogen metabolism in plants, and have a pivotal role in the regulatory interplay between carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Pro and GABA are among the best-studied compatible osmolytes that accumulate in response to water deficit, yet the full range of protective functions is still to be revealed. Arg, with its exceptionally high nitrogen-to-carbon ratio, has long been recognized as a major storage form of organic nitrogen. Most of the enzymes involved in metabolism of the amino acids of the glutamate family in plants have been identified or can be predicted according to similarity with animal or microbial homologues. However, for some of these enzymes the detailed biochemical properties still remain to be determined in order to understand activities in vivo. Additionally, uncertainties regarding the subcellular localization of proteins and especially the lack of knowledge about intracellular transport proteins leave significant gaps in our understanding of the metabolic network connecting Glu, Gln, Pro, GABA and Arg. While anabolic reactions are distributed between the cytosol and chloroplasts, catabolism of the amino acids of the glutamate family takes place in mitochondria and has been implicated in fueling energy-demanding physiological processes such as root elongation, recovery from stress, bolting and pollen tube elongation. Exceeding the metabolic functions, the amino acids of the glutamate family were recently identified as important signaling molecules in plants. Extracellular Glu, GABA and a range of other metabolites trigger responses in plant cells that resemble the actions of Glu and GABA as neurotransmitters in animals. Plant homologues of the Glu-gated ion channels from mammals and protein kinase signaling cascades have been implicated in these responses. Pollen tube growth and guidance depend on GABA signaling and the root architecture is specifically regulated by Glu. GABA and Pro signaling or metabolism were shown to contribute to the orchestration of defense and programmed cell death in response to pathogen attacks. Pro signaling was additionally proposed to regulate developmental processes and especially sexual reproduction. Arg is tightly linked to nitric oxide (NO) production and signaling in plants, although Arg-dependent NO-synthases could still not be identified. Potentially Arg-derived polyamines constitute the missing link between Arg and NO signaling in response to stress. Taken together, the amino acids of the glutamate family emerge as important signaling molecules that orchestrate plant growth and development by integrating the metabolic status of the plant with environmental signals, especially in stressful conditions. This research topic collects contributions from different facets of glutamate family amino acid signaling or metabolism to bring together, and integrate in a comprehensive view the latest advances in our understanding of the multiple functions of Glu-derived amino acids in plants.

Molecular Science for Drug Development and Biomedicine

ISBN: 9783906980836 9783906980843 Year: Pages: 356
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 06:15:53
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With the avalanche of biological sequences generated in the postgenomic age, molecular science is facing an unprecedented challenge, i.e., how to timely utilize the huge amount of data to benefit human beings. Stimulated by such a challenge, a rapid development has taken place in molecular science, particularly in the areas associated with drug development and biomedicine, both experimental and theoretical. The current thematic issue was launched with the focus on the topic of “Molecular Science for Drug Development and Biomedicine”, in hopes to further stimulate more useful techniques and findings from various approaches of molecular science for drug development and biomedicine.

Carbonic Anhydrases and Metabolism

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ISBN: 9783038978008 9783038978015 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-801-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Carbonic anhydrases (CAs; EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes present in all kingdoms of life, as they equilibrate the reaction between three simple but essential chemical species: CO2, bicarbonate, and protons. Discovered more than 80 years ago, in 1933, these enzymes have been extensively investigated due to the biomedical application of their inhibitors, but also because they are an extraordinary example of convergent evolution, with seven genetically distinct CA families that evolved independently in Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. CAs are also among the most efficient enzymes known in nature, due to the fact that the uncatalyzed hydration of CO2 is a very slow process and the physiological demands for its conversion to ionic, soluble species is very high. Inhibition of the CAs has pharmacological applications in many fields, such as antiglaucoma, anticonvulsant, antiobesity, and anticancer agents/diagnostic tools, but is also emerging for designing anti-infectives, i.e., antifungal, antibacterial, and antiprotozoan agents with a novel mechanism of action. Mitochondrial CAs are implicated in de novo lipogenesis, and thus selective inhibitors of such enzymes may be useful for the development of new antiobesity drugs. As tumor metabolism is diverse compared to that of normal cells, ultimately, relevant contributions on the role of the tumor-associated isoforms CA IX and XII in these phenomena have been published and the two isoforms have been validated as novel antitumor/antimetastatic drug targets, with antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors in various stages of clinical development. CAs also play a crucial role in other metabolic processes connected with urea biosynthesis, gluconeogenesis, and so on, since many carboxylation reactions catalyzed by acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase or pyruvate carboxylase use bicarbonate, not CO2, as a substrate. In organisms other than mammals, e.g., plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, CAs are involved in photosynthesis, whereas in many parasites (fungi, protozoa), they are involved in the de novo synthesis of important metabolites (lipids, nucleic acids, etc.). The metabolic effects related to interference with CA activity, however, have been scarcely investigated. The present Special Issue of Metabolites aims to fill this gap by presenting the latest developments in the field of CAs and their role in metabolism.

Biocatalysis and Pharmaceuticals: A Smart Tool for Sustainable Development

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ISBN: 9783039217083 / 9783039217090 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-709-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Biocatalysis, that is, the use of biological catalysts (enzymes, cells, etc.) for the preparation of highly valuable compounds is undergoing a great development, being considered an extremely sustainable approach to undertaking environmental demands. In this scenario, this book illustrates the versatility of applied biocatalysis for the preparation of drugs and other bioactive compounds through the presentation of different research articles and reviews, in which several authors describe the most recent developments in this appealing scientific area. By reading the excellent contributions gathered in this book, it is possible to have an updated idea about new advances and possibilities for a new exciting future.

Biogenic Amines on Food Safety

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ISBN: 9783039210541 / 9783039210558 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-055-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Biogenic amines have been known for some time. These compounds are found in varying concentrations in a wide range of foods (fish, cheese, meat, wine, beer, vegetables, etc.) and their formations are influenced by different factors associated to those foods (composition, additives, ingredients, storage, microorganism, packaging, handing, conservation, etc.). The intake of foods containing high concentrations of biogenic amines can present a health hazard. Additionally, they have been used to establish indexes in various foods in order to signal the degree of freshness and/or deterioration of food. Nowadays, there has been an increase in the number of food poisoning episodes in consumers associated with the presence of these biogenic amines, mainly associated with histamines. Food safety is one of the main concerns of the consumer and safety agencies of different countries (EFSA, FDA, FSCJ, etc.), which have, as one of their main objectives, to control these biogenic amines, principally histamine, to assure a high level of food safety.Therefore, it is necessary to deepen our understanding of the formation, monitoring and reduction of biogenic amines during the development, processing and storage of food, even the effect of biogenic amines in consumers after digestion of foods with different levels of these compounds.With this aim, we are preparing a Special Issue on the topic of ""Biogenic Amines in Food Safety"", and we invite researchers to contribute original and unpublished research articles and reviews articles that involve studies of biogenic amines in food, which can provide an update to our knowledge of these compounds and their impacts on food quality and food safety.

Dynamical Models of Biology and Medicine

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ISBN: 9783039212170 / 9783039212187 Year: Pages: 294 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-218-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Mathematical and computational modeling approaches in biological and medical research are experiencing rapid growth globally. This Special Issue Book intends to scratch the surface of this exciting phenomenon. The subject areas covered involve general mathematical methods and their applications in biology and medicine, with an emphasis on work related to mathematical and computational modeling of the complex dynamics observed in biological and medical research. Fourteen rigorously reviewed papers were included in this Special Issue. These papers cover several timely topics relating to classical population biology, fundamental biology, and modern medicine. While the authors of these papers dealt with very different modeling questions, they were all motivated by specific applications in biology and medicine and employed innovative mathematical and computational methods to study the complex dynamics of their models. We hope that these papers detail case studies that will inspire many additional mathematical modeling efforts in biology and medicine

Keywords

hemodynamic model --- microcirculation load --- liquid-solid-porous media seepage coupling --- 2-combination --- graphical representation --- cell-based vector --- numerical characterization --- phylogenetic analysis --- intraguild predation --- random perturbations --- persistence --- stationary distribution --- global asymptotic stability --- quorum sensing --- chemostat --- mathematical model --- differential equations --- delay --- bifurcations --- dynamical system --- numerical simulation --- predator-prey model --- switched harvest --- limit cycle --- rich dynamics --- algae growth models --- uncertainty quantification --- asymptotic theory --- bootstrapping --- model comparison tests --- Raphidocelis subcapitata --- Daphnia magna --- spotting --- wildfire --- transport equations --- spotting distribution --- obesity --- mechano-electrochemical model --- articular cartilage --- cartilage degeneration --- cartilage loading --- optimal control --- hepatitis B --- delay differential equations (DDE) --- immune response --- drug therapy --- dynamic model --- flocculation --- global stability --- uniform persistence --- epidermis --- mathematical model --- bacterial inflammation --- bacterial competition --- chronic myeloid leukemia --- tyrosine kinase inhibitors --- immunomodulatory therapies --- combination therapy --- equilibrium points --- mathematical modeling --- prostate cancer --- androgen deprivation therapy --- data fitting --- generalized pseudo amino acid composition --- numerical characterization --- phylogenetic analysis --- identification of DNA-binding proteins --- n/a

Cell-Free Synthetic Biology

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ISBN: 9783039280223 / 9783039280230 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-023-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Cell-free synthetic biology is in the spotlight as a powerful and rapid approach to characterize and engineer natural biological systems. The open nature of cell-free platforms brings an unprecedented level of control and freedom for design compared to in vivo systems. This versatile engineering toolkit is used for debugging biological networks, constructing artificial cells, screening protein library, prototyping genetic circuits, developing new drugs, producing metabolites, and synthesizing complex proteins including therapeutic proteins, toxic proteins, and novel proteins containing non-standard (unnatural) amino acids. The book consists of a series of reviews, protocols, benchmarks, and research articles describing the current development and applications of cell-free synthetic biology in diverse areas.

Biomass Chars: Elaboration, Characterization and Applications ?

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ISBN: 9783039216628 / 9783039216635 Year: Pages: 342 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-663-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Biomass can be converted to energy, biofuels, and bioproducts via thermochemical conversion processes, such as combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification. Combustion technology is most widely applied on an industrial scale. However, biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes are still in the research and development stage. The major products from these processes are syngas, bio-oil, and char (called also biochar for agronomic application). Among these products, biomass chars have received increasing attention for different applications, such as gasification, co-combustion, catalysts or adsorbents precursors, soil amendment, carbon fuel cells, and supercapacitors. This Special Issue provides an overview of biomass char production methods (pyrolysis, hydrothermal carbonization, etc.), characterization techniques (e.g., scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, nitrogen adsorption, Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and temperature programmed desorption and mass spectrometry), their properties, and their suitable recovery processes.

Keywords

biomass production --- multicriteria model --- ELECTRE III --- combustion --- oxygen enrichment --- low-rank coal char --- char oxidation --- reaction kinetics --- salty food waste --- FT-IR --- pyrolysis --- biochar --- NaCl --- hydrothermal carbonization --- anaerobic digestion --- poultry slaughterhouse --- sludge cake --- energy recovery efficiency --- gasification --- kinetic model --- active site --- chemisorption --- hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) --- Chinese reed --- biocrude --- biochar --- high heating value (HHV) --- biochar --- steam --- gasification --- chemical speciation --- AAEMs --- underground coal gasification --- ash layer --- effective diffusion coefficient --- internal diffusion resistance --- pyrolysis --- hydrothermal carbonization --- biochar engineering --- porosity --- nutrients --- polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) --- nitrogen --- biomass --- amino acid --- pyrrole --- NOx --- pyrolysis --- grape marc --- kinetic models --- characterization --- pyrolysis --- Texaco pilot plant --- reactor modelling --- ash fusion temperature (AFT) --- melting phenomenon --- food waste compost --- sawdust --- pyrolysis --- biochar --- thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) --- calorific value --- biogas purification --- coconut shells --- biomass valorization --- textural characterization --- adsorption isotherms --- breakthrough curves --- olive mill solid wastes (OMSWs) --- fixed bed combustor --- pellets --- combustion parameters --- gaseous emissions --- waste wood --- interactions --- interferences --- partial combustion reaction in gasification --- Boudouard reaction in gasification --- MTDATA --- biomass --- steam gasification --- kinetics --- pyrolysis conditions --- thermogravimetric analysis --- characteristic time analysis --- biomass --- combustion --- thermogravimetric analysis --- kinetic parameters --- thermal characteristics --- food waste --- food-waste biochar --- pyrolysis --- NaCl template --- desalination --- biochar --- ash from biomass --- giant miscanthus --- fertilisation --- CO2 adsorption --- CH4 adsorption --- biomass --- activated carbon --- n/a

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