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New therapeutic targets for human placental angiogenesis diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194612 Year: Pages: 113 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-461-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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A large number of publications have described impaired angiogenesis and vasculogenesis present in the feto-placental circulation after pregnancy diseases such as pre-eclamptic pregnancies, gestational diabetes, and intrauterine growth restriction, among others. Results suggest impaired secretion and activity of pro-angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin 8 (IL-8), adenosine and nitric oxide, associates with compromised secretion and activity of anti-angiogenic factors such as soluble receptor of VEGF (sFlt-1), thrombospondin 2, endostatin among others. More recent evidences include the participation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), which circulating number is reduced infeto-placental circulation in pregnancies such as pre-eclampsia. Despite this knowledge, therapies for placental angiogenesis recovery during pathological pregnancies are far to be tested. However, from the cardiovascular field, it has been described the administration of EPC, alone or used as gene-transfer therapy; or it has been described the potential role of statins (HMGCoA inhibitors), or angiotensin-converter enzyme (ACE) inhibitors for enhancing angiogenesis. Finally, feto-placental tissue is an exceptional source of progenitor and stem cells, which could be used for treated other human diseases such as stroke, myocardial infarction, hypertension, or even cancer. In this research topic, authors highlight physiopatological and clinical importance of the impaired placental angiogenesis, and suggest potential targets for developing innovative therapies.

Biomaterials and Bioactive Molecules to Drive Differentiation in Striated Muscle Tissue Engineering

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198412 Year: Pages: 90 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-841-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Tissue engineering is an innovative, multidisciplinary approach which combines (bio)materials, cells and growth factors with the aim to obtain neo-organogenesis to repair or replenish damaged tissues and organs. The generation of engineered tissues and organs (e. g. skin and bladder) has entered into the clinical practice in response to the chronic lack of organ donors. In particular, for the skeletal and cardiac muscles the translational potential of tissue engineering approaches has clearly been shown, even though the construction of this tissue lags behind others given the hierarchical, highly organized architecture of striated muscles. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the developed world, where the yearly incidence of Acute MI (AMI) is approx 2 million cases in Europe. Recovery from AMI and reperfusion is still less than ideal. Stem cell therapy may represent a valid treatment. However, delivery of stem cells alone to infarcted myocardium provides no structural support while the myocardium heals, and the injected stem cells do not properly integrate into the myocardium because they are not subjected to the mechanical forces that are known to drive myocardial cellular physiology. On the other hand, there are many clinical cases where the loss of skeletal muscle due to a traumatic injury, an aggressive tumour or prolonged denervation may be cured by the regeneration of this tissue. In vivo, stem or progenitor cells are sheltered in a specialized microenvironment (niche), which regulates their survival, proliferation and differentiation. The goal of this research topic is to highlight the available knowledge on biomaterials and bioactive molecules or a combination of them, which can be used successfully to differentiate stem or progenitor cells into beating cardiomyocytes or organized skeletal muscle in vivo. Innovations compared to the on-going trials may be: 1) the successful delivery of stem cells using sutural scaffolds instead of intracoronary or intramuscular injections; 2) protocols to use a limited number of autologous or allogeneic stem cells; 3) methods to drive their differentiation by modifying the chemical-physical properties of scaffolds or biomaterials, incorporating small molecules (i.e. miRNA) or growth factors; 4) methods to tailor the scaffolds to the elastic properties of the muscle; 5) studies which suggest how to realize scaffolds that optimize tissue functional integration, through the combination of the most up-to-date manufacturing technologies and use of bio-polymers with customized degradation properties.

Endoplasmic Reticulcum and Its Role in Tumor Immunity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197866 Year: Pages: 101 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-786-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle crucial to many cellular functions and processes, including the mounting of T-cell immune responses. Indeed, the ER has a well-established central role in anti-tumor immunity. Perhaps best characterized is the role of the ER in the processing of antigen peptides and the subsequent peptide assembly into MHC class I and II molecules. Such MHC/tumor-derived peptide complexes are pivotal for the correct recognition of altered self or viral peptides and the subsequent clonal expansion of tumor-reactive T-cells. In line with the role of the ER in immunity, tumor-associated mutations in ER proteins, as well as ER protein content and localization can have both deleterious and advantageous effects on anti-tumor immune responses. For instance, loss of function of ER-aminopeptidases, that trim peptides to size for MHC, alter the MHC class I - peptide repertoire thereby critically and negatively affecting T-cell recognition. On the other hand, altered localization of ER proteins can have immune-promoting effects. Specifically, translocation of certain ER proteins to the cell surface has been shown to promote anti-tumor T-cell immunity by directing uptake of apoptotic tumor cells to professional antigen presenting cells, thereby facilitating anti-tumor T-cell immunity. These selected examples highlight a diverse and multi-faceted role of the ER in anti-tumor immunity. Molecular biological insights from the past decade have uncovered that ER components may affect tumor immunity and have invoked a variety of follow-up questions. For instance, how and why are ER proteins over-expressed in tumors? How do nucleotide and somatic mutations in ER chaperones/processing machinery affect the MHC/peptide complex and tumor cell immunogenicity? How do ER-proteins translocate to the cell surface? What if any is the potential role of extracellular ER protein in tumor immunotherapy/vaccines, and can they be delivered to the tumor cell surface by photodynamic therapy, anthracyclines or by other means? In this special research topics issue, we present basic and clinical research reports covering many aspects of ER proteins in cancer recognition by the immune system, therapy and drug development. We also present new insights into ER stress, signalling and homeostasis in immunogenic cell death in cancer, the effect of parasitic ER proteins on tumour growth, ER protein regulation of angiogenesis. A comprehensive series of articles highlight our understanding of an expanding avenue of tumour immunology and therapeutic development, which exploit a collection of proteins within the ER that are not obvious candidates for immunity against tumors.

Extracellular Vesicle-Mediated Processes in Cardiovascular Diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456208 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-620-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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It is long known that many cells can shed extracellular vesicles, small membrane-enclosed cell fragments. Although the existence of extracellular vesicles has been recognized for many years, researchers are only beginning to understand their physiologic significance. Several recent studies have demonstrated that extracellular vesicles released from cells serve as a mode of cellular communication. They can carry diverse molecular payload (e.g. nucleic acids, bioactive lipids and proteins) to distal organs and recipient cells. Extracellular vesicles can be classified into three major groups: exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies. All these types of extracellular vesicles can be found in a variety of biologic specimen and their numbers, distribution and composition may serve as biomarkers for various disorders, including cardiovascular disease. Although extracellular vesicle-mediated processes are currently best characterized in the fields of cancer biology and neurobiology, evidence is accumulating that extracellular vesicles play a key role in the pathophysiology of diabetes, thrombosis, inflammation and cardiovascular calcification.In this Research Topic, we invited review and methodological articles that advance our understanding of extracellular vesicle-related processes in vascular biology.

The Vascular Niche in Tissue Repair: A Therapeutic Target for Regeneration

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454105 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-410-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology --- Biology --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Tissues and organs have, although sometimes limited, the capacity for endogenous repair, which is aimed to re-establish integrity and homeostasis. Tissue repair involves pro- and anti-inflammatory processes, new tissue formation and remodelling. Depending on the local microenvironment, tissue repair results either in scar tissue formation or in regeneration. The latter aims to recapitulate the original tissue structure and architecture with the proper functionality. Although some organisms (such as planarians) have a high regenerative capacity throughout the body, in humans this property is more restricted to a few organs and tissues. Regeneration in the adult is possible in particular through the existence of tissue-resident pools of stem/progenitor cells. In response to tissue damage, these cells are activated, they proliferate and migrate, and differentiate into mature cells. Angiogenesis and neovascularization play a crucial role in tissue repair. Besides providing with oxygen and nutrients, angiogenesis generates a vascular niche (VN) consisting of different blood-derived elements and endothelial cells surrounded by basement membrane as well as perivascular cells. The newly generated VN communicates with the local stem/progenitor cells and contributes to tissue repair. For example, platelets, macrophages, neutrophils, perivascular cells and other VN components actively participate in the repair of skin, bone, muscle, tendon, brain, spinal cord, etc. Despite these observations, the exact role of the VN in tissue repair and the underlying mechanisms are still unclear and are awaiting further evidence that, indeed, will be required for the development of regenerative therapies for the treatment of traumatic injuries as well as degenerative diseases.

Development and Application of Herbal Medicine from Marine Origin

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ISBN: 9783039212217 9783039212224 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-222-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Marine herbal medicine generally refers to the use of marine plants as original materials to develop crude drugs, or for other medical purposes. The term ‘marine plants’ usually denotes macroalgae grown between intertidal and subintertidal zones, including Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, and Rhodophyta. Considerable progress has been made in the field of biomedical research into marine microalgae and microorganisms in the past decade. As the most important source of fundamental products in the world, marine plants have a very important role in biomedical research. Furthermore, worldwide studies have consistently demonstrated that many crude drugs derived from marine plants contain novel ingredients that may benefit health or can be used in the treatment of diseases; some have been developed into health foods, and some even into drugs. It is expected that there are many substances of marine plant origin that will have medical applications in terms of improving human health and are awaiting discovery.In this Special Issue, entitled “Development and Application of Herbal Medicine of Marine Origin”, we will provide a platform for researchers to publish biomedical studies on substances of marine plant origin. We welcome submissions from scientists and academics from across the world.

Marine Glycosides

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ISBN: 9783038979029 9783038979036 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-903-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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In recent years, there has been a steady increase in the publication of papers on the chemistry, biology, and potential clinical uses of marine glycosides. Indeed, more than half of the papers published in this field are less than a decade old. Glycosides have been isolated from species as diverse as algae, fungi, anthozoans, and echinoderms. Even fish of the genus Pardachirus produce glycosides, which they use as shark repellents.The major interest in these compounds as potential drugs stems from their broad spectrum of biological effects. They have been shown to have antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, immune modulatory, and anticancer effects. The anticancer effects of marine glycosides include cell cycle suppression, the induction of apoptosis, and the inhibition of migration, invasion, and metastasis, as well as antiangiogenesis. Marine glycosides influence membrane permeability and have been shown to influence membrane transport at the molecular level through effects on transport carriers and pumps, as well as effects on ligand-gated and voltage-gated channels. Various marine glycosides have been shown to activate sphingomyelinase and ceramide synthesis, to inhibit topoisomerase activity, receptor tyrosine kinase activity, and multidrug resistance protein activity, and to antagonize eicosanoid receptors.This Special Issue covers the entire scope of marine organism-derived glycosides that are of potential value as pharmaceutical agents or leads. These include, but are not limited to, tetracyclic triterpene glycosides, other triterpene glycosides, steroid glycosides, and glycosides of non-isoprenoid aglycones.

Unconventional Anticancer Metallodrugs and Strategies to Improve their Pharmacological Profile

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ISBN: 9783039213153 9783039213160 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-316-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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For the past 40 years, metal-based drugs have been widely used for the treatment of cancer. Cisplatin and follow-up drugs carboplatin (ParaplatinTM) and oxaliplatin (EloxatinTM) have been the gold standard for metallodrugs in clinical settings as antineoplastic agents. While effective, these drugs (either alone or in combination therapy) have faced a number of clinical challenges resulting from their limited spectrum of activity, high toxicity leading to significant side effects, resistance, poor water solubility, low bioavailability and short circulating time. In the past 10 years, various unconventional non-platinum metal-based agents have emerged as a potential alternative for cancer treatment. These compounds are highly effective and selective in cancers resistant to cisplatin and other chemotherapeutic agents. Research in this area has recently exploded with a relevant number of patents and clinical trials, in addition to reports in scientific journals. Furthermore, in parallel to the synthesis of coordination and organometallic compounds comprising many different metals and unconventional platinum-based derivatives, researchers are focused on optimizing mechanistic and pharmacological features of promising drug candidates. This Special Issue aims to highlight the latest advances in anticancer metallodrugs with a focus on unconventional anticancer agents, as well as novel activation, targeting and delivery strategies aimed at improving their pharmacological profile.

Molecular Basis of Cardiovascular Diseases: Implications of Natriuretic Peptides

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ISBN: 9783039215829 9783039215836 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-583-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Cardiovascular
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The natriuretic peptides (NPs) family includes a class of hormones and their receptors needed for the physiological control of cardiovascular functions. The discovery of NPs provided a fundamental contribution into our understanding of the physiological regulation of blood pressure, and of heart and kidney functions. NPs have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including hypertension, atherosclerosis, heart failure, and stroke. A fine comprehension of the molecular mechanisms dependent from NPs and underlying the promotion of cardiovascular damage has contributed to improve our understanding of the molecular basis of all major CVDs. Finally, the opportunity to target NPs in order to develop new therapeutic tools for a better treatment of CVDs has been developed over the years. The current Special Issue of the Journal covers all major aspects of the molecular implications of NPs in physiology and pathology of the cardiovascular system, including NP-based therapeutic approaches.

Keywords

PCSK9 --- natriuretic peptides --- adipose tissue --- lipid metabolism --- LDL receptor --- insulin --- natriuretic peptides --- hypertension --- stroke --- cardiac hypertrophy --- linkage analysis --- genetic variants --- animal models --- BNP --- NT-proBNP --- heart failure --- cardiac dysfunction --- forensic medicine --- postmortem biochemistry --- angiotensin receptor–neprilysin inhibitor --- natriuretic peptides --- renin–angiotensin system --- heart failure --- arterial hypertension --- natriuretic peptide --- vascular --- endothelial cell --- cardiomyocyte --- fibroblast --- inflammation --- heart failure --- hypertension --- angiogenesis --- heart failure --- natriuretic peptides --- preserved ejection fraction --- natriuretic peptides --- heart failure --- atrial fibrillation --- remodeling --- Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (IPAH) --- Natriuretic Peptide Clearance Receptor (NPR-C) signaling --- atrial natriuretic peptide --- hypertension --- heart failure --- cardiometabolic disease --- obesity --- metabolic syndrome --- cGMP --- guanylyl cyclase receptor A --- natriuretic peptides --- natriuretic peptide --- cardiorenal syndrome --- vasopressor --- vasodilator --- kidney --- medulla --- renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system --- Atrial Natriuretic peptide --- natriuretic peptides --- cardiac remodelling --- cardiac hypertrophy --- vascular homeostasis --- atrial natriuretic peptide --- guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A --- gene-knockout --- gene-duplication --- hypertension --- congestive heart failure --- natriuretic peptides --- arterial hypertension --- pulmonary arterial hypertension --- heart failure --- stroke --- atrial fibrillation --- ARNi --- MANP

Disease and the Hippo Pathway: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms

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ISBN: 9783039217762 9783039217779 Year: Pages: 226 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-777-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The Hippo pathway is a highly dynamic cellular signaling nexus that plays central roles in multiple cell types and regulates regeneration, metabolism, and development. The Hippo pathway integrates mechanotransduction, cell polarity, inflammation, and numerous types of paracrine signaling. If not tightly regulated, dysregulated Hippo pathway signaling drives the onset and progression of a range of diseases, including fibrosis and cancer. The molecular understanding of the Hippo pathway is rapidly evolving. This Special Issue contains ten articles contributed by established and up-and-coming Hippo pathway experts that, as a whole, provides an up-to-date overview of how dysregulated Hippo pathway activity is a common driver of specific diseases. The articles have a particular focus on the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms that cause the Hippo pathway to go awry, and especially how this drives disease. The articles analyze disease-specific as well as common themes, which provides valuable insights into the fundamental molecular mechanisms in the dysfunctioning Hippo pathway, and thereby offer practical insights into potential future therapeutic intervention strategies.

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