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Active Touch Sensing

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192489 Year: Pages: 173 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-248-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Active touch can be described as the control of the position and movement of tactile sensing systems to facilitate information gain. In other words, it is finding out about the world by reaching out and exploring - sensing by ‘touching’ as opposed to ‘being touched’. In this Research Topic (with cross-posting in both Behavioural Neuroscience and Neurorobotics) we welcomed articles from junior researchers on any aspect of active touch. We were especially interested in articles on the behavioral, physiological and neuronal underpinnings of active touch in a range of species (including humans) for submission to Frontiers in Behavioural Neuroscience. We also welcomed articles describing robotic systems with biomimetic or bio-inspired tactile sensing systems for publication in Frontiers in Neurorobotics.

Innate immunity and neurodegenerative disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193103 Year: Pages: 87 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-310-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychiatry --- Therapeutics --- Neurology --- Medicine (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Inflammation of the brain in the context of neurodegenerative disorders is an area of intense debate and discussion, not least in terms of its pathogenic significance and the extent to which it drives disease processes and pathology. This inflammation can take several forms including innate responses recruiting microglia, humoral responses involving antibody, complement mediated processes and cellular T-cell activation, of which the role and extent of each may differ between diseases. Whilst some diseases have been more intensely linked to inflammation and long-term degeneration (e.g. MS), more traditional chronic neurodegenerative disorders have been thought of in terms of intrinsic neuronal pathology with a secondary innate response. However, it has been described that microglia activation is an early event of many degenerative disorders and evidence is accumulating that it may play a critical role in actually causing pathology and driving disease processes. If true, this would have major therapeutic implications, but what is the evidence that this is the case? The initial observations by Patrick McGeer’s group of post-mortem tissue from patients with Parkinson’s disease revealed the presence of activated brain microglia and has thus lead to the hypothesis that chronic inflammation could participate to neuronal degenerative processes. The significance of these original observations has only been recently revisited, and the development of more powerful tools to study the brain immune response has certainly contributed to this field of research. Chronic inflammation in the brain can take many forms but of particular interest has been the resident microglia and the role they play in this process. In this context, microglia have often been thought to become activated only after the disease has begun and then to contribute minimally to the degenerative process. Emerging new concepts challenge this view by proposing that microglial senescence, for example, may release the disease process and/or accelerate it. In addition, microglia, once activated, can adopt different phenotypes which can be both pro-inflammatory and pro-repair and may impact not only on the healthy adult neuronal population but on those new neurons derived from neurogenic niches of the adult brain. In this Research Topic, we attempt to explore this by first considering the innate immune responses in the brain and the methods by which they can be studied experimentally and in patients with various neurodegenerative disorders. This sets the scene for then discussing a range of different disorders including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These papers seek to discuss the evidence for an innate immune response and whether this is beneficial or detrimental, as well as its therapeutic implications.

Spatial memory - a unique window into healthy and pathological ageing

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193868 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-386-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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The global population aged over 60 is set to rise dramatically in the coming decades. In many countries, the older population now faces the prospect of spending a quarter of their lives aged over 65, and a significant proportion will have to cope with cognitive decline associated with normal ageing or with dementia disorders. Given that these fundamental demographic changes will pose a significant challenge to health care systems, a detailed understanding of age-related cognitive and neurobiological changes is essential in helping elderly populations maintain cognitive performance. In addition, developing sensitive biomarkers to identify those at risk of developing dementia is crucial for early and effective interventions. To make inferences about the ageing process from the animal model back to the human, rigorous behavioral paradigms must be used to ensure that the same function is being examined across species. Given that similar navigational paradigms can easily be applied to humans and animals, recent years have seen an expansion of studies attempting to bridge the gap between age-related changes in animal and human spatial cognition. These studies begin to suggest that disruptions in spatial computations are among the earliest indicators of impending cognitive decline. In addition, although many animal studies have identified pathological mechanisms with paradigms involving spatial navigation, these mechanisms support many nonspatial cognitive functions as well. As a consequence, a successful characterization of how spatial processing changes in the ageing brain could reveal fundamental effects of cognitive ageing that could inform about general mechanisms underlying decline in perception, mnemonic processing and multisensory integration.

Bridging Music Informatics with Music Cognition

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455713 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-571-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Music informatics is an interdisciplinary research area that encompasses data driven approaches to the analysis, generation, and retrieval of music. In the era of big data, two goals weigh heavily on many research agendas in this area: (a) the identification of better features and (b) the acquisition of better training data. To this end, researchers have started to incorporate findings and methods from music cognition, a related but historically distinct research area that is concerned with elucidating the underlying mental processes involved in music-related behavior.

Animal model studies on viral infections

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194568 Year: Pages: 173 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-456-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Understanding viral replication and pathogenicity properties in infected individuals is a major mission of animal virology. Animal models are essential to analyze the in vivo viral characteristics and to develop countermeasures against viruses. To fight against a wide variety of viruses, basic studies with specific and/ or common approaches are required. This Research Topic collects articles that describe studies on numerous virus species at various stages toward animal experiments: (i) description/evaluation/ new challenges of animal model studies; (ii) experimental material/methods for animal model studies; (iii) observations for upcoming animal model studies.Numbers of DNA and RNA viruses such as HHV-6, HPV, Ebola virus, HCV, dengue virus, HTLV-1, HIV-1, SIV, and measles virus are covered by this special issue consisting of original research, methods, review, mini-review, and opinion articles. All readers would understand, we believe and hope, that animal model studies are critical for current virology as always.

Using Stress-Based Animal Models to Understand the Mechanisms Underlying Psychiatric and Somatic Disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450848 Year: Pages: 129 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-084-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychiatry --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Chronic or repeated stress, particularly psychosocial stress, is an acknowledged risk factor for numerous affective and somatic disorders in modern societies. Thus, there is substantial evidence showing that chronic stress can increase the likelihood of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders, as well as cardiovascular diseases, irritable bowel syndrome and pain syndromes, to name but a few, in vulnerable individuals. Although a number of pharmacological agents are available to treat such stress-related disorders, many patients do not respond to them, and those who do often report a number of side effects. Therefore, a major emphasis in modern basic research is to uncover the underlying aetiology of these disorders, and to develop novel efficacious treatment strategies. This has led to a resurgence in developing, and using, appropriate animal models to study a wide variety of stress-related disorders. Thus, the aim of this research topic “Using stress-based animal models to understand the mechanisms underlying psychiatric and somatic disorders” was to bring together novel research articles and comprehensive review articles from prominent stress researchers. In addition to describing the insights such models have provided relating to the aetiology of psychiatric and somatic disorders, these articles also encompass mechanisms that are believed to underlie stress resilience and stress-protection. Finally, given the current prominence on the role of the brain-gut axis in health and disease, the research topic covers the emerging evidence showing how the gut, particularly the microbiota, influences affective behaviour and physiology.

Building Strategies for Porcine Cancer Models

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456505 Year: Pages: 75 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-650-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The eBook "Building Strategies for Porcine Cancer Models" presents a series of articles demonstrating the state-of-the-art developments in pig models for cancer research. Renowned researchers dedicated to the reproduction, genomic and biological engineering of the pig model for biomedicine contribute to this special research area. Although advances in these areas are occurring at surprising speeds, they are still far from realizing all the potential benefits that this biological model could provide to science. The current biomedical models may limit the frontier of knowledge in the cancer research.

Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Sarcopenia in Aging and in Muscular Dystrophy: A Translational Approach

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196845 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-684-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Loss of muscle mass and increased fibrosis characterize both sarcopenia of aging and muscular dystrophy. Research is increasingly showing that these two conditions also share several pathophysiological mechanisms, including mitochondrial dysfunction, increased apoptosis, abnormal modulation of autophagy, decline in satellite cells, increased generation of reactive oxygen species, and abnormal regulation of signaling and stress response pathways. This Research Topic will cover several mechanisms involved in aging and dystrophic sarcopenia and explore the therapeutic potential of various strategies for intervention.

Muscle-Tendon-Innervation Unit: Degeneration and Aging - Pathophysiological and Regeneration Mechanisms

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451036 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-103-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Aging is characterized by progressive deterioration of walking ability. This function loss has multiple causes including central and peripheral nerve dysfunction, loss of muscle mass and strength, as well as joints and bone alterations. Muscle-tendon unit and its innervation has a pivotal role in motor function performance that can be disrupted by overuse degeneration and aging. Research has shown that overuse degeneration and aging also share some pathophysiological mechanisms including mitochondrial dysfunction, increased apoptosis, abnormal modulation of autophagy, decline in satellite cells, increased generation of reactive oxygen species, and modification of signalling and stress response pathways. This Research Topic is intended to bring together basic researchers and clinicians working in the area of neuroscience, aging, sarcopenia and orthopaedics in human and in animal models. The aim of this cross-fertilization is to accelerate our understanding of the mechanisms involved in aging and degeneration of the muscle-tendon unit and its innervation and to explore the therapeutic potential of pharmacological and physical therapy interventions.

Beyond Borders: Myotonic Dystrophies - A European Perception

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457090 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-709-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Myotonic dystrophies (DMs) are pleotropic multisystemic diseases. These dominantly transmitted repeat disorders affect multiple organs of the human body at all ages – from the newborns to the elderly. The present Research Topic represents a timely addition to the expanding body of evidence which aims to provide novel perspectives in our understanding of myotonic dystrophies. This collection of original contributions and standpoint reviews from multiple leading DM centres in Europe describes the state of the art for the characterization of the DMs diseases, the development of molecular strategies to target its multisystemic nature, and provides evidence of screening and testing novel therapeutic avenues.

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